Volume 26, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238


This paper draws together discussions around public and private, represented talk, and conviviality by showing how an interviewee uses linguistic features to frame instances of talk as either “represented private talk” or “represented public talk”. My empirical focus is an interview that was recorded as part of fieldwork on leadership practices in the Indonesian bureaucracy. In this interview with a department head it seems that he adds authenticity to accounts of his leadership practices by performing them through represented talk. His use of Javanese in instances of represented talk also helps index intimate social relations between himself and his staff, while in some instances the combination of reference to place and participants also helps to nest ideas of private within represented public talk.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Agha, Asif
    (2007a) Language and social relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618284
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618284 [Google Scholar]
  2. (2007b) The object called "Language" and the subject of linguistics. Journal of English Linguistics35.3: 217-235. doi: 10.1177/0075424207304240
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424207304240 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ang, Ien
    (2003) Together-in-difference: Beyond diaspora into hybridity. Asian Studies Review27: 141-154. doi: 10.1080/10357820308713372
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10357820308713372 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bakhtin, Mikhail
    (1986) The problem of speech genres. In M.M. Bakhtin (ed.), Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, pp.60-102.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauman, Richard
    (2004) A world of others' words: Cross-cultural perspectives on intertextuality. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. doi: 10.1002/9780470773895
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470773895 [Google Scholar]
  6. Baumann, Gerd
    (1996) Contesting culture: Discourses of identity in multi-ethnic London, Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bax, Gerald William
    (1974) Language and social structure in a Javanese village. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Tulane, USA: Tulane University.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Besnier, Niko
    (2009) Gossip and the everyday production of politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blommaert, Jan , and Piia Varis
    (2011) Enough is enough: The heuristics of authenticity in superdiversity. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies76 ( London, Albany, Gent, Tilburg ) [ Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies 2, Tilburg University ].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (2015) The importance of unimportant language (Special issue). Multilingual Margins2/1: 1-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bourdieu, Pierre
    (1991) Language and symbolic power. Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bunnell, Tim , Sallie Yea , Linda Peake , Tracey Skelton , and Monica Smith
    (2012) Geographies of friendships. Progress in Human Geography36.4: 490-507. doi: 10.1177/0309132511426606
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132511426606 [Google Scholar]
  13. Clift, Rebecca
    (2006) Indexing stance: Reported speech as an interactional evidential. Journal of Sociolinguistics10.5: 569-595. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2006.00296.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2006.00296.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Clift, Rebecca , and Elizabeth Holt
    (2007) Introduction. In Elizabeth Holt , and Rebecca Clift (eds.), Reported talk: Reporting speech in interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1-15.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Coupland, Justine
    (2003) Small talk: Social functions. Research on Language & Social Interaction36.1: 1-6. doi: 10.1207/S15327973RLSI3601_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3601_1 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dewey, Alice
    (1978) Deference behaviour in Java: Duty or privilege. In S. Udin (ed.), Spectrum: Essays presented to Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana on his Seventieth Birthday. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, pp.420-428.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Duranti, Alessandro , and Charles Goodwin
    (1992) Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Enfield, Nicholas , and Stephen Levinson
    (2006) Introduction: Human sociality as a new interdisciplinary field. In Nicholas J. Enfield , and Stephen C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition and Interaction. Oxford: Berg. pp.1-35.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Errington, Joseph
    (1985) Language and social change in Java: Linguistic reflexes of modernization in a traditional royal polity. Ohio: Ohio University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (1988) Structure and style in Javanese: A semiotic view of linguistic etiquette. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1995) State speech for peripheral publics in Java. Pragmatics5.2: 213-224. doi: 10.1075/prag.5.2.05err
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.5.2.05err [Google Scholar]
  22. (1998a) Indonesian('s) development: On the state of a language of state. In Bambi B. Schieffelin , Kathryn A. Woolard , and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.), Language ideologies: Practice and theory. New York: Oxford University Press. pp.271-284.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (1998b) Shifting languages: Interaction and identity in Javanese Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511612480
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612480 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2000) Indonesian('s) authority. In Paul V. Kroskrity (ed.), Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities (Advanced Seminar Series). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research, pp.205-227
