Volume 8, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
Preview this article:


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Brown, R. and S. Levinson
    (1987) Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Gabrenya, W.K. and K.K. Hwang
    (1996) Chinese social interaction: harmony and hierarchy on the good earth. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The Handbook of Chinese Psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, pp.309-321.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Gavuseva, L
    (1995) Positioning and framing: Constructing interactional asymmetry in employer-employee discourse. Discourse Processes20: 325-345. doi: 10.1080/01638539509544944
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01638539509544944 [Google Scholar]
  4. Gu, Y
    (1990) Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics14.1990: 237-257. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90082‑O
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90082-O [Google Scholar]
  5. Heath, C
    (1992) The delivery and reception of diagnosis in the general-practice consultation. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (eds.), Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hwang, K.K
    (1987) Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology92: 944-74. doi: 10.1086/228588
    https://doi.org/10.1086/228588 [Google Scholar]
  7. Kong, K.C.C
    (1997) Interactional construction of identities in network marketing interactions. A paper presented in the Discourse and Cultural Studies Discussion Group, November, 1997.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (1998) Are simple business letters really simple? A comparison of Chinese and English business request letters. Text18.1: 97-135.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Linell, P. and T. Luckmann
    (1991) Asymmetries in dialogue: Some conceptual preliminaries. In I. Markova and K. Foppa (eds.), Asymmetries in Dialogue. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp.1-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Meier, A.J
    (1995) Defining politeness: universality in appropriateness. Language Sciences17.4: 345-356. doi: 10.1016/0388‑0001(95)00019‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0388-0001(95)00019-4 [Google Scholar]
  11. Nadler, B
    (1984) Potential of multilevel marketing. Business Connectors, January1984.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Pan, Y
    (1995) Power behind linguistic behaviour: Analysis of politeness phenomena in Chinese official settings. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 14.4: 462-481. doi: 10.1177/0261927X950144007
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X950144007 [Google Scholar]
  13. (1996) Facework in Chinese service encounters. Paper presented atAAAL Annual Meeting, March 23–26, 1996, Chicago, Illinois.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Scollon, R. and S.W. Scollon
    (1991) Topic confusion in English-Asian discourse. World Englishes10.2: 113-125. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1991.tb00145.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1991.tb00145.x [Google Scholar]
  15. (1995) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. London: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Spencer-Oatey, H
    (1996) Reconsidering power and distance. Journal of Pragmatics26: 1-24. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00047‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00047-X [Google Scholar]
  17. Yang, K.S
    (1992) Do traditional and modern values coexist in a modern Chinese society?(in Chinese). InProceedings of the Conferences in Chinese Perspectives on Values. Taipei: Centre for Sinological Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Yang, L.S
    (1957) The concept of pao as a basis for social relations in China. InChinese Thought and Institutions. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error