Volume 20, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Recent studies have shown that semantic framing can reveal bias and racism. The current study introduces a novel method for locating frames in texts, and employs this method to find frames for Muslims, Europeans and Australians in a range of texts by anti-Muslim and non-anti-Muslim authors. The study finds that several derogatory frames previously associated with racism are applied to Muslims in the anti-Muslim texts, supporting studies showing that anti-Muslim bias resembles other forms of racism. Moreover, different frames are preferred by more and less extreme anti-Muslim authors, with certain frames predominating in the manifestos of white supremacist gunmen. These frames may be a warning sign that frame users are potentially prone to violence.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Acosta, J. Z.
    (2016) A framing analysis of Latinos in the Facebook pages of news organizations. MS Dissertation. San José State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Armoudian, M.
    (2020) In search of a genocidal frame: Preliminary evidence from the Holocaust and the Rwandan genocide. Media, War & Conflict, 13(2), 133–152. 10.1177/1750635218810927
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635218810927 [Google Scholar]
  3. Boas, H. C. & Dux, R. J.
    (2017) From the past into the present: From case frames to semantic frames. Linguistics Vanguard, 3(1), 1–14. 10.1515/lingvan‑2016‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2016-0003 [Google Scholar]
  4. Burgers, C., Konijn, E. A., & Steen, G.
    (2016) Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole, and irony. Communication Theory, 261, 410–430. 10.1111/comt.12096
    https://doi.org/10.1111/comt.12096 [Google Scholar]
  5. Carrodus, H. & Yu, A.
    (2014, August19). ‘Stop the Mosque in Bendigo’ reinstated on Facebook. Newcastle Herald. https://www.theherald.com.au/story/2500174/stop-the-mosque-in-bendigo-reinstated-on-facebook
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Charteris-Black, J.
    (2004) Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230000612_12
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230000612_12 [Google Scholar]
  7. Christchurch manifesto
    Christchurch manifesto 2019The great replacement.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Citron, F. M. M. & Goldberg, A. E.
    (2014) Metaphorical sentences are more emotionally engaging than their literal counterparts. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 261, 2585–2595. 10.1162/jocn_a_00654
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00654 [Google Scholar]
  9. Coulson, S.
    (2001) Semantic leaps: Frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511551352
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551352 [Google Scholar]
  10. Croft, W.
    (2003) The role of domains in the interpretation of metaphors and metonymies. InR. Dirven & R. Pörings (Eds.), Metaphor and metonymy in comparison and contrast (pp.161–206). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Davies, M.
    (2014) Corpus of Global Web-Based English (GloWbE). https://www.english-corpora.org/glowbe/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dunn, K. M., Klocker, N., & Salabay, T.
    (2007) Contemporary racism and Islamophobia in Australia. Ethnicities, 7(4), 564–589. 10.1177/1468796807084017
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796807084017 [Google Scholar]
  13. Ervas, F., Rossi, M. G., Ojha, A., & Indurkhya, B.
    (2021) The double framing effect of emotive metaphors in argumentation. Frontiers in Psychology, 121, 628460. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.628460
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.628460 [Google Scholar]
  14. Facebook
    Facebook (2020) What names are allowed on Facebook?Facebook Help Centre. https://www.facebook.com/help/112146705538576
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fillmore, C. J.
    (1976) Frame semantics and the nature of language. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 280(1), 20–32. 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.1976.tb25467.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1976.tb25467.x [Google Scholar]
  16. (1982) Frame Semantics. InThe Linguistic Society of Korea (Eds.), Linguistics in the morning calm: Selected papers from. SICOL-1981 (pp.110–137). Hanshin Publishing Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fillmore, C. J., Johnson, C. R., & Petruck, M. R.
    (2003) Background to FrameNet. International Journal of Lexicography, 16(3), 235–250. 10.1093/ijl/16.3.235
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.3.235 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fillmore, C. J., Lee-Goldman, R. R., & Rhodes, R.
    (2012) The FrameNet Constructicon. InH. C. Boas & I. A. Sag (Eds.), Sign-based Construction Grammar (pp.313–329). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. FrameNet
    FrameNet (2022) The FrameNet Project. https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/
  20. Froio, C.
    (2018) Race, religion, or culture? Framing Islam between racism and neo-racism in the Online Network of the French Far Right. Perspectives on Politics, 16(3), 696–709. 10.1017/S1537592718001573
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592718001573 [Google Scholar]
  21. Goatly, A.
    (1997) The language of metaphor. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203210000
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203210000 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hanson, P.
