1887
Volume 15, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1878-9714
  • E-ISSN: 1878-9722
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Collective attacks related to controversial issues are pervasive in online communication. However, public opinion is often reversed later when earlier reports are revealed to be misinformation, which may lead to remedies offered to the victim by netizens. We call such phenomena online public opinion reversal (POR) events, which reflect group polarization from attack to remedy. This paper explores the pragmatic strategies that netizens employ to launch attacks and offer remedies in such events, examining a dataset including 300 netizen-generated attacking comments and 300 remedial comments collected on Weibo. The study identified two main categories of online attack strategies and seven types of remedial strategies. Chinese netizens prefer to employ on-record strategies when launching attacks. When an earlier report is revealed to be fake, they employ apology as the most frequent remedial strategy. Preferences for different attacking and remedial strategies and potential influencing factors are also discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ps.21095.wu
2023-05-30
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Angouri, Jo, and Theodora Tseliga
    2010 “‘you HAVE NO IDEA WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT!’ From e-disagreement to e’impoliteness in two online fora.” Journal of Politeness Research6 (1): 57–82. 10.1515/jplr.2010.004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2010.004 [Google Scholar]
  2. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, and Elite Olshtain
    1984 “Requests and Apologies: A Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP).” Applied Linguistics51: 196–213. 10.1093/applin/5.3.196
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/5.3.196 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bou-Franch, Patricia, and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich
    2014 “Conflict management in massive polylogues: A case study from YouTube.” Journal of Pragmatics731: 19–36. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bousfield, Derek
    2008Impoliteness in Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.167
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.167 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang, Yuh-Fang, and Wei Ren
    2020 “Sociopragmatic competence in American and Chinese children’s realization of apology and refusal.” Journal of Pragmatics1641: 27–39. 10.1016/j.pragma.2020.04.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2020.04.013 [Google Scholar]
  6. Corbin, Juliet, and Anselm Strauss
    2015Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. London: Sage publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Culpeper, Jonathan
    1996 “Towards an anatomy of impoliteness.” Journal of Pragmatics25 (3): 349–367. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00014‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00014-3 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2005 “Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link.” Journal of Politeness Research11: 35–72. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  9. Feng, Wei, and Wei Ren
    2019 “‘This is the destiny, darling’: Relational acts in Chinese management responses to online consumer reviews.” Discourse, Context & Media281: 52–59. 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2018.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  10. Feng, Wei and Wei Ren
    2020 “Impoliteness in negative online consumer reviews: A cross-language and cross-sector comparison.” Intercultural Pragmatics17 (1): 1–25. 10.1515/ip‑2020‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2020-0001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fujisawa, Keiko K., Nobuyuki Kutsukake, and Toshikazu Hasegawa
    2005 “Reconciliation pattern after aggression among Japanese preschool children.” Aggressive Behavior31 (2): 138–152. 10.1002/ab.20076
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20076 [Google Scholar]
  12. Goffman, Erving
    1971Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order. Harmondsworth: Pelican.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Heritage, John, Chase Wesley Raymond, and Paul Drew
    2019 “Constructing apologies: Reflexive relationships between apologies and offenses.” Journal of Pragmatics1421: 185–200. 10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  14. Ho, Victor
    2019 “Hotel management’s attempts at repairing customers’ trust: The use of apology and denial.” Pragmatics and Society10 (4): 493–511. 10.1075/ps.18008.ho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ps.18008.ho [Google Scholar]
  15. Jay, Timothy, and Kristin Janschewitz
    2008 “The pragmatics of swearing.” Journal of Politeness Research Language Behaviour Culture4 (2): 267–288. 10.1515/JPLR.2008.013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/JPLR.2008.013 [Google Scholar]
