Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1878-9714
  • E-ISSN: 1878-9722
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



In an attempt to ensure electoral victory, politicians use different strategies. One of such is resort to hate speech to discredit the opponents. The 2015 presidential election campaigns in Nigeria witnessed unrestrained use of hate speech in different media. This paper analysed selected speeches of the campaign organisations of the two leading political parties in the election, namely the Peoples Democratic Party Presidential Campaign Organisation and the All Progressives Congress Presidential Campaign Organisation. Data were got from the speeches and advertorials of the two organisations sampled from and , published between January and March 2015. The speeches were subjected to critical sociocognitive analysis. The antecedents of the candidates became a recipe for hate speech. Propagandist and alarmist ideologies were used. Socially shared knowledge played an important role in the hate speech. Figures were used symbolically and serious attempts were made to frighten the electorate.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. The Nation, Tuesday, Jan.8 2015:23
    [Google Scholar]
  2. The Nation, Wednesday, January27 2015:6
    [Google Scholar]
  3. The Nation, FridayFebruary13 2015:18
    [Google Scholar]
  4. The Punch, Tuesday, January13 2015:12
    [Google Scholar]
  5. The Punch, Wed., January14 2015:18. 10.32964/TJ14.1
    https://doi.org/10.32964/TJ14.1 [Google Scholar]
  6. The Punch, Friday, Jan.16 2015:24
    [Google Scholar]
  7. The Punch, Monday, January, 19 2015:26
    [Google Scholar]
  8. The Punch, TuesdayJanuary20 2015: 21. 10.1044/leader.PPL.20012015.20
    https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.PPL.20012015.20 [Google Scholar]
  9. The Punch, Friday, Jan.23 2015:3
    [Google Scholar]
  10. The Punch, Sunday, February1 2015:20
    [Google Scholar]
  11. The Punch, Wednesday, February, 4 2015:1
    [Google Scholar]
  12. The Punch, Sunday, February5 2015:23
    [Google Scholar]
  13. The Punch, FridayFebruary6 2015:2
    [Google Scholar]
  14. The Punch, Sunday, February8 2015:22
    [Google Scholar]
  15. The Punch, Monday, Feb.9 2015:23
    [Google Scholar]
  16. The Punch, Wed., February11 2015:22
    [Google Scholar]
  17. The Punch, Tuesday, February17 2015:20
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Abdullahi-Idiagbon, Mohammed S.
    2010 Language Use in Selected Nigerian Presidential Election Campaign Speeches: A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective. Journal of the Nigeria English Studies Association13, 2: 32–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Amnesty International
    Amnesty International 2012 Written Contribution to the Thematic Discussion on Racist Hate Speech and Freedom of Opinion and Expression Organized by the United Nations Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. ARTICLE 19
    ARTICLE 19 2015Hate Speech Explained: A Toolkit. London: ARTICLE 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bleich, Erik
    2011 The rise of Hate Speech and Hate Crime Laws 934 in Liberal Democracies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies37, 6: 917–934. 10.1080/1369183X.2011.576195
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2011.576195 [Google Scholar]
  22. Daniels, Jessie
    2008 Race, Civil Rights, and Hate Speech in the Digital Era. Learning Race and Ethnicity. Youth and Digital Media. Anna Everett (Ed.) The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. 129–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Edstrӧm, Maria
    2016 The Trolls Disappear in the Light: Swedish Experiences of Mediated Sexualised Hate Speech in the Aftermath of Behring Breivik. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy5(2): 96–106. 10.5204/ijcjsd.v5i2.314
    https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.v5i2.314 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fasiku, Aderonke M.
    2011A Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Campaign Speeches of Dr Goodluck Jonathan. M.A. Project. Dept. of English, University of Ibadan.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Johnson, Catherine B.
    1999 Stopping Hate without Stifling Speech: Re-examining the Merits of Hate Speech Codes on University Campuses. Fordham Urban Law Journal27, 6: 1819–1868. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies37, 6: 917–934.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Leets, Laura
    2002 Experiencing Hate Speech: Perceptions and Responses to Anti-Semitism and Antigay Speech. Journal of Social Issues58, 2: 341–361. 10.1111/1540‑4560.00264
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00264 [Google Scholar]
  27. Leets, Laura , and Howard Giles
    1999 Harmful Speech in Intergroup Encounters: An Organizational Framework for Communication Research. In M. Roloff (Ed.), Communication Yearbook22: 91–137. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Neier, Aryeh
    2014 The Content and Context of Hate speech: Rethinking Regulation and Responses. International Constitutional Law12,3: 816–820. 10.1093/icon/mou053
    https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mou053 [Google Scholar]
  29. Oderinde, Johnson A.
    2014A Rhetorical Analysis of the 2012 Election Debate Speeches Of Gubernatorial Candidates in Ondo State. M.A. Project. Dept. of English, University of Ibadan.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Oyedele, Akinkunmi A.
    2011The Rhetoric of Difference and Confrontation in Political Songs: The Case of Action Congress of Nigeria and Peoples Democratic Party in Osun State. M.A. Project. Dept. of English, University of Ibadan.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sedler, Robert A.
    1992 The Unconstitutionality of Campus Bans on “Racist Speech”: The View from Without and Within. University of Pittsburgh Law Review52: 631–683.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Smolla, Rodney A.
    1990 Academic Freedom, Hate Speech, and the idea of a University. Law and Contemporary Problems53, 3: 195–225. 10.2307/1191797
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1191797 [Google Scholar]
  33. Stone, Geoffrey R.
    1994 Hate Speech and the U.S. Constitution. 3 East European Constitutional Review78: 78–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sunday, Adesina B.
    2011 Verbal Assault in Fu´jì Music: The Case of Sikiru Ayinde Barrister Kollington Ayinla. Journal of Pragmatics43,5: 1403–1421. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.020
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.020 [Google Scholar]
  35. van Dijk, Teun
    2006 Ideology and Discourse Analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies11,2: 115–140. 10.1080/13569310600687908
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13569310600687908 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2011 Discourse, Knowledge, Power and Politics: Towards Critical Epistemic Discourse Analysis. In Christopher Hart (Ed.) Critical Discourse Studies in Context and Cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 28–63. 10.1075/dapsac.43.03van
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.43.03van [Google Scholar]
  37. 2012 A Note on Epistemics and Discourse Analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology51: 478–485. 10.1111/j.2044‑8309.2011.02044.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02044.x [Google Scholar]
  38. 2014 Discourse-Cognition-Society: Current State and Prospects of the Socio-cognitive Approach to Discourse. Christopher Hart and Piotr Cap (Eds.), Contemporary Studies in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Bloomsbury. 121–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2015a Context. The International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction. London: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi056
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi056 [Google Scholar]
  40. 2015b Critical Discourse Studies: A Sociocognitive Approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. 63–85.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error