    (2019) One Nation News. Pauline Hanson’s One Nation. https://www.onenation.org.au/
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hoffman, G. A., & Modi, S. M.
    (2012) The war on terror as a metaphor for immigration regulation: A critical view of a distorted debate. The Journal of Gender, Race and Justice, 3(15), 449–502.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hope Not Hate [Google Scholar]
  25. Johnson, C.
    (2014, June28). Bendigo mosque a cause celebre for right-wing outsiders. The Age. https://www.bendigoadvertiser.com.au/story/2382630/bendigo-mosque-a-cause-celebre-for-right-wing-outsiders
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Jones, B.
    (2019) UK and Ireland Blogs. Generation Identity. https://www.generation-identity.org.uk/blog/
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hülsse, R., & Spencer, A.
    (2008) The metaphor of terror: Terrorism studies and the constructivist turn. PRIO, 39(6), 571–592. 10.1177/0967010608098210
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010608098210 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kecskes, I.
    (2013) Intercultural pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199892655.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199892655.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lakoff, G.
    (1982) Categories and cognitive models. Trier: LAUT.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1987) Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2014) The all new don’t think of an elephant! Know your values and frame the debate. Chelsea Green Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lederer, J.
    (2019) Lexico-grammatical alignment in metaphor construal. Cognitive Linguistics, 30(1), 165–203. 10.1515/cog‑2017‑0135
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2017-0135 [Google Scholar]
  34. Littlemore, J., Pérez-Sobino, P., Houghton, D., Shi, J., & Winter, B.
    (2018) What makes a good metaphor? A cross-cultural study of computer-generated metaphor appreciation. Metaphor and Symbol, 33(2), 101–122. 10.1080/10926488.2018.1434944
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2018.1434944 [Google Scholar]
  35. Macmillan Dictionary
    Macmillan Dictionary (2009–2022) Macmillan Publishers Limited. www.macmillandictionary.com
  36. Miller, C.
    (2017) Australia’s anti-Islam right in their own words. Text as data analysis of social media content, Australian Journal of Political Science, 52(3), 383–401. 10.1080/10361146.2017.1324561
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10361146.2017.1324561 [Google Scholar]
  37. Musolff, A.
    (2007) What role do metaphors play in racial prejudice? The function of antisemitic imagery in Hitler’s Mein Kampf. Patterns of Prejudice, 41(1), 21–43. 10.1080/00313220601118744
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00313220601118744 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2015) Dehumanizing metaphors in UK immigrant debates in press and online media. Journal of Language of Aggression and Conflict, 3(1), 41–56. 10.1075/jlac.3.1.02mus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.3.1.02mus [Google Scholar]
  39. News Corp Australia Network
    News Corp Australia Network (2019, March30). Crackdown on Facebook Live rules after Christchurch shooting video viewed 4000 times before being removed. News.com.au. https://www.news.com.au/technology/online/social/crackdown-on-facebook-live-rules-after-christchurch-shooting-video-viewed-4000-times-before-being-removed/news-story/738d021afada3038c40688ea2bbbb73b
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Oslo manifesto
    Oslo manifesto (2011) A European Declaration of Independence.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Pinero-Pinero, G., Díaz-Peralta, M., & García-Domínguez, M. J.
    (2014) Metaphors of irregular immigration in the Spanish Language Press in the United States, Studia Neophilologica, 86(1), 51–65. 10.1080/00393274.2013.871969
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00393274.2013.871969 [Google Scholar]
  42. Reijnierse, W. G., Burgers, C., Krennmayr, T., & Steen, G. J.
    (2015) How viruses and beasts affect our opinions (or not): The role of extendedness in metaphorical framing. Metaphor and the Social World, 5(2), 245–263. 10.1075/msw.5.2.04rei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.5.2.04rei [Google Scholar]
  43. Remeikis, A.
    (2017, March24). Pauline Hanson says Islam is a disease Australia needs to ‘vaccinate’. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/pauline-hanson-says-islam-is-a-disease-australia-needs-to-vaccinate-20170324-gv5w7z.html
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ritchie, L. D.
    (2013) Metaphor. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139136822
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139136822 [Google Scholar]
  45. Rosch, E.
    (1975) Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1041, 192–233. 10.1037/0096‑3445.104.3.192
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.104.3.192 [Google Scholar]
  46. Rosch, E., & Mervis, C.
    (1975) Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology, 71, 573–605. 10.1016/0010‑0285(75)