Volume 17, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Word-formation rules of a generative type are insufficient to describe a mechanism which appears to be productive, on the one hand, but is also irregular in its productivity, on the other. Cognitive morphological accounts have stressed the importance of a wide range of more and less detailed schemas (rather than rules), sanctioning different kinds of novel formations. This article addresses the issue of morphological productivity in the context of the formation of abstract deverbal action nouns, also known as , with names of political states as derivational bases. The very number and variety of relevant lexicalized nominalizations as well as is impressive, which makes the phenomenon look productive. The data obtained from COCA and specialist literature show interesting tendencies and gaps in the system. Numerous nominalizations are motivated semantically and pragmatically and are sanctioned by local schemas.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Adams, V.
    (2001) Complex words in English. Essex: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adedeji, A., Teriba, O., & Bugembe, P.
    (Eds.) (2013) The challenge of African economic recovery and development. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ágh, A.
    (1998) The politics of Central Europe. London & Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 10.4135/9781446279250
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446279250 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aronoff, M.
    (1976) Word formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baayen, H.
    (1989) A corpus-based approach to morphological productivity: Statistical analysis and psycholinguistic interpretation. PhD dissertation. Amsterdam: Free University.
  6. Baayen, H., & Renouf, A.
    (1996) Chronicling the Times: Productive lexical innovations in an English newspaper. Language, 72, 69–96. 10.2307/416794
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416794 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bauer, L.
    (1988) Introducing linguistic morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (2006) Morphological productivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bauer, L., Lieber, R., & Plag, I.
    (2013) The Oxford reference guide to English morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bideleux, R., & Jeffries, I.
    (2007) A history of Eastern Europe: Crisis and change, 2nd edition. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203018897
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203018897 [Google Scholar]
  11. Davies, M.
    (2008) The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). At: corpus.byu.edu/coca/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. East, R., & Pontin, J.
    (2016) Revolution and change in Central and Eastern Europe, revised edition. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gardner, L. C., & Young, M. B.
    (Eds.) (2007) Iraq and the lessons of Vietnam. New York: The New Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hamilton, P.
    (Ed.) (1991) Max Weber (2). Critical assessments. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hockett, Ch. F.
    (1958) A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1958.tb00870.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1958.tb00870.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Kamusella, T.
    (2009) The politics of language and nationalism in modern Central Europe. Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230583474
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230583474 [Google Scholar]
  17. Langacker, R. W.
    (1987) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1991) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 2: Descriptive application. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Malicki, J., & Zasztowt, L.
    (Eds.) (2009) East and West: History and contemporary state of Eastern studies. Warsaw: University of Warsaw.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Marchand, H.
    (1969) The categories and types of present-day English word-formation. A synchronic-diachronic approach, 2nd completely revised and enlarged edition. München: C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Matthews, P. H.
    (1974) Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. McEnery, T., & Hardie, A.
    (2012) Corpus Linguistics: Method, theory and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nowosielska, B.
    (2017) Abstract nominalizations with names of states. A corpus-based study across written text genres. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Warsaw: University of Warsaw.
  24. The Oxford English Dictionary. At: www.oed.com.0000a19s074d.han.buw.uw.edu.pl/
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Plag, I.
    (1999) Morphological productivity. Structural constraints in English derivation. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110802863
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802863 [Google Scholar]
  26. Šabič, Z., & Drulák, P.
    (Eds.) (2012) Regional and international relations of Central Europe. Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137283450
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137283450 [Google Scholar]
  27. Snyder, T.
    (2003) The reconstruction of nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven, CT & London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Staniszkis, J.
    (1991) The dynamics of the breakthrough in Eastern Europe: The Polish experience. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stroschein, S.
    (2012) Ethnic struggle, coexistence, and democratization in Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511793769
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511793769 [Google Scholar]
  30. Sugar, P. F.
    (1994) External and domestic roots of Eastern European nationalism. InP. F. Sugar & I. J. Lederer (Eds.), Nationalism in Eastern Europe (pp.3–54). Seattle, WA & London: University of Washington Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Szymanek, B.
    (1989) Introduction to morphological analysis. Warsaw: State Scientific Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Twardzisz, P.
    (2010) Patterns of English word-formation. Warsaw: University of Warsaw.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zarycki, T.
    (2014) Ideologies of Eastness in Central and Eastern Europe. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315819006
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315819006 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): (local) schema; nominalization; productivity; suffixation; word-formation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error