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The current research draws on the pragmatic approach to ELF initiated by , who proposes that temporary norms and routines are created during intercultural encounters and interactions. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of collocate tokens that are strongly associated with the verb phrases of , and , retrieved from Asian and European ELF corpora, this study demonstrates the tendency to use similar lexical associative patterns among ELF interlocutors despite their distinct linguacultural backgrounds. An analysis of the lexical associations of the verb phrases in ELF and English Native Language (ENL) corpora further confirms that ELF speakers do not conform to ENL conventions; instead, they start to develop their own norms that are characterized by specific lexical associations and formulaic expressions.


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