The pragmatics of professional discourse
  • ISSN 1878-9714
  • E-ISSN: 1878-9722
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Pragmatic language competence plays a central role in how aviation flight crews perform crew resource management (CRM); this competence significantly affects aviation safety. This paper contributes to existing literature on interventionist applications of conversation analysis (CA) by defining and evaluating a novel collaborative transcription and repair based learning (CTRBL) method for aviation CRM learning. CTRBL was evaluated using a quantitative quasi-­experimental repeated-measure design with 42 novice, university pilots. Results support that CTRBL is an effective, low-resource CRM learning method that will benefit from exploratory applications and further study in pragmatics, aviation, and other sociotechnical domains. The views in this article were the result of independent research of the authors. Views herein do not necessarily represent the views of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) or the United States.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Antaki, Charles
    2011 “Six Kinds of Applied Conversation Analysis.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 1–14. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230316874
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230316874 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arminen, Iikka , and Petra Auvinen
    2013 “Environmentally Coupled Repairs and Remedies in the Airline Cockpit: Repair Practices of Talk and Action in Interaction.” Discourse Studies15 (1): 19–41. doi: 10.1177/1461445612466463
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445612466463 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arminen, IIkka , Petra Auvinen , and Hannele Palukka
    2010 “Repairs as the Last Orderly Provided Defense of Safety in Aviation.” Journal of Pragmatics42 (2): 443–465. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.06.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.06.015 [Google Scholar]
  4. Auvinen, Petra , and IIkka Arminen
    2013 “An Airline Checklist used as a Sociomaterial Practice.” Paper presented at Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences , Maui, Hawaii, January, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boeing
    2013 “Boeing Forecasts Increased Global Demand for Airline Pilots.”PRNewswire, August29 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’aviation civile
    2012On the Accident on 1st June 2009 to the Airbus A330-203 Registered F-GZCP Operated by Air France Flight AF 447 Rio De Janeiro – Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Coryn, Chris L.S. , and Kristin A. Hobson
    2011 “Using Nonequivalent Dependent Variables to Reduce Internal Validity Threats in Quasi-Experiments: Rationale, History, and Examples from Practice.” InReally New Directions in Evaluation: Young Evaluator’s Perspectives. New Directions for Evaluation, ed. by Sandra Mathison , 31–39. New York: Wiley Periodicals.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cushing, Steven
    1994Fatal Words: Communication Clashes and Aircraft Crashes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dismukes, R. Key , Benjamin A. Berman , and Loukia D. Loukopoulos
    2007The Limits of Expertise: Rethinking Pilot Error and the Causes of Airline Accidents. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dismukes, R. Key , and Guy M. Smith
    2000Facilitation and Debriefing in Aviation Training Operations. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Driscoll, Gillian
    2002 “Cockpit Conversation: A Communication Analysis of Three Aviation Accidents.” University of Colorado at Boulder, PhD dissertation.
  12. FAA
    2004Crew Resource Management Training. Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2006Advanced Qualification Program. Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2008Airline Transport Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane (FAA-S-8081-14A). Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2009Risk Management Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Department of Transportation.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Finaly, W.M.L. , Chris Walton , and Charles Antaki
    2011 “Giving Feedback to Care Staff about Offering Choices to People with Intellectual Disabilities.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 161–183. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Goodwin, Charles , and Marjorie Harness Goodwin
    1996 “Seeing as a Situated Activity: Formulating Planes.” InCognition and Communication at Work, ed. by Yrjö Engestrom and David Middleton , 61–95. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139174077.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174077.004 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gregorich, Steven E. , Robert L. Helmreich
    , and John A. Wilhelm 1990 “The Structure of Cockpit Management Attitudes.” Journal of Applied Psychology75 (6): 682–690. doi: 10.1037/0021‑9010.75.6.682
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.682 [Google Scholar]
  19. Helmreich, Robert L
    2001 “A Closer Inspection: What Really Happens in the Cockpit.” Flight Safety AustraliaJanuary–February2001, 32–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Heritage, John , and Steven Clayman