  16. Jucker, Andreas H.
    2018 “Apologies in the History of English: Evidence from the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA).” Corpus Pragmatics2 (4): 375–398. 10.1007/s41701‑018‑0038‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s41701-018-0038-y [Google Scholar]
  17. Kádár, Dániel Z., and Michael Haugh
    2013Understanding Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139382717
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139382717 [Google Scholar]
  18. Kapoor, Shrutika
    2022 “‘Don’t act like a Sati-Savitri!’: Hinglish and other impoliteness strategies in Indian YouTube comments.” Journal of Pragmatics1891: 4–16. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.12.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.12.009 [Google Scholar]
  19. Keith, Allan, and Burridge Kate
    2006Forbidden Words: Taboo and the Censoring of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Khazraie, Marzieh, and Hossein Talebzadeh
    2020 ““Wikipedia does NOT tolerate your babbling!”: Impoliteness-induced conflict (resolution) in a polylogal collaborative online community of practice.” Journal of Pragmatics1631: 46–65. 10.1016/j.pragma.2020.03.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2020.03.009 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lewandowsky, Stephan, Ullrich K. H. Ecker, and John Cook
    2017 “Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with the ‘Post-Truth’ Era.” Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition6 (4): 353–369. 10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008 [Google Scholar]
  22. Li, Wanqi
    2020 “The language of bullying: Social issues on Chinese websites.” Aggression and Violent Behavior531: 1–9. 10.1016/j.avb.2020.101453
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2020.101453 [Google Scholar]
  23. Myers, David G., and Helmut Lamm
    1976 “The group polarization phenomenon.” Psychological bulletin83 (4): 602–627. 10.1037/0033‑2909.83.4.602
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.83.4.602 [Google Scholar]
  24. Olshtain, Elite, and Andrew A. Cohen
    1983 “Apology: a speech act set.” InSociolinguistics and Language Acquisition, edited byWolfson Nessa and Elliot Judd. New York: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Owen, Marion
    1983Apologies and Remedial Interchanges: A Study of Language Use in Social Interaction. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110907728
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907728 [Google Scholar]
  26. Perelmutter, Renee
    2013 “Klassika zhanra: The flamewar as a genre in the Russian blogosphere.” Journal of Pragmatics45 (1): 74–89. 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.10.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.10.006 [Google Scholar]
  27. Perren, Sonja, and Eveline Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger
    2012 “Cyberbullying and traditional bullying in adolescence: Differential roles of moral disengagement, moral emotions, and moral values.” European Journal of Developmental Psychology9 (2): 195–209. 10.1080/17405629.2011.643168
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2011.643168 [Google Scholar]
  28. Proietti, Carlo
    2017 “The Dynamics of Group Polarization.” InLogic, Rationality, and Interaction, edited byAlexandru Baltag, Jeremy Seligman, and Tomoyuki Yamada. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 195–208. 10.1007/978‑3‑662‑55665‑8_14
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-55665-8_14 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ren, Wei
    2014 “A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners’ Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad.” Applied Linguistics35 (5): 575–594. 10.1093/applin/amt019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt019 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2018 “Mitigation in Chinese online consumer reviews.” Discourse, Context & Media261: 5–12. 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2018.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ren, Wei, and Yaping Guo
    2020 “Self-praise on Chinese social networking sites.” Journal of Pragmatics1691: 179–189. 10.1016/j.pragma.2020.09.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2020.09.009 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2022 “Translanguaging in self-praise on Chinese social media.” Applied Linguistics Review10.1515/applirev‑2021‑0169
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2021-0169 [Google Scholar]
  33. Robinson, Jeffrey D.
    2004 “The Sequential Organization of “Explicit” Apologies in Naturally Occurring English.” Research on Language & Social Interaction37 (3): 291–330. 10.1207/s15327973rlsi3703_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi3703_2 [Google Scholar]
  34. Shum, Winnie, and Cynthia Lee
    2013 “(Im)politeness and disagreement in two Hong Kong Internet discussion forums.” Journal of Pragmatics50 (1): 52–83. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.01.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.01.010 [Google Scholar]
  35. Tangney, June Price, and Ronda L. Dearing
    2002Shame and Guilt. New York: Guilford.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Thompson, Rachel
    2021 “Insults in political comments on GhanaWeb.” Pragmatics and Society12 (1): 33–58. 10.1075/ps.17040.tho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ps.17040.tho [Google Scholar]
  37. Zhang, Yi, and Camilla Vásquez
    2014 “Hotels׳ responses to online reviews: Managing consumer dissatisfaction.” Discourse, Context & Media61: 54–64. 10.1016/j.dcm.2014.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2014.08.004 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ps.21095.wu
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ps.21095.wu
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): attack; polarization; public opinion reversal; remedy; social media
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error