1887
Volume 20, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Accumulating evidence over the last two decades has established that people represent elapsing time along a horizontal or a vertical mental time line (MTL). A recent research (Hartmann et al., 2014) discovered an additional diagonal MTL which develops from bottom left to top right. The present study sought to extend Hartmann et al.’s (2014) work by exploring if the particular representations of diagonal time lines vary across cultures. Two experiments which recruited English and Arabic speakers as participants were conducted. The experimental setups measured participants’ space-time mappings along the bottom-left/top-right, top-left/bottom-right, bottom-right/top-left and top-right/bottom-left axes. Converging evidence demonstrates that there are indeed cross-cultural differences in mental representations of diagonal time lines. While English speakers displayed a salient propensity to conceive of time as oriented from bottom left to top right, Arabic speakers favored a time line unfolding from bottom right to top left. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate if diagonal MTLs are cross-culturally represented. Findings of the present study add to existing literature by highlighting the important role of cultural artifacts such as writing direction in structuring people’s MTLs. Writing directions not only bring about cross-cultural discrepancies in space-time associations along the horizontal axis (e.g., left-to-right for English speakers and right-to-left for Arabic speakers), but also affect the creation of culturally specific concepts of diagonal time lines.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00115.yan
2022-12-08
2023-01-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
    (2014) lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4 [R package version 1.1–4]. Retrieved from: lme4.r-forge.r-project.org/
  2. Bergen, B. K., & Chan Lau, T. T.
    (2012) Writing direction affects how people map space onto time. Frontiers in Psychology, 31, 109. 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00109
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00109 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bonato, M., Zorzi, M., & Umiltà, C.
    (2012) When time is space: Evidence for a mental time line. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 361, 2257–2273. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.08.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.08.007 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boroditsky, L.
    (2000) Metaphoric structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 751, 1–28. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(99)00073‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00073-6 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2001) Does language shape thought? English and Mandarin speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 431, 1–22. 10.1006/cogp.2001.0748
    https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.2001.0748 [Google Scholar]
  6. Boroditsky, L., Fuhrman, O., & McCormick, K.
    (2011) Do English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently?Cognition, 1181, 123–129. 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.010 [Google Scholar]
  7. Boroditsky, L., & Gaby, A.
    (2010) Remembrances of times East: absolute spatial representations of time in an Australian aboriginal community. Psychological Science, 211, 1635–1639. 10.1177/0956797610386621
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610386621 [Google Scholar]
  8. Casasanto, D.
    (2016) Temporal language and temporal thinking may not go hand in hand. InB. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (ed.), Conceptualizations of time (pp.169–186). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.52.04cas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.52.04cas [Google Scholar]
  9. Casasanto, D., & Boroditsky, L.
    (2008) Time in the mind: Using space to think about time. Cognition, 1061, 579–593. 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  10. Casasanto, D., & Bottini, R.
    (2014) Mirror reading can reverse the flow of time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1431, 473–479. 10.1037/a0033297
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033297 [Google Scholar]
  11. Casasanto, D., & Jasmin, K.
    (2012) The hands of time: Temporal gestures in English speakers. Cognitive Linguistics, 231, 643–674. 10.1515/cog‑2012‑0020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2012-0020 [Google Scholar]
  12. de la Fuente, J., Santiago, J., Rom_an, A., Dumitrache, C., & Casasanto, D.
    (2014) When you think about it, your past is in front of you: How culture shapes spatial conceptions of time. Psychological Science, 251, 1682–1690. 10.1177/0956797614534695
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614534695 [Google Scholar]
  13. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A.
    (2007) G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 391, 175–191. 10.3758/BF03193146
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146 [Google Scholar]
  14. Fuhrman, O., & Boroditsky, L.
    (2010) Cross-cultural differences in mental representations of time: Evidence from an implicit nonlinguistic task. Cognitive Science, 341, 1430–1451. 10.1111/j.1551‑6709.2010.01105.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01105.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Fuhrman, O., McCormick, K., Chen, E., Jiang, H., Shu, D., Mao, S., & Boroditsky, L.
