Volume 19, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study aims to examine the target concepts of metaphorical and metonymical uses of in Jordanian Arabic (JA) through adopting Conceptual Metaphor Theory as based on the notion of main meaning focus (Kövecses, 20102011) as a theoretical framework. A 40,000 words specialized corpus was built for the purpose of this study. Data was analyzed employing (version 6), which enables the processing of Arabic data. The results reveal that blood as a source domain can be used to conceptualize and in JA through metonymy-based-metaphors and scenic metaphors in which the source domain is constructed metonymically. Similarities and differences were detected between JA and other languages investigated in the literature. Similarities were ascribed to cognitive embodiment of bodily substances, i.e., blood, to conceptualize abstract concepts such as and , while differences were attributed to socio-cultural embodiment of certain qualities of blood shared by members of the Jordanian community.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Altakhaineh, A. R. M.
    (2017) Identifying Adj+N compounds in modern standard Arabic. STUF-Language Typology and Universals, 70(4), 545–578. 10.1515/stuf‑2017‑0024
    https://doi.org/10.1515/stuf-2017-0024 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alwakeelnews Archive
    Alwakeelnews Archive. [Accessed online28th June 2017, from: www.alwakeelnews.com/category/1on28th June 2017].
  3. Ammon News Archive
    Ammon News Archive. [Accessed online10th May 2017, from: en.ammonnews.net/on10th May 2017].
  4. Ansah, G. N.
    (2014) Culture in embodied cognition: Metaphorical/metonymic conceptualizations of fear in Akan and English. Metaphor and Symbol, 29(1), 44–58. 10.1080/10926488.2014.859483
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2014.859483 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bagasheva, A.
    (2017) Cultural conceptualizations of mouth, lips, tongue and teeth in Bulgarian and English. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in cultural linguistics (pp.189–221). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_10 [Google Scholar]
  6. Cameron, L., & Deignan, A.
    (2003) Combining large and small corpora to investigate tuning devices around metaphor in spoken discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 18(3), 149–160. 10.1207/S15327868MS1803_02
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1803_02 [Google Scholar]
  7. Charteris-Black, J.
    (2001) Blood sweat and tears: A corpus based cognitive analysis of ‘blood’ in English phraseology. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata, 30(2), 273–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cresswell, T.
    (1997) Weeds, plagues, and bodily secretions: A geographical interpretation of metaphors of displacement. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 87(2), 330–345. 10.1111/0004‑5608.872056
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.872056 [Google Scholar]
  9. Deignan, A.
    (2005) Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.6 [Google Scholar]
  10. (2008) Corpus linguistics and metaphor. In R. W. Gibbs (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp.280–294). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802.018 [Google Scholar]
  11. (2009) Searching for metaphorical patterns in corpora. In P. Baker (Ed.), Contemporary corpus linguistics (pp.9–31). London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Deignan, A. , & Potter, L.
    (2004) A corpus study of metaphor and metonyms in English and Italian. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(7), 1231–1252. 10.1016/j.pragma.2003.10.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2003.10.010 [Google Scholar]
  13. Flowerdew, L.
    (2004) The argument for using English specialized corpora to understand academic and professional language. In U. Connor & T. Upton (Eds.), Discourse in the professions: Perspectives from corpus linguistics (pp.11–33). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.16.02flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.16.02flo [Google Scholar]
  14. Gibbs, R.
    (2003) Embodied experience and linguistic meaning. Brain and Language, 84, 1–15. 10.1016/S0093‑934X(02)00517‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(02)00517-5 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gibbs, R. W.
    (2006) Embodiment in cognitive science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ikegami, Y.
    (2008) The heart: What it means to the Japanese speakers. In F. Sharifian , R. Dirven , N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.169–190). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Johnson, M.
    (1987) The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  18. Khaberni Archive
    Khaberni Archive. [Accessed online25th April 2017, from: https://www.khaberni.com/on25th April 2017].
  19. Kövecses, Z.
    (1988) The language of love. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kövecses, Z.
    (1990) Emotion concepts. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑3312‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3312-1 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kovecses, Z.
    (2010) Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kövecses, Z.
    (2011) Recent developments in metaphor theory: Are the new views rival ones?Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 9(1), 11–25. 10.1075/rcl.9.1.02kov
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.9.1.02kov [Google Scholar]
  23. Lakoff, G.
    (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.202–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lakoff, G. , & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Littlemore, J.