    2010Talk in Action: Interactions, Identities, and Institutions. West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Heritage, John , and Jeffrey D. Robinson
    2011 “‘Some’ Versus ‘Any’ Medical Issues: Encouraging Patients to Reveal their Unmet Concerns.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 15–31. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E
    2004 “Problem-Based Learning: What and How do Students Learn?” Educational Psychology Review16 (3): 235–266. doi: 10.1023/B:EDPR.0000034022.16470.f3
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000034022.16470.f3 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hutchins, Edwin , and Tove Klausen
    1996 “Distributed Cognition in an Airline Cockpit.” InCognition and Communication at Work, ed. by Yrjö Engestrom and David Middleton , 15–34. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139174077.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174077.002 [Google Scholar]
  24. ICAO
    2001Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation: Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, 9th ed. Montreal, Quebec: ICAO.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kahneman, Daniel
    2013Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kanki, Barbara G
    2010 “Communication and Crew Resource Management.” InCrew Resource Management, ed. by Barbara G. Kanki , Robert L. Helmreich , and Jose Anca , 2nd ed., 111–145. Burlington, Mass.: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑374946‑8.10004‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374946-8.10004-4 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kanki, Barbara G. , and Guy M. Smith
    2001 “Training Aviation Communication Skills.” InImproving Teamwork in Organizations: Applications of Resource Management Training, ed. by Eduardo Salas , Clint A. Bowers , and Eleana Eden s, 95–127. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kearns, Suzanne K
    2010E-Learning in Aviation. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kirkpatrick, Donald L
    1976 “Evaluation of Training.” InASTD Training and Development Handbook: A Guide to Human Resource Development, ed. by Robert L. Craig , 2nd ed., 1–27. New York: McGraw Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kitzinger, Celia
    2011 “Working with Childbirth Helplines: The Contributions and Limitations of Conversation Analysis.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 98–118. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Klein, Gary
    2008 “Naturalistic Decision Making.” Human Factors50 (3): 456–460. doi: 10.1518/001872008X288385
    https://doi.org/10.1518/001872008X288385 [Google Scholar]
  32. Koschmann, Timothy
    2013 “Conversation Analysis and Collaborative Learning.” InInternational Handbook of Collaborative Learning, ed. by Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver , Clark A. Chinn , Carol K.K. Chan , and Angela O’Donnel , 149–167. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Krivonos, Paul D
    2007 “Communication in Aviation Safety: Lessons Learned and Lessons Required.” Paper presented at Regional Seminar of the Australia and New Zealand Societies of Air Safety Investigators , June, 2007.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lave, Jean , and Etienne Wenger
    1991Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511815355
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lemos, Katherine
    2007Human Factors Group Chairman’s Factual Report. Washington, D.C.: NTSB.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lynch, Tony
    2001 “Seeing what they Meant: Transcribing as a Route to Noticing.” ELT Journal55 (2): 124–132. doi: 10.1093/elt/55.2.124
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/55.2.124 [Google Scholar]
  37. 2007 “Learning from the Transcripts of an Oral Communication Task.” ELT Journal61 (4): 311–320. doi: 10.1093/elt/ccm050
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccm050 [Google Scholar]
  38. Martin, Cathrin , and Fritjof Sahlström
    2010 “Learning as Longitudinal Interactional Change: From Other-Repair to Self-Repair in Physiotherapy Treatment.” Discourse Processes47 (8): 668–697. doi: 10.1080/01638531003628965
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01638531003628965 [Google Scholar]
  39. Melander, Helen , and Fritjof Sahlström
    2009 “Learning to Fly – The Progressive Development of Situation Awareness.” Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research53 (2): 151–166. doi: 10.1080/00313830902757576
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00313830902757576 [Google Scholar]
  40. Mey, Jacob L
    1985Whose Language? A Study in Linguistic Pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbcs.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbcs.3 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2001Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd ed. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. NTSB
