1887
Volume 17, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This research deals with the conceptualizations of in Persian and seeks to find out how this cultural key concept regulates the sexuality of Iranians. The analysis of the data collected from the Persian newspaper indicates that is part of a larger cultural model that operates to restrict the sexuality of Iranians and keep the sexes segregated. The analysis demonstrates that exclusively functions to discipline the body and set limits to bodily desires. Within the identified cultural model, ’s main task is to segregate men and women by creating a cover/barrier between them, blocking/concealing the ways through which sexual desire might be aroused. The results show that metaphor is the primary means of representing the functions of . The and metaphors mark the boundaries between individuals and prohibited areas of the culture. Moreover, metaphors contribute to discovering the relationship between and its most related concepts. Metaphorical conceptualizations of provide significant evidence as to how embodied experience is informed and constituted by culture. The research also finds that the body bears the imprint of . Compared to anthropological accounts, this research provides a more comprehensive image of this concept by simultaneously taking into account the role of bodily, cognitive, social-cultural, and discursive representations in the formation of the cultural model of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00043.bak
2020-01-10
2020-02-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akbari, D., & Tetreault, P.
    (2014) Honor killing: A professional’s guide to sexual relations and ghayra violence from the Islamic source. Bloomington: Author House.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakhtiar, M.
    (2015) Cognitive model of QEYRAT in Persian. Cognitive Linguistic Studies, 2(2), 257–288. 10.1075/cogls.2.2.03bak
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cogls.2.2.03bak [Google Scholar]
  3. (2018) Emotion concepts in context: Figurative conceptualizations of hayâ ‘self-restraint’ in Persian. InA. Pizarro Pedraza (Ed.), Linguistic taboo revisited: Novel insights from cognitive perspective (pp.141–161). Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110582758‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110582758-008 [Google Scholar]
  4. Combs-Schilling, E.
    (1991) Etching patriarchal rule: Ritual dye, erotic potency, and the Moroccan monarchy. History of Sexuality, 1, 658–681.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Eshaghi, S. H.
    (2006) Morvarid e efâf: Kâvoshi dar hayâ, qeyrat, va hejâb [The pearl of chastity: A survey on hayâ, qeyrat, and hejâb]. Isfahan: Nashr e Ghaemiyeh.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Farahani, F.
    (2002) The absent presence: Reflections on the discursive practice of veiling. InI. Hartel & S. Schade (Eds.), The body and representation (pp.99–106). Hanover: International Women’s University. 10.1007/978‑3‑663‑11622‑6_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-11622-6_9 [Google Scholar]
  7. (2006) Diasporic narratives on virginity. InH. Moghissi (Ed.), Muslim Diaspora: Gender, culture, and identity (pp.186–204). London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Foucault, M.
    (1979) Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gibbs, R. W.
    (2006) Embodiment and cognitive science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gilmore, D. D.
    (1987) Introduction: The shame of dishonor. InD. D. Gilmore (Ed.), Honor and shame and the unity of the Mediterranean (pp.2–21). Washington, D.C: American Anthropological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Goldin, F. D.
    (2015) Overcoming gender: The impact of the Persian language on Iranian women’s confessional literature. InM. Mannani & V. Thompson (Eds.), Familiar and foreign: Identity in Iranian film and literature (pp.33–60). Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Haeri, Sh.
    (2014) Law of desire: Temporary marriage in Shi’i Iran. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hooshmand, P.
    (2006) Sexualities: Practices. InS. Joseph (Ed.), Encyclopedia of women and Islamic cultures, vol.3 (pp.384–386). Leiden & Boston: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Khadem Pir, A.
    (2015) Khastgah va avamel va asar e sharm va hayâ dar negah e ghoran va hadis [The origin, factors, and effects of shame and hayâ from the viewpoint of the Quran and tradition]. Basirat va Tarbiat e Eslami [Quarterly Insight and Islamic Training], 12(32), 127–153.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Khosravi, Sh.
    (2008) Young and defiant in Tehran. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. 10.9783/9780812206814
    https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812206814 [Google Scholar]
  16. (2009) Displaced masculinity: Gender and ethnicity among Iranian men in Sweden. Iranian Studies, 42(4), 591–609. 10.1080/00210860903106311
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210860903106311 [Google Scholar]
  17. Koutlaki, S. A.
    (2010) Among the Iranians: A guide to Iran’s culture and customs. Boston: Intercultural Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kövecses, Z.
    (1995) American friendship and the scope of metaphor. Cognitive Linguistics, 6(4), 315–346. 10.1515/cogl.1995.6.4.315
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1995.6.4.315 [Google Scholar]
  19. (2005) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2010) Metaphor: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lakoff, G.
    (1996) Moral politics: What conservatives know that liberals don’t. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western culture. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lindisfarne, N.