    (2015) Metonymy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107338814
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107338814 [Google Scholar]
  27. Maalej, Z.
    (2008) The heart and cultural embodiment in Tunisian Arabic. Culture, body and language. In F. Sharifian , R. Dirven , N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.395–428). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2014) Body parts we live by in language and culture: The raaS ‘head’ and yidd ‘hand’ in Tunisian Arabic. In M. Brenzinger & I. Kraska-Szlenk (Eds.), The body in language: Comparative studies of linguistic embodiment (pp.224–259). Boston: Brill. 10.1163/9789004274297_013
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004274297_013 [Google Scholar]
  29. Maalej, Z. , & Yu, N.
    (Eds.) (2011) Embodiment via body parts: Studies from various languages and cultures. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.31
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.31 [Google Scholar]
  30. Meyer, M.
    (2014) Thicker than water: The origins of blood as symbol and ritual. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203952603
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203952603 [Google Scholar]
  31. Musolff, A.
    (2007) What role do metaphors play in racial prejudice? The function of antisemitic imagery in Hitler’s Mein Kampf. Patterns of Prejudice, 41(1), 21–43. 10.1080/00313220601118744
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00313220601118744 [Google Scholar]
  32. Nelson, M.
    (2010) Building a written corpus: What are the basics?In A. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics (pp.53–65). London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203856949.ch5
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203856949.ch5 [Google Scholar]
  33. O’Keeffe, A. , McCarthy, M. , & Carter, R.
    (2007) From corpus to classroom: Language use and language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511497650
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511497650 [Google Scholar]
  34. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group (2007) MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, F. J. , & Pérez-Hernández, L.
    (2011) The contemporary theory of metaphor: Myths, developments and challenges. Metaphor and Symbol, 26(3), 161–185. 10.1080/10926488.2011.583189
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2011.583189 [Google Scholar]
  36. Scott, M.
    (2012) WordSmith tools version 6. Stroud: Lexical Analysis Software.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sharifian, F.
    (2015) Cultural linguistics. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp.473–493). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. ed. (2017) Cultural linguistics. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.8 [Google Scholar]
  39. Simó, J.
    (2011) Metaphors of blood in American English and Hungarian: A cross-linguistic corpus investigation. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(12), 2897–2910. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  40. Sinclair, J.
    1991Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Steen, G.
    (2007) Finding metaphor in discourse: Pragglejaz and beyond. Cultura, Lenguaje y Representación/Culture, Language and Representation, 5, 9–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Turner, B. S.
    (2003) Social fluids: metaphors and meanings of society. Body & Society, 9(1), 1–10. 10.1177/1357034X030091001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X030091001 [Google Scholar]
  43. Yu, N.
    (2017) Life as opera: A cultural metaphor in Chinese. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in cultural linguistics (pp.65–87). London: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_4 [Google Scholar]
  44. Zibin, A.
    (2018) The effect of the Arab Spring on the use of metaphor and metonymy in Jordanian economic discourse: A cognitive approach. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 16(1), 254–298. 10.1075/rcl.00010.zib
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.00010.zib [Google Scholar]
  45. (2019) The causative–anticausative alternation in Jordanian Arabic (JA). Lingua, 220, 43–64. 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  46. Zibin, A. , & Abdullah, A. D.
    (2019) The conceptualization of tolerance in the UAE press media: A case study of ‘The Year of Tolerance’. Open Linguistics, 5(1), 405–420. 10.1515/opli‑2019‑0022
    https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2019-0022 [Google Scholar]
  47. Zibin, A. , & Altakhaineh, A. R. M. S.
    (2018) An analysis of Arabic metaphorical and/or metonymical compounds: A cognitive linguistic approach. Metaphor and the Social World, 8(1), 100–133. 10.1075/msw.16023.zib
    https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.16023.zib [Google Scholar]
  48. Zibin, A. , & Hamdan, J.
    (2019) The conceptualisation of FEAR through conceptual metonymy and metaphor in Jordanian Arabic. International Journal of Arabic-English Studies, 19(2), 239–262.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): blood; Cognitive Linguistics; corpus; metaphor; metonymy
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error