    2000Safety Recommendation to the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, D.C.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2004Controlled Flight into Terrain of Piper PA-44 N304PA Julian, California May 10, 2004. Washington, D.C.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 2009Loss of Control on Approach Colgan Air, Inc. Operating as Continental Connection Flight 3407 Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ Clarence Center, New York February 12, 2009. Washington, D.C.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Nevile, Maurice
    2004Beyond the Black Box: Talk-in-Interaction in the Airline Cockpit. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2007a “A Conversation Analysis Model for Examining Aviation Communication in Context: Part I – Processes for Representing Data.” Human Factors and Aerospace Safety6 (1): 35–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2007b “A Conversation Analysis Model for Examining Aviation Communication in Context: Part II – Processes for Analysing Data.” Human Factors and Aerospace Safety6 (2): 155–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2007c “Action in Time: Ensuring Timeliness for Collaborative Work in the Airline Cockpit.” Language in Society36: 233–257. doi: 10.1017/S0047404507070121
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404507070121 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2013 “Conversation Analysis and Cockpit Communication.” InThe Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, ed. by Carol A. Chapelle . Hoboken, N.J.: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Nevile, Maurice , and Michael B. Walker
    2005A Context for Error: Using Conversation Analysis to Represent and Analyse Recorded Voice Data. Civic Square, Australia: Australian Transportation Safety Board.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Nishizaka, Aug
    2006 “What to Learn: The Embodied Structure of the Environment.” Research on Language and Social Interaction39 (2): 119–154. doi: 10.1207/s15327973rlsi3902_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi3902_1 [Google Scholar]
  52. Nokes-Malach, Timothy J. , Michelle L. Meade , and Daniel G. Morrow
    2012 “The Effect of Expertise on Collaborative Problem Solving.” Thinking & Reasoning18 (1): 32–58. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2011.642206
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2011.642206 [Google Scholar]
  53. Reason, James
    2001 “Heroic Compensations: The Benign Face of the Human Factor.” Flight Safety AustraliaJanuary–February2001, 28–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sacks, Harvey
    1992Lectures on Conversation, ed. by Gail Jefferson . Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sacks, Harvey , Emanuel A. Schegloff , and Gail Jefferson
    1974 “A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation.” Language50 (4): 696–735. doi: 10.1353/lan.1974.0010
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1974.0010 [Google Scholar]
  56. Salas, Eduardo , Katherine A. Wilson , C. Shawn Burke , and Dennis C. Wightman
    2006 “Does Crew Resource Management Training Work? an Update, an Extension, and some Critical Needs.” Human Factors48: 392–412. doi: 10.1518/001872006777724444
    https://doi.org/10.1518/001872006777724444 [Google Scholar]
  57. Schmidt, Richard W
    1990 “The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.” Applied Linguistics11 (2): 129–158. doi: 10.1093/applin/11.2.129
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129 [Google Scholar]
  58. Smith, Guy M
    1994 “Evaluating Self-Analysis as a Strategy for Learning Crew Resource Management (CRM) in Undergraduate Flight Training.” Montana State University, EdD dissertation.
  59. Stokoe, Elizabeth
    2011 “Simulated Interaction and Communication Skills Training: The ‘Conversation-Analytic Role-Play Method.’” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 119–139. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 2013 “The (in)Authenticity of Simulated Talk: Comparing Role-Played and Actual Interaction and the Implications for Communication Training.” Research on Language and Social Interaction46 (2): 185. doi: 10.1080/08351813.2013.780341
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2013.780341 [Google Scholar]
  61. Stolzer, Alan J. , Carl D. Halford , and John J. Goglia
    2008Safety Management Systems in Aviation. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Tuccio, William A
    2011 “Heuristics to Improve Human Factors Performance in Aviation.” Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research20 (3): 39–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2013 “Collaborative Audio Transcription and Repair as a Method for Novice Pilots to Learn Approach Briefing Crew Resource Management (CRM) Skills.” Embry-Riddle, PhD dissertation.
  64. Wajnryb, Ruth
    1990Grammar Dictation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Wilkinson, Ray
    2011a “Changing Interactional Behaviour: Using Conversation Analysis in Intervention Programmes for Aphasic Conversation.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 32–53. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Wilkinson, Sue
    2011b “Improving Ethnic Monitoring on a Telephone Helpline.” InApplied Conversation Analysis: Intervention and Change in Institutional Talk, ed. by Charles Antaki , 75–97. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Wong, Jean , and Hansum Zhang Waring
    2010Conversation Analysis and Second Language Pedagogy. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error