1887
Volume 17, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores compounds from the perspective of conceptual blending (conceptual integration), and argues that the meaning of compounds arises through the interaction of three levels: (i) input spaces established for the head and non-head components, (ii) a blended space involving compression and emergent structure, i.e. elements not imported from the input spaces, and (iii) the language system as a whole and the culture this system is part of. With regard to (iii) we propose the “Culture-to-Compound Hypothesis”, according to which compounding can be recruited to represent culturally “novel” content in languages where compounding enjoys a peripheral status in the language system. The examples discussed in the article come from Norwegian (a Germanic language where compounding is a central word-formation mechanism) and Russian (a Slavic language where compounding is more marginal in the language system).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00034.nes
2019-08-20
2019-09-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Askedal, J. O.
    (2016) Norwegian. InP. O. Müller, I. Ohnheiser, S. Olsen, & F. Rainer (Eds.), Word-formation: An international handbook of the languages of Europe (pp.2525–2554). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110379082‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110379082-008 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bäcklund, E.
    (2007) “Da sto jeg der og pølsesvettet”: En analyse av 367 nomeninkorporeringer som grammatikkutfordrer norsk. MA thesis, University of Oslo.
  3. Barker, C.
    (2011) Possessives and relational nouns. InK. von Heusinger, C. Maienborn, & P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning: Volume2 (pp.1109–1130). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bauer, L.
    (1983) English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165846
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165846 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauer, L., & Huddleston, R.
    (2002) Lexical word-formation. InR. Huddleston & G. Pullum (Eds.), The Cambridge grammar of the English language (pp.1623–1721). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316423530.020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316423530.020 [Google Scholar]
  6. Benczes, R.
    (2006) Creative compounding in English. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.19
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.19 [Google Scholar]
  7. Benigni, V.
    (2003) Produktivnye modeli v razvitii klassa analitičeskix prilagatel’nyx. InL. P. Krysin (Ed.), Russkij jazyk segodnja 2: Aktivnye jazykovye processy konca XX veka (pp.339–342). Moscow: Azbukovnik.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Benigni, V., & Masini, F.
    (2009) Compounds in Russian. Lingue e linguaggio, 2, 171–194.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Berkov, V. P.
    (1997) Norsk ordlære. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Billings, L. A.
    (1998) Morphology and syntax: Delimiting stump compounds in Russian. InG. Booij, A. Ralli, & S. Scalise (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Mediterranean Morphology Meeting, Patras, University of Patras (pp.99–110). Patras: University of Patras.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bondarevskij, D. V.
    (2009) Neizmenjaemost: Ključevoe javlenie analitizma. Vestnik Čeljabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 7, 8–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2010) Vlijanie progressirujuščej analitizacii na formirovanie kategorii neizmenjaemyx prilagatel’nyx. Vestnik Pjatigorskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvističeskogo universiteta, 1, 137–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Clark, E. V.
    (1993) The lexicon in acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511554377
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554377 [Google Scholar]
  14. Comrie, B., Stone, G., & Polinsky, M.
    (1996) The Russian language in the twentieth century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Coulson, S.
    (2001) Semantic leaps: Frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511551352
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551352 [Google Scholar]
  16. Coulson, S., & Fauconnier, G.
    (1999) Fake guns and stone lions: Conceptual blending and privative adjectives. InB. A. Fox, D. Jurafsky, & L. A. Michaelis (Eds.), Cognition and function in language (pp.143–158). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Downing, P.
    (1977) On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language, 53(4), 810–842. 10.2307/412913
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412913 [Google Scholar]
  18. Eiesland, E. A.
    (2008) “Skal vi sittedanse?”: Verb-verb-sammensetninger i norsk. MA thesis, University of Oslo.
  19. (2015) The semantics of Norwegian noun-noun compounds: A corpus-based study. PhD dissertation, University of Oslo.
  20. Enger, H. O.
    (1995) Har ord hoder?: Litt om sammensetninger og deres bøying. LexicoNordica, 2, 33–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Faarlund, J. T., Lie, S., & Vannebo, K. I.
    (1997) Norsk referansegrammatikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fauconnier, G.