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gal, Susan
    (2002) A semiotics of the public/private distinction. Differences: A journal of feminist cultural studies13.1: 77-95.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gal, Susan , and Kathryn Woolard
    (2001) Constructing languages and publics: Authority and representation. In Susan Gal , and Kathryn Woolard (eds.), Languages and publics: The making of authority. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome Publishing, pp.1-12.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Georgakopoulou, Alexandra
    (2007) Small stories, interaction and identities. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/sin.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sin.8 [Google Scholar]
  28. Goebel, Zane
    (2000) Communicative competence in Indonesian: Language choice in inter-ethnic interactions in Semarang. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Darwin: Northern Territory University.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2007) Enregisterment and appropriation in Javanese-Indonesian bilingual talk. Language in Society36.4: 511-531. doi: 10.1017/S004740450707042X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450707042X [Google Scholar]
  30. (2010) Language, migration and identity: Neighborhood talk in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511778247
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511778247 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2014) Doing leadership through signswitching in the Indonesian bureaucracy. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology24.2: 193-215. doi: 10.1111/jola.12048
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jola.12048 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2015) Language and superdiversity: Indonesians knowledging at home and abroad. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795413.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795413.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  33. Goffman, Erving
    (1981) Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Gumperz, John
    (1982) Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hill, Jane
    (2001) Mock Spanish, covert racism, and the (leaky) boundary between public and private spheres. In Susan Gal , and Kathryn Woolard (eds.), Languages and publics: The making of authority. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome Publishing, pp.83-102.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Irvine, Judith , and Susan Gal
    (2000) Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In Paul V. Kroskrity (ed.), Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities and identities. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, pp.35-84.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Karner, Christian , and David Parker
    (2010) Conviviality and conflict: Pluralism, resilience and hope in inner-city Birmingham. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies37.3: 355-372. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2011.526776
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2011.526776 [Google Scholar]
  38. Landau, Loren B. , and Iriann Freemantle
    (2009) Tactical cosmopolitanism and idioms of belonging: Insertion and self-exclusion in Johannesburg. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies36.3: 375-390. doi: 10.1080/13691830903494901
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830903494901 [Google Scholar]
  39. Levinson, Stephen
    (1992) Activity types and language. In Paul Drew , and John Heritage (eds.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.66-100. doi: 10.1515/ling.1979.17.5‑6.365
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1979.17.5-6.365 [Google Scholar]
  40. Ochs, Elinor , and Lisa Capps
    (2001) Living narrative. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rohdewohld, Rainer
    (2003) Decentralization and the Indonesian bureacracy: Major changes, minor impact?In Edward Aspinall , and Greg Fealy (eds.), Local power and politics in Indonesia: Decentralisation and democratisation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp.259-274.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ryoo, Hye-Kyung
    (2005) Achieving friendly interactions: A study of service encounters between Korean shopkeepers and African-American customers. Discourse and Society16.1: 79-105. doi: 10.1177/0957926505048231
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926505048231 [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith-Hefner, Nancy
    (1983) Language and social identity: Speaking Javanese in Tengger. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Michigan: University of Michigan.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tannen, Deborah
    (1984) Conversational style: Analyzing talk among friends. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. (1989) Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Werbner, Pnina
    (1997) Introduction: The dialectics of cultural hybridity. In Pnina Werbner , and Tariq Modood (eds.), Debating cultural hybridity. multi-cultural identities and the politics of anti-racism. London & New Jersey: Zed Books, pp.1-28.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Williams, Q. , and C. Stroud
    (2013) Multilingualism in transformative spaces: Contact and conviviality. Language Policy12.4: 289-311. doi: 10.1007/s10993‑012‑9265‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-012-9265-4 [Google Scholar]
  48. Wise, Amanda , and Selvaraj Velayutham
    (eds) (2009) Everyday multiculturalism. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230244474
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230244474 [Google Scholar]
  49. Wolff, John , and Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo
    (1982) Communicative codes in Central Java. New York: Cornell University.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Conviviality; Private; Public; Recursivity; Represented speech
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error