Volume 19, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



People from different languages draw from the knowledge they have from the domain of heat (source domain) and apply it to the domain of anger (target domain) through metaphor. This was also found to be the case with Amharic and Changana. Our study investigates how anger is metaphorically conceptualized in these two languages. Many similarities were found even though variations do exist cross-linguistically. It is suggested that the similarities between these languages in conceptualizing anger lie in the fact that human beings share the same bodily experience: , even though variations may arise due to the differences in (race, values and geographical localization, etc). The study seeks to demonstrate how these two dimensions contribute to the overall conceptual structure of metaphor in these two (unrelated) African languages.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Al-Haq, F. A. A., & Al Sharif, A. K.
    (2008) A comparative study of some metaphorical conceptualizations of happiness and anger in English and Arabic. US-China Foreign Language, 11(6), 1–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. De Carvalho, R. B., & De Melo, L. B.
    (2019) Metáfora das emoções em Kaiowá. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Antropológica, 11(1), 53–64. 10.26512/rbla.v11i1.26440
    https://doi.org/10.26512/rbla.v11i1.26440 [Google Scholar]
  3. Emanatian, M.
    (1999) Congruence by degree: On the relationship between metaphor and cultural models. InR. W. Gibbs & G. J. Steen (Eds.), Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics (pp.205–218). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.175.12ema
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.175.12ema [Google Scholar]
  4. Fernandes, M. P. L.
    (2002) Análisis de los términos y expresiones del sentimiento, una aproximación semántico-cognitiva [Analysis of terms and expressions on emotions: A cognitive semantics study]. [Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Valladolid]. ProQuest Archive, accessed fromXiamen University digital library. https://webvpn.xmu.edu.cn/http/77726476706e69737468656265737421e7e056d237216c447d06c7af9758/thesisDetails/4F38BD9A9B0728AEEC5CCE8C8E69E825
  5. Geeraerts, D., & Gevaert, C.
    (2008) Hearts and (angry) minds in Old English. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.319–347). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Geeraerts, D., & Grondelaers, S.
    (1995) Looking back at anger: Cultural traditions and metaphorical patterns. InJ. R. Taylor & R. E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world (pp.153–179). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.153
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.153 [Google Scholar]
  7. Gevaert, C.
    (2005) The anger is heat question: Detecting cultural influence on the conceptualization of anger through diachronic corpus analysis. InN. Delbecque, J. van der Auwera & D. Geeraerts (Eds.), Perspectives on variation: Sociolinguistic, historical, comparative (pp.195–208). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110909579.195
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110909579.195 [Google Scholar]
  8. Grady, J.
    (1997) Foundations of meaning: Primary metaphors and primary scenes. [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Howard, S.
    (2018) Coffee and the state in rural Ethiopia. Anthropology Matters, 18(1), 1–22. 10.22582/am.v18i1.510
    https://doi.org/10.22582/am.v18i1.510 [Google Scholar]
  10. Isenberg, C. W.
    (1841) Dictionary of the Amharic language. Amharic and English, and English and Amharic. London: The Church Missionary Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Johnson, M.
    (1987) The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  12. Kane, T.
    (1990) Amharic-English Dictionary. Vol.I and II. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. King, B.
    (2007) The conceptual structure of emotional experience in Chinese. Canada: Global Language Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kövecses, Z.
    (1986) Metaphors of anger, pride and love: A lexical approach to the study of concepts. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/pb.vii.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pb.vii.8 [Google Scholar]
  15. (1990) Emotion concepts. Berlin & New York: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑3312‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3312-1 [Google Scholar]
  16. (1995) Anger: Its language, conceptualization, and physiology in the light of cross-cultural evidence. InJ. R. Taylor & R. E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world, (pp.181–196). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.181
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.181 [Google Scholar]
  17. (2000a) Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (2000b) The concept of anger: Universal or culture specific?Psychopathology, 33, 159–170. 10.1159/000029139
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000029139 [Google Scholar]
  19. (2005) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2010) Cross-cultural experience of anger: A psycholinguistic analysis. InM. Potegal, G. Stemmler & C. Spielberger (Eds.), International handbook of anger: Constituent and concomitant biological, psychological, and social processes (pp.157–174). New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑89676‑2_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-89676-2_10 [Google Scholar]
  21. (2014) Conceptualizing emotions. A revised cognitive linguistic perspective. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 50(1), 15–28. 10.1515/psicl‑2014‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/psicl-2014-0002 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2015) Where metaphors come from: Reconsidering context in metaphor. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190224868.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190224868.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kövecses, Z., Szelid, V., Nucz, E., Blanco-Carrion, O., Akkök, E. A., & Szabó, R.
