1887
Volume 13, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1878-9714
  • E-ISSN: 1878-9722
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In the multicultural and multiethnic context of Iran, Farsi (Persian) is the only official and the most prestigious language employed by the people. This article investigates sociolinguistic factors fostering a radical language shift from Kurdish to Farsi among Kalhuri Kurdish speakers in Kermanshah, the biggest Kurdish city in Iran – a trend which has raised many social and cultural controversies within the Kurdish community. Data were gathered through a questionnaire focusing on the attitudinal, economic, and social factors affecting the shift. The participants of the study were 1,000 native Kurdish speakers in Kermanshah; the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and item percentage. The analysis revealed that social, personal, and economic factors contributed to the shift, even though the economic concerns outweighed the others. The article discusses the implication of the findings in detail.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ps.19064.yar
2022-06-23
2022-08-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Agyekum, Kofi
    2009 “Language shift: A Case Study of Ghana.” Sociolinguistic Studies3(3): 381–403.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmadzadeh, Hashem, and Gareth Stansfield
    2010 “The Political, Cultural, and Military Re-Awakening of the Kurdish Nationalist Movement in Iran.” The Middle East Journal64(1): 11–27. 10.3751/64.1.11
    https://doi.org/10.3751/64.1.11 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anonby, Erik
    2004 “Kurdish or Luri? Laki’s Disputed Identity in the Luristan Province of Iran”. Kurdische Studien4(5): 7–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Babane, M. T., and Mkhacane Thomas Chauke
    2016 “Xitsonga in Language Shift: A Sociolinguistic Approach.” Journal of Social Sciences47(1): 49–57. 10.1080/09718923.2016.11893543
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2016.11893543 [Google Scholar]
  5. Badashian, Setare
    2010 “Naqdi Bar Qanune Madeye Vahede “Mamnu’iyate Bekargiriye Asami, Anavin Va Estelahate Bigane” Mosavebe 1375 Ba Ta’kid Bar Hoquqe Iraniane Ĝaire Fars” [A Critique of the Ban on the Use of Foreign Names, Titles and Expressions Law, Adopted in 1996, with an Emphasis on the Rights of the Non-Farsi Iranians].” Haidarbaba20(2): 8–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baker, Colin
    1988 Key issues in bilingualism and bilingual education (Vol.35). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual matters
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker, Colin, and Sylvia Prys Jones
    1998Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barrena, Andoni, Esti Amorrortu, Ane Ortega, Belen Uranga, Esti Izagirre, and Itziar Idiazabal
    2007 “Does the Number of Speakers of a Language Determine Its Fate?”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language186: 125–39. 10.1515/IJSL.2007.046
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2007.046 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    2019a “Becoming Monolingual: The Impact of Language Ideologies on the Loss of Multilingualism on Sâo Tome Island.” Langages4(3): 50. 10.3390/languages4030050
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030050 [Google Scholar]
  10. 2019b “Ongoing Change in Post-Independence São Tomé: The Use of Rhotics as a Marker of National Identity among Young Speakers of Santomean Portuguese.” Language Variation and Change31(1): 21–42. 10.1017/S0954394518000182
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394518000182 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, Clara Lee
    2009 “Heritage Language and Ethnic Identity: A Case Study of Korean-American College Students.” International Journal of Multicultural Education11(1). 10.18251/ijme.v11i1.157
    https://doi.org/10.18251/ijme.v11i1.157 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brubaker, Rogers
    2004Ethnicity without Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674258143
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674258143 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chakrani, Brahim
    2013 “The Impact of the Ideology of Modernity on Language Attitudes in Morocco.” The Journal of North African Studies18(3): 431–42. 10.1080/13629387.2013.791613
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2013.791613 [Google Scholar]
  14. Crystal, David
    2014Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139106856
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139106856 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dweik, Bader S., and Mohammed Y. Nofal
    2013 “Language Maintenance among the Indians of Yemen: A Sociolinguistic Study.” International Journal of Arabic–English Studies (IJAES)14: xxx.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Entessar, Nader
    1992Kurdish Ethnonationalism. Boulder, Colo: Lynn Rienner Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fishman, Joshua A.
    1991Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Vol.76: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 1997 “The Sociology of Language.” Sociolinguistics25: 1–30. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑25582‑5_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-25582-5_4 [Google Scholar]
  19. Ghasemi, Vahid
    2008 “Senasaei Manateghe Kamtar Tose Yafte ye Keshvar” [The identification of less developed areas of Iran
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hassanpour, Amir
    1992Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, 1918–1985. Advances in Anthropology8(3).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Heller, Monica, and Bonnie McElhinny
    2017Language, Capitalism, Colonialism: Toward a Critical History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Holmes, Janet
    2013An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315833057
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315833057 [Google Scholar]
  23. Husseini, Hatam
    2001 “Rabeteye Marg o Mir Va Tose’e Dar Ostanhaye Keshvar [The Relationship between Mortality and Development in Iranian Provinces]”. Social Sciences Letter9(17): 70–96
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jahani, Carina
    2005 “State Control and its Impact on Language in Balochistan.” The Role of the State in West Asia14: 151.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jagodic, Devan
    2011 “Between Language Maintenance and Language Shift”. Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri. (Journal of Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics), 2(1), 195-214.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kalan, Amir
    2016 Who's Afraid of Multilingual Education?Conversations withTove Skutnabb-Kangas, Jim Cummins, Ajit Mohanty and Stephen Bahryabout the Iranian Context and Beyond: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783096183
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096183 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kaplan, Robert B.