    (2011) How linguistic and cultural forces shape conceptions of time: English and Mandarin time in 3D. Cognitive Science, 351, 1305–1328. 10.1111/j.1551‑6709.2011.01193.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-6709.2011.01193.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Gu, Y., Zheng, Y., & Swerts, M.
    (2019) Which is in front of Chinese people, past or future? The effect of language and culture on temporal gestures and spatial conceptions of time. Cognitive Science, 43(12), e12804. 10.1111/cogs.12804
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12804 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hamdi, S.
    (2008) Conceptual metaphors of time in English and in Arabic: A comparative cognitive study (doctoral dissertation). Quebec: Laval University.
  18. Hartmann, M., Gashaj, V., Stahnke, A., & Mast, F.
    (2014) There is more than ‘‘more is up’’: Hand and foot responses reverse the vertical association of number magnitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 401, 1401–1414.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hartmann, M., Grabherr, L., & Mast, F. W.
    (2012) Moving along the mental number line: Interactions between whole-body motion and numerical cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 381, 1416–1427.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hartmann, M., Martarelli, C. S., Mast, F. W., & Stocker, K.
    (2014) Eye movements during mental time travel follow a diagonal line. Consciousness and Cognition, 301, 201–209. 10.1016/j.concog.2014.09.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.09.007 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hendricks, R. K., Bergen, B. K., & Marghetis, T.
    (2018) Do metaphors move from mind to mouth? Evidence from a new system of linguistic metaphors for time. Cognitive Science, 421, 2950–2975. 10.1111/cogs.12693
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12693 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Li, Y., Casaponsa, A., Wu, Y. J., & Thierry, G.
    (2019) Back to the future? How Chinese-English bilinguals switch between front and back orientation for time, NeuroImage, 2031, 116180. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116180
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116180 [Google Scholar]
  24. Miles, L. K., Nind, L. K., & Macrae, C. N.
    (2010) Moving through time. Psychological Science, 211, 222–223. 10.1177/0956797609359333
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797609359333 [Google Scholar]
  25. Núñez, R., & Cooperrider, K.
    (2013) The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science, 171, 220–229. 10.1016/j.tics.2013.03.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.03.008 [Google Scholar]
  26. Núñez, R., Cooperrider, K., Doan, D., & Wassmann, J.
    (2012) Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 1241, 25–35. 10.1016/j.cognition.2012.03.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2012.03.007 [Google Scholar]
  27. Núñez, R. E., & Sweetser, E.
    (2006) With the future behind them: convergent evidence from aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Cognitive Science, 301, 401–450. 10.1207/s15516709cog0000_62
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0000_62 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ouellet, M., Santiago, J., Funes, M. J., & Lupiáñez, J.
    (2010) Thinking about the future moves attention to the right. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 361, 17–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ouellet, M., Santiago, J., Israeli, Z., & Gabay, S.
    (2010) Is the future the right time?Experimental Psychology, 571, 308–314. 10.1027/1618‑3169/a000036
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000036 [Google Scholar]
  30. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Development Core Team.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Radden, G.
    (2011) Spatial time in the West and the East. InM. Brdar (eds.), Space and time in language (pp.1–40). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Santiago, J., Román, A., Ouellet, M., Rodríguez, N., & Pérez-Azor, P.