    (1998) Gender, shame, and culture: An anthropological perspective. InP. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture (pp.246–260). New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Maalej, Z.
    (2004) Figurative language in anger expressions in Tunisian Arabic: An extended view of embodiment. Metaphor and Symbol, 19(1), 51–75. 10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3 [Google Scholar]
  25. (2008) The heart and cultural embodiment in Tunisian Arabic. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.395–428). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Maalej, Z., & Yu, N.
    (Eds.) (2011) Embodiment via body parts: Studies from various languages and cultures. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.31
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.31 [Google Scholar]
  27. Mahalingam, R.
    (2007) Beliefs about chastity, machismo, and caste identity: A cultural psychology of gender. Sex Roles, 56, 239–249. 10.1007/s11199‑006‑9168‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9168-y [Google Scholar]
  28. Martel, L. D., Hawk, S., & Hatfield, E.
    (2004) Sexual behavior and culture. InCh. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology (pp.385–392). London: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑12‑657410‑3/00210‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-657410-3/00210-5 [Google Scholar]
  29. Milani, F.
    (1992) Veils and words: The emerging voices of Iranian women writers. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2011) Words, not swords: Iranian women writers and the freedom of movement. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mir-Hosseini, Z.
    (1999) Islam and gender: The religious debate in contemporary Iran. London & New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (2002) Islam, women and civil rights: The religious debate in the Iran of the 1990s. InS. Ansari & V. Martin (Eds.), Women, religion, and culture in Iran (pp.165–184). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Najmabadi, A.
    (1991) Hazards of modernity: Women, state and ideology in contemporary Iran. InD. Kandiyoti (Ed.), Women, Islam and the state (pp.48–76). London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑21178‑4_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21178-4_3 [Google Scholar]
  34. (1993) Zanha-yi Millat: women or wives of the nation?Journal of Iranian Studies, 26(1/2), 51–71. 10.1080/00210869308701786
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210869308701786 [Google Scholar]
  35. (2000) Reading wiles of women’s stories as fictions of masculinity. InM. Ghoussoub & E. Sinclair-Webb (Eds.), Imagined masculinities: Male identity and culture in the modern Middle East (pp.147–198). London: Saqi Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Outram, D.
    (1989) The body and the French revolution: Sex, class and political culture. New Heaven, CT: Yale University Press. 10.2307/j.ctt211qwn6
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt211qwn6 [Google Scholar]
  37. Paternostro, S.
    (1998) In the land of God and man: Confronting our sexual culture. New York: Dutton.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group (2007) MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  39. Rahbari, L.
    (2017) Women’s agency and corporeality in equestrian sports: The case of female leisure horse-riders in Tehran. InM. Adelman & K. Thompson (Eds.), Equestrian cultures in global and local contexts (pp.17–34). Cham, CH: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑55886‑8_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55886-8_2 [Google Scholar]
  40. Rahmani, A., Merghati-Khoei, E., Moghaddam-Banaem, L., Hajizadeh, E., & Montazeri, A.
    (2016) The viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships: A qualitative study in the Iranian context. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction, 5(1), 1–6.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sedghi, H.
    (2007) Women and politics in Iran: Veiling, unveiling, and revealing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511510380
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511510380 [Google Scholar]
  42. Shahidian, H.
    (2002) Women in Iran: Gender politics in the Islamic Republic. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sharifian, F.
    (2005) The Persian cultural schema of shekasteh-nafsi: A study of compliment responses in Persian and Anglo-Australian speakers. Pragmatics and Cognition, 13(2), 337–361. 10.1075/pc.13.2.05sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.13.2.05sha [Google Scholar]
  44. (2007) L1 cultural conceptualizations in L2 learning: The case of Persian speaking learners of English. InF. Sharifian & G. B. Palmer (Eds.), Applied cultural linguistics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication (pp.33–51). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.7.04sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.7.04sha [Google Scholar]
  45. (2008) Conceptualizations of del ‘heart-stomach’ in Persian. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.248–265). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199109.4.247
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109.4.247 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tizro, Z.
    (2013) Domestic violence in Iran: Women, marriage and Islam. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203801543
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203801543 [Google Scholar]
  47. Weisfeld, G. E.
    (1993) Social status and values in traditional Arab cultures. InE. Lee (Ed.), Comparative biosocial analysis, vol.1 (pp.75–97). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wikan, U.
    (1982) Behind the veil in Arabia: Women in Oman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wolf, H. G. & Polzenhagen, F.
    (2007) Fixed expressions as manifestations of cultural conceptualizations: Examples from African varieties of English. InP. Skandera (Ed.), Phraseology and culture in English (pp.399–435). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197860.399
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197860.399 [Google Scholar]
  50. Zaborowska, M.
    (2014) A contribution to the study of the Persian concept of âberu. Hemispheres, 29(1), 113–125.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00043.bak
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00043.bak
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error