Volume 8, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
Preview this article:


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abraham, W
    (1991a) Discourse particles in German: How does their illocutionary force come about?In W. Abraham (ed.), Discourse particles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.203-252. doi: 10.1075/pbns.12.08abr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.12.08abr [Google Scholar]
  2. (1991b) Modal particle research: The state of the art. Multilingua10(1&2): 31-48.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allan, Keith
    (1986) Linguistic meaning. Vol.2London: Routlege & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alleton, Viviane
    (1981) Final particles and expression of modality in modern Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics9.1: 91-114.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blum-Kulka , S, J. House & G. Kasper
    (1989) (Eds.)Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown, P. and S. Levinson
    (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chang, Aloysius
    (1994) The particle ‘NE:’ Function and significance. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers’ Association. XXIX. 1: 89-92.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chao, Yuen-ren
    (1968) A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chappell, Hilary
    (1991) Strategies for the assertion of obviousness and disagreement in Mandarin: A semantic study of the modal particle me. Australian Journal of Linguistics11: 39-65. doi: 10.1080/07268609108599451
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268609108599451 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chu, Chauncey C
    (1984) Beef it up with NE. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers’ Association. Vol. XIX.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (1985) How would you like your NE cooked?Journal of Chinese Language Teachers= AssociationXX.3: 71-78.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cooke, Joseph R
    (1989) Thai sentence particles and other topics. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Doherty, Monika
    (1987) Epistemic Meaning. Berlin: Springer Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑71676‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-71676-8 [Google Scholar]
  14. Faerch, C. and G. Kasper
    (1989) Internal and external modifications in interlanguage request realization. In S. Blum-Kulka , J. House & G. Kasper (eds.), Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood: Ablex, pp.221-247.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fraser, Bruce
    (1996) Pragmatic markers. Pragmatics. 6.2: 167-190.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grice, H.P
    (1975) Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, pp.41-58.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Horie, Preeya Ingkaphirom & Shoichi Iwasaki
    (1996) Register and pragmatic particles in Thai conversation. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics4: 1197-1205.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Huang Guo Ying
    (1994) Jumo yuqici de cengci diwei. [Hierarchical structures and Chinese modal particles] Yuyan Yanjiu Vol. 1: 26. Huazhong Ligong Daxue & Ohio State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ishikawa, Minako
    (1988) The cognitive and interactional functions of the Japanese particle ne in discourse. Southern Review3: 24-35.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (1992) A synthesis of three approaches to discourse: An analysis of the Japanese particle ne. Unpublished paper presented at theLinguistic Society of America Annual Meeting.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. König, E. & S. Requardt
    (1991) A relevance-theoretic approach to the analysis of modal particles in German. Multilingua10.1&2: 63-67.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kwan-Terry, A
    (1978) The meaning and source of the Ala@ and the Awhat@ particles in Singapore English. RELC Journal14.2: 22-36. doi: 10.1177/003368827800900202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827800900202 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lakoff, Robin
    (1979) Stylistics strategies within a grammar of style. The Annals of the New York Academy of Science, pp.53-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.1979.tb17753.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1979.tb17753.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Lee-Wong, S.M
    (1994a) Imperatives in requests: Direct or impolite – observations from Chinese. Pragmatics4.4: 491-516.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (1994b)  Qing/please – a polite or requestive marker?: Observations from Chinese. Multilingua13-4: 343-360.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (1994c) Address forms in modern China: Changing ideologies and shifting semantics. Linguistics32: 299-324. doi: 10.1515/ling.1994.32.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1994.32.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  27. Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson
    (1981) Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lint, T. Helen
    (1991) Essential Grammar for Modern Chinese. Boston: Cheng & Tsui.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    (1994) Sounds pretty ethnic, eh?: A pragmatic particle in New Zealand English. Language in Society23.3: 367-388. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500018029
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500018029 [Google Scholar]
  30. Mollering, Martina & D. Nunan
    (1995) Pragmatics in interlanguage: German modal particles. Applied Language Learning6.1&2: 41-64.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Östman, Jan-Ola
    (1981) You know: A discourse functional approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pb.ii.7
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pb.ii.7 [Google Scholar]
  32. Searle, J
    (1969) Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139173438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438 [Google Scholar]
  33. Shifu
    (1985) AWe=re still cooking NE NE!@Journal of Chinese Language Teachers= AssociationXX.1: 95-97.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schourup, Lawrence C
    (1982) Common discourse particles in English conversation. Dissertation. The Ohio State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Suzuki, Ryoko
    (1990) The role of particles in Japanese gossip. Unpublished manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Squires, Todd
    (1994) A discourse analysis of the Japanese particle Sa . Pragmatics4.1: 1-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tsao, Feng-fu
    (1987) A topic comment approach to the BA construction. Journal of Chinese Linguistics15.1: 1-55.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Young, Linda W.L
    (1994) Crosstalk and Culture in Sino-American Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511519901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519901 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error