    (2010) In hindsight, life flows from left to right. Psychological Research, 741, 59–70. 10.1007/s00426‑008‑0220‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-008-0220-0 [Google Scholar]
  33. Scott, A.
    (1989) The vertical dimension and time in Mandarin. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 91, 295–314. 10.1080/07268608908599424
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268608908599424 [Google Scholar]
  34. Stocker, K., Hartmann, M., Martarelli, C. S., & Mast, F. W.
    (2016) Eye movements reveal mental looking through time. Cognitive Science, 401, 1648–1670. 10.1111/cogs.12301
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12301 [Google Scholar]
  35. Torralbo, A., Santiago, J., & Lupiáñez, J.
    (2006) Flexible conceptual projection of time onto spatial frames of reference. Cognitive Science, 301, 749–757. 10.1207/s15516709cog0000_67
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0000_67 [Google Scholar]
  36. Tse, C. S., & Altarriba, J.
    (2008) Evidence against linguistic relativity in Chinese and English: A case study of spatial and temporal metaphors. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 81, 335–357. 10.1163/156853708X358218
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853708X358218 [Google Scholar]
  37. Tversky, B., Kugelmass, S., & Winter, A.
    (1991) Crosscultural and developmental-trends in graphic productions. Cognitive Psychology, 231, 515–557. 10.1016/0010‑0285(91)90005‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(91)90005-9 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ulrich, R., Eikmeier, V., de la Vega, I., Ruiz Fernandez, S., Alex-Ruf, S., & Maienborn, C.
    (2012) With the past behind and the future ahead: Back-to-front representation of past and future sentences. Memory and Cognition, 401, 483–495. 10.3758/s13421‑011‑0162‑4
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-011-0162-4 [Google Scholar]
  39. Vaid, J., Rhodes, R., Tosun, S., & Eslami, Z.
    (2011) Script directionality affects depiction of depth in representational drawings. Social Psychology, 421, 241–248. 10.1027/1864‑9335/a000068
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000068 [Google Scholar]
  40. Valenzuela, J., Cánovas, C. P., Olza, I. & Carrión, D. A.
    (2020) Gesturing in the wild: Evidence for a flexible mental timeline. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 181, 289–315. 10.1075/rcl.00061.val
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.00061.val [Google Scholar]
  41. Vallesi, A., Weisblatt, Y., Semenza, C., & Shaki, S.
    (2014) Cultural modulations of space-time compatibility effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 211, 666–669. 10.3758/s13423‑013‑0540‑y
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0540-y [Google Scholar]
  42. Walker, E., & Cooperrider, K.
    (2016) The continuity of metaphor: Evidence from temporal gestures. Cognitive Science, 401, 481–95. 10.1111/cogs.12254
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12254 [Google Scholar]
  43. Walker, E. J., Bergen, B. K., & Núñez, R.
    (2014) Disentangling Spatial Metaphors for Time Using Non-spatial Responses and Auditory Stimuli. Metaphor & Symbol, 291, 316–327. 10.1080/10926488.2014.948801
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2014.948801 [Google Scholar]
  44. Walker, E. J., Bergen, B. K., & Núñez, R. E.
    (2017) The spatial alignment of time: Differences in alignment of deictic and sequence time along the sagittal and lateral axes. Acta Psychologica, 1751, 13–20. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  45. Walker, E. & Núñez, R.
    (2016) Speaking, gesturing, reasoning: Methods and issues in the study of spatial construals of time. InB. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Conceptualizations of time (pp.43–65). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.52.03wal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.52.03wal [Google Scholar]
  46. Weger, U. W., & Pratt, J.
    (2008) Time flies like an arrow: Space-time compatibility effects suggest the use of a mental time-line. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 151, 426–430. 10.3758/PBR.15.2.426
    https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.2.426 [Google Scholar]
  47. Xiao, Y.
    (2012) Conceptualization of time and its linguistic representation (doctoral dissertation). Chongqing: Xinan University.
  48. Yang, W., & Sun, Y.
    (2016) A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 231, 857–864. 10.3758/s13423‑015‑0964‑7
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0964-7 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2018) Do writing directions influence how people map space onto time? Evidence from Japanese and Taiwanese speakers. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 771, 173–184. 10.1024/1421‑0185/a000215
    https://doi.org/10.1024/1421-0185/a000215 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00115.yan
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00115.yan
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arabic; cross-cultural difference; English; mental time line; writing direction
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error