    (2005) Compression and emergent structure. Language and Linguistics, 6(4), 523–538.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fauconnier, G., & Turner, M.
    (1996) Blending as a central process of grammar. InA. E. Goldberg (Ed.), Conceptual structure, discourse, and language (pp.113–130). Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI). (Expanded version available athttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1293869).
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2002) The way we think: Conceptual blending and the mind’s hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2003) Conceptual blending, form and meaning. Recherches en Communication, 19, 57–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Geeraerts, D.
    (2002) The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in composite expressions. InR. Dirven & R. Pörings (Eds.), Metaphor and metonymy in comparison and contrast (pp.435–465). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110219197.435
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110219197.435 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gorbov, A. A.
    (2010) Top-metod ekspress-nominacii ekonom-klassa: O russkix imennyx kompositax s atributivnym èlementom v preposicii k veršine. Voprosy jazykoznanija, 6, 26–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Grov, A. M.
    (2009) “For venstrehendte er det dei høgrehendte som er feilhendte”: Ein studie av uavhendelege samansetjingar i norsk. MA thesis, University of Oslo.
  29. ten Hacken, P.
    (2017) Compounding in morphology. InOxford research encyclopedia. doi:  10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.251
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.251 [Google Scholar]
  30. Haspelmath, M.
    (1999) Why is grammaticalization irreversible?Linguistics, 37(6), 1043–1068. 10.1515/ling.37.6.1043
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.37.6.1043 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2000) The relevance of extravagance: A reply to Bart Geurts. Linguistics, 38(4), 789–798. 10.1515/ling.2000.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2000.007 [Google Scholar]
  32. Janda, L. A.
    (2011) Metonymy in word-formation. Cognitive Linguistics, 22(2), 359–392. 10.1515/cogl.2011.014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2011.014 [Google Scholar]
  33. Johannessen, J. B.
    (2001) Sammensatte ord. Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift, 19(1), 59–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kapatsinski, V., & Vakareliyska, C. M.
    (2013) [N[N]] compounds in Russian: A growing family of constructions. Constructions and Frames, 5(1), 69–87. 10.1075/cf.5.1.03kap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.5.1.03kap [Google Scholar]
  35. Keller, R.
    (1994) Language change: The invisible hand in language. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kemmer, S.
    (2003) Schemas and lexical blends. InH. Cuyckens, T. Berg, R. Dirven, & K. U. Panther (Eds.), Motivation in language: Studies in honor of Günter Radden (pp.69–97). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.243.08kem
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.243.08kem [Google Scholar]
  37. Kim, L. A.
    (2009) Vopros ob analitičeskix prilagatel’nyx v sovremennoj rusistike. Movoznavstvo, 15(3), 47–54. www.nbuv.gov.ua/old_jrn/Natural/Vdpu/Movozn/2009_15_3/article/9.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kristoffersen, G.
    (1992) Tonelag i sammensatte ord i østnorsk. Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift, 10(2), 39–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kuznetsova, J.
    (2015) Linguistic profiles: Going from form to meaning via statistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110361858
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110361858 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lakoff, G.
    (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.202–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lakoff, G., & Núñez, R. E.
    (2000) Where mathematics comes from: How the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Levi, J. N.
    (1978) The syntax and semantics of complex nominals. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Marinova, E. V.
    (2010) Vopros ob analitičeskix prilagatel’nyx v otečestvennoj i zarubežnoj lingvistike. Lingvistika, 4(2), 628–630. www.unn.ru/pages/issues/vestnik/99999999_West_2010_4(2)/60.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Masini, F., & Benigni, V.
    (2012) Phrasal lexemes and shortening strategies in Russian: The case for constructions. Morphology, 22(3), 417–451. 10.1007/s11525‑011‑9200‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-011-9200-y [Google Scholar]
  45. Mathiassen, T.
    (1996) Russisk grammatikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Meyer, R.