    (2015) Anger metaphors across languages: A cognitive linguistic perspective. InR. Heredia & A. Cieslicka (Eds.), Bilingual figurative language processing (pp.341–367) New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139342100.017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139342100.017 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things. What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lakoff, G., & Kövecses, Z.
    (1987) The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English. InD. Holland & N. Quinn (Eds.), Cultural models in language and thought (pp.195–221). New York & Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009 [Google Scholar]
  28. Langacker, R. W.
    (2014) Culture and cognition, lexicon and grammar. InM. Yamaguchi, D. Tay & B. Blount (Eds.), Approaches to language, culture, and cognition: The intersection of Cognitive Linguistics and linguistic anthropology (pp.27–49). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Leslau, W.
    (1972) Basic Amharic dictionary: Amharic-English, English-Amharic. Los Angeles & California: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1995) Reference grammar of Amharic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Maalej, Z.
    (2004) Figurative language in anger expressions in Tunisian Arabic: An extended view of embodiment. Metaphor and Symbol, 19(1), 51–75. 10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3 [Google Scholar]
  32. Matsuki, K.
    (1995) Metaphors of anger in Japanese. InJ. R. Taylor & R. E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world (pp.137–151). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.137
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.137 [Google Scholar]
  33. Mischler, J. J.
    (2013) Metaphor across time and conceptual space, the interplay of embodiment and cultural models. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.3 [Google Scholar]
  34. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group (2007) MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  35. Rohrer, T.
    (2007) Embodiment and experientialism. InD. Geeraerts & H. Cuyckens (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp.25–47). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sitoe, B.
    (1996) Dicionário de Changana-Português [Changana-Portuguese dictionary]. Maputo: Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educação.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2000) Motivação Semântica das Classes Nominais – Sua influência sobre a sintaxe: o caso de Changana, InProceedings of L’Umanesimo Latino e l’Umanesimo Africano (Publicação do Centro de Estudos Africanos – Universidade do Porto e Fondazione Cassamarca), 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Soriano, C.
    (2003) Some anger metaphors in Spanish and English: A contrastive review. International Journal of English Studies, 3, 107–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Taylor, J. R., & Mbense, T. G.
    (1998) Red dogs and rotten mealies: How Zulus talk about anger. InA. Athanasiadou & E. Tabakowska (Eds.), Speaking of emotions: Conceptualization and expression (pp.191–226). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806007.191
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806007.191 [Google Scholar]
  40. Wierzbicka, A.
    (1993) Reading human faces: Emotion components and universal semantics. Pragmatics & Cognition, 1(1), 1–23. 10.1075/pc.1.1.03wie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.1.1.03wie [Google Scholar]
  41. (1999) Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511521256
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521256 [Google Scholar]
  42. Yu, N.
    (1995) Metaphorical expression of anger and happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10(2), 59–92. 10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1 [Google Scholar]
  43. (1998) The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A perspective from Chinese. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.1 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2001) What does our face mean to us?Pragmatics & Cognition, 9(1), 1–36. 10.1075/pc.9.1.02yu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.9.1.02yu [Google Scholar]
  45. (2002) Body and emotion: Body parts in Chinese expression of emotion. Pragmatics and Cognition, 10(1–2), 341–367. 10.1075/pc.10.1‑2.14yu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.10.1-2.14yu [Google Scholar]
  46. ባህሩ ዘርጋው ግዛው
    (2001) የአማርኛ መዝገበ ቃላት. አዲስ አበባ: አዲስ አበባ ዩንቨርስትቲ ማተሚያ. [Bahiru, Z. G. (2001) Amharic Dictionary. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University press].
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Amharic; anger; Changana; embodiment; emotion; metaphor
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error