1887
Volume 18, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This corpus-based study concentrates on the metaphorical conceptualizations of the concept of ‘democracy’ in Turkish and American English to find out how this socio-political term is conceptually represented in the minds of Turkish and American speakers. The database consists of 4000 concordance lines that were extracted from four different corpora: TNCv3.0, TS Columns, COCA, and NOW. Critical Metaphor Analysis (Charteris-Black, 2004) and MIP (Pragglejaz, 2007) were employed in the identification, explanation and interpretation of metaphors. Findings indicate various linguistic metaphors that can be grouped under several source domain categories including and as the most frequent ones. The most widespread metaphor in Turkish is , whereas it is in American English, embodying two different worldviews. The study proposes that the way the concept of democracy is composed has a role in manipulating people’s perception of the type of a democracy they are ruled by.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00073.bas
2020-12-04
2021-02-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aksan, Y., Aksan, M., Koltuksuz, A.
    (2012) Construction of the Turkish National Corpus (TNC). Proceedings of the 8th international conference on language resources and evaluation (LREC 2012) (pp.3223–3227). Istanbul, Turkey.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Charteris-Black, J.
    (2004) Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230000612
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230000612 [Google Scholar]
  3. (2005) Politicians and rhetoric: The persuasive power of metaphor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230501706
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230501706 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2006) Britain as a container: Immigration metaphors in the 2005 election campaign. Discourse & Society, 17(6), 563–82. 10.1177/0957926506066345
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926506066345 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2018) Analysing political speeches: Rhetoric, discourse and metaphor (2nd ed). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Collins Cobuild Advanced English Dictionary
    Collins Cobuild Advanced English Dictionary. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english
  7. Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA)
    Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). https://www.english-corpora.org/coca/
  8. Crick, B.
    (2002) Democracy: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dahl, R.
    (1989) Democracy and its critics. London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Deignan, A.
    (2005) Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.6 [Google Scholar]
  11. Dirven, R., Frank, R. M., & Ilie, C.
    (Eds.) (2001) Language and ideology, Volume II: Descriptive cognitive approaches. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dirven, R., Frank, R. M., & Pütz, M.
    (Eds.) (2003) Cognitive models in language and thought: Ideology, metaphors and meanings. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110892901
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110892901 [Google Scholar]
  13. Doğan, İ.
    (2002) Modern toplumda vatandaşlık, demokrasi ve insan hakları: İnsan haklarının kültürel temelleri (3rd ed.) Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Goatly, A.
    (2007) Washing the brain: Metaphor and hidden ideology. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.23 [Google Scholar]
  15. Greenberg, E. S., & Page, B. I.
    (2018) The struggle for democracy. New York: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hellín-García, M. J.
    (2013) Legitimization and delegitimization strategies on terrorism: A corpus-based analysis of building metaphors. Pragmatics, 23(2), 301–330. 10.1075/prag.23.2.05hel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.23.2.05hel [Google Scholar]
  17. (2014) Politics at play: Game metaphors in Spanish political discourse. Hipertexto, 19, 132–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Howe, N.
    (1988) Metaphor in contemporary American political discourse. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3(2), 87–104. 10.1207/s15327868ms0302_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms0302_2 [Google Scholar]
  19. Huntington, S.
    (1991) Democracy’s third wave. Journal of Democracy, 2(2), 12–34. 10.1353/jod.1991.0016
    https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1991.0016 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kongar, E.
    (2007) Demokrasimizle yüzleşmek. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kövecses, Z.
    (1994) Tocqueville’s passionate “Beast”: A linguistic analysis of the concept of American democracy. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 9(2), 113–133. 10.1207/s15327868ms0902_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms0902_2 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2010) Metaphor: A practical introduction (2nd ed). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2017) Nation-building through metaphor. InR. Digonnet (Ed.), Inhibiting language, constructing language – Habiter la langue, construire la langue (pp.37–48). Bruxelles: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lakoff, G.
    (1991) Metaphor and war: The metaphor system used to justify war in the Gulf. Peace Research, 23, 25–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed) (pp.202–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2002) Moral politics: How liberal and conservatives think (2nd ed). Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471006.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471006.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2004) Don’t think of an elephant! Know your values and frame the debate: The essential guide for progressives. Vermont: Chelsea Green.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2009) The political mind: A cognitive scientist’s guide to your brain and its politics. USA: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Malan, S.
    (2008) Conceptual metaphors in South African political speeches (1994–2001). Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, 38, 73–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Musolff, A.
    (2004) Metaphor and political discourse: Analogical reasoning in debates about Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230504516
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230504516 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2006) Metaphor scenarios in public discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 21(1), 23–38. 10.1207/s15327868ms2101_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms2101_2 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2018) Nations as persons: Collective identities in conflict. InB. Bös, S. Kleinke, S. Mollin & N. Hernández (Eds.), The discursive construction of identities on- and offline: Personal – Group – Collective (pp.249–266). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.78.11mus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.78.11mus [Google Scholar]
  34. Neuendorf, K. A.
    (2002) The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. News on the Web (NOW)
    News on the Web (NOW). https://corpus.byu.edu/now/
  36. Nicolae, A. O.
    (2014) Metaphorical perspectives on democracy in the UK and Romania. InI. Boldea (Ed.), Globalization and intercultural dialogue: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp.386–396). Tîrgu-Mureş: Arhipelag XXI Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Oxford English Dictionary
    Oxford English Dictionary. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/
  38. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group (2007) MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  39. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  40. TS Columns Corpus V2
  41. Turkish National Corpus (TNCv3.0)
    Turkish National Corpus (TNCv3.0). www.tnc.org.tr
  42. Türk Dil Kurumu, Çevrimiçi Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Language Institution Online Turkish Dictionary)
    Türk Dil Kurumu, Çevrimiçi Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Language Institution Online Turkish Dictionary)www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_bts&view=bts
  43. Van Dijk, T. A.
    (2008) Discourse and context: A sociocognitive approach. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511481499
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511481499 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00073.bas
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00073.bas
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): American English , corpus , critical metaphor analysis , democracy and Turkish
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error