    (1993) Compound comprehension in isolation and in context. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111353241
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111353241 [Google Scholar]
  47. Molinsky, S. J.
    (1973) Patterns of ellipsis in Russian compound noun formations. The Hague/Paris: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110822182
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110822182 [Google Scholar]
  48. Nesset, T.
    (2011) Metafor og metonymi: Personkarakteriserende sammensatte substantiv i norsk. Maal og Minne, 1, 32–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (2016) Spøkelsesfiske, makrellfotball og traktoregg: Norske sammensetninger og konseptuell integrasjon. Maal og Minne, 2, 85–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (2017a) Why compounds?InA. Makarova, S. Dickey, & D. Divjak (Eds.), Each venture a new beginning: Studies in honor of Laura A. Janda (pp.161–172). Bloomington IN: Slavica Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (2017b) Compounds in contrast. Paper presented at theSlavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, October 12–14, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (2018) Metakonstruksjonssammensetninger. Maal og Minne, 1, 139–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Olsen, S.
    (2015) Composition. InP. O. Müller, I. Ohnheiser, S. Olsen, & F. Rainer (Eds.), Word formation: An international handbook of the languages of Europe: Volume4 (pp.364–386). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Peirsman, Y., & Geeraerts, D.
    (2006) Metonymy as a prototypical category. Cognitive Linguistics, 17(3), 269–16. 10.1515/COG.2006.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/COG.2006.007 [Google Scholar]
  55. Plag, I.
    (1999) Morphological productivity: Structural constraints in English derivation. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110802863
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802863 [Google Scholar]
  56. Radden, G., & Kövecses, Z.
    (1999) Towards a theory of metonymy. InK. U. Panther (Ed.), Metonymy in language and thought (pp.17–60). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.4.03rad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.4.03rad [Google Scholar]
  57. Renner, V., Maniez, F., & Arnaud, P.
    (2012) Introduction: A bird’s-eye view of lexical blending. InV. Renner, F. Maniez, & P. Arnaud (Eds.), Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending (pp.1–9). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110289572.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110289572.1 [Google Scholar]
  58. Sakshaug, L.
    (2000) Tonelagstilordning i norske samansetjingar: Ein autoleksikalsk analyse. Maal og Minne, 2, 195–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Schmid, H. J.
    (2011) Conceptual blending, relevance and novel N+N-compounds. InS. Handl & H. J. Schmid (Eds.), Windows to the mind: Metaphor, metonymy, and conceptual blending (pp.219–245). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110238198.219
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238198.219 [Google Scholar]
  60. Seliščev, A. M.
    (1928) Jazyk revoljucionnoj èpoxi. Мoscow: Rabotnik prosveščenija.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Sokolova, S.
    (2016) Fra pionerbevegelse til internasjonal-familie: Germansk innflytelse i russisk produktiv sammensetning. Paper presented atKognitivt sommerseminar, University of Bergen, Bergen, June 2016. www.uib.no/fg/nordisksprak/92966/kognitivt-sommarseminar-2016
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Sokolova, S., & Edberg, B. H.
    (2015) Are there analytical adjectives in Russian?: Evidence from a corpus study and experimental data. Paper presented atThe Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Association (SCLC-14), Universities of Oxford and Sheffield, UK, December 9–13, 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Sokolova, S. & Edberg, B. H.
    (2016) Čto takoe valjut-rynok?: Xarakteristika imennyx kompositov v russkom jazyke po resultatam korpusa i èksperimenta. Proceedings of the conference New Russia: traditions and innovations in language and language science (pp.178–186). Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, September28–30 2016 elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/42884/1/nr_2016_19.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Sokolova, S., & Edberg, B. H.
    (submitted). Are there analytical adjectives in Russian?: Evidence from a corpus study and experimental data.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Spencer, A.
    (1991) Morphological theory: An introduction to word structure in generative grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Švedova, N. J.
    (Ed.) (1980) Russkaja grammatika1. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Townsend, C. E.
    (1975) Russian word-formation. Cambridge, MA: Slavica Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Turner, M.
    (2006) Compression and representation. Language and Literature, 15(1), 17–27. 10.1177/0963947006060550
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947006060550 [Google Scholar]
  69. Turner, M., & Fauconnier, G.
    (1995) Conceptual integration and formal expression. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10(3), 183–203. 10.1207/s15327868ms1003_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms1003_3 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00034.nes
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): blending , compound , conceptual integration , iconicity , Norwegian and Russian
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error