    2015 “Multilingualism vs. Monolingualism: The view from the USA and its Interaction with Language Issues around the World.” Current Issues in Language Planning16 (1-2), 149-162. 10.1080/14664208.2014.947016
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2014.947016 [Google Scholar]
  28. Karimi Doostan, Gholamhossein
    2001 “Kordye Ilami: Gooyshe Badre” [Ilami Kurdish: a Survey of the Badreye Dialect]. Sanandaj: Kurdistan University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Karimi, Jalal
    2017Postcolonial Theory and Kurdology. Tehran: Nashre Nay.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kaufman, Terrence
    1988 "A Research Program for Reconstructing Proto-Hokan: First Gropings." InScott DeLancey, ed. "Papers from the 1988 Hokan-Penutian Languages Workshop", pp.50-168. Eugene, Oregon: Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon. (University of Oregon Papers in Linguistics. Publications of the Center for Amerindian Linguistics and Ethnography 1.)
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kluger, Jeffrey
    2013 “The Power of the Bilingual Brain.” Time Magazine182(5): 42.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Koivunen, Kristiina
    2002 “Premodern People Using Postmodern Technology.” Paper presented at the theFifth Conference of the European Sociological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kondakov, Alexander
    2011 “Koch Survey Wordlists and Sociolinguistic Questionnaire.” SIL International. (AccessedJune 6, 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lai, Mee Ling
    2010 “Social Class and Language Attitudes in Hong Kong.” International Multilingual Research Journal4(2): 83–106. 10.1080/19313150903500945
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313150903500945 [Google Scholar]
  35. Martin, Natalie
    2009 “Arab American Parents’ Attitudes toward Their Children’s Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Practices.” Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina School of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid, and Parisa Abazari
    2016 “My Language Is Like My Mother”: Aspects of Language Attitudes in a Bilingual Farsi-Azerbaijani Context in Iran.” Open Linguistics1. 10.1515/opli‑2016‑0018
    https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2016-0018 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mohamadzadeh, Hossein
    2011 “Anva’e Qomgeraie dar Miane Kordhaye Iran” [Different Types of Ethnicity Among Iranian Kurds]. Ph.D. Dissertation in Sociology. Allame Tabatabaee University. Faculty of Social Sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    2017 “Language Vitality: The Weak Theoretical Underpinnings of What Can Be an Exciting Research Area.” Language93(4): e202–e23. 10.1353/lan.2017.0065
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2017.0065 [Google Scholar]
  39. Paulston, Christina Bratt, and Susanne McLaughlin
    1994 “Language-in-Education Policy and Planning.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics14: 53–81. 10.1017/S0267190500002816
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500002816 [Google Scholar]
  40. Pourahmad, Ahmad, Keyomars Habibi, Parvaneh Zandi
    2003 “Barresi Ravande Taghyrate Tose’e Yaftegi Ostanhaye Keshvar [Investigating the Developmental Changes in the Provinces of Iran]” Journal of Cultural Research9: 4–20
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ranjbar, Vahid
    2015Dastoore Zabane Kordi, Gooyeshe Kermanshahi [Kurdish Grammar, Kermanshahi Dialect]. Tehran: Hermes Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Safran, William
    2008 “Language, Ethnicity and Religion: A Complex and Persistent Linkage.” Nations and Nationalism14(1): 171–90. 10.1111/j.1469‑8129.2008.00323.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2008.00323.x [Google Scholar]
  43. Santello, Marco
    2015 “Bilingual Idiosyncratic Dimensions of Language Attitudes.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism18(1): 1–25. 10.1080/13670050.2013.864253
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2013.864253 [Google Scholar]
  44. Serajzade, Hossein, Omid Ghaderzadeh, and Jamil Rahmani
    2015 “Motalee Keifi Mazhab o Qomgeraie dar Miane Kordhaye Shiee o Sunni” [A Qualitative Research on the Religion and Ethnicity Among Shittie and Sunni Kurds]. Iran Sociology Journal15(4): 3–29
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Sheyholislami, Jaffer
    2010 “Identity, Language, and New Media: The Kurdish Case.” Language Policy9 (4): 289–312. 10.1007/s10993‑010‑9179‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-010-9179-y [Google Scholar]
  46. 2011Kurdish Identity, Discourse, and New Media. Berlin: Springer. 10.1057/9780230119307
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230119307 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2012 “Linguistic Minorities on the Internet.” InComputer-Mediated Communication across Cultures: International Interactions in Online Environments: 235–250. Hershey, Penna.: IGI Global. 10.4018/978‑1‑60960‑833‑0.ch016
    https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60960-833-0.ch016 [Google Scholar]
  48. Tezcür, Güneş Murat, and Peyman Asadzade
    2019 “Ethnic Nationalism Versus Religious Loyalty: The Case of Kurds in Iran.” Nations and Nationalism25(2): 652–72. 10.1111/nana.12424
    https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12424 [Google Scholar]
  49. Todd, Terry Lynn
    1985 A Grammar of Dimili (also known as Zaza). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Michigan University PhD Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Trudell, Barbara
    2016 “Language Choice and Education Quality in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Review.” Comparative Education52(3): 281–93. 10.1080/03050068.2016.1185252
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2016.1185252 [Google Scholar]
  51. Vali, Abbas
    1998 “The Kurds and their Others: Fragmented Identity and Fragmented Politics.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East18(2): 82–95. 10.1215/1089201X‑18‑2‑82
    https://doi.org/10.1215/1089201X-18-2-82 [Google Scholar]
  52. 1995 “The Making of Kurdish Identity in Iran.” Critique: Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East4(7): 1–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wardhaugh, Ronald
    2015An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Webb, Vic., and Kembo-Sure
    1999African Voices: An introduction to the Languages and Linguistics of Africa.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Weisi, Hiwa
    2015Language Endangerment among Kurdish Speakers in Iran. Sunnyvale, Calif.: Lambert Academic Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ps.19064.yar
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ps.19064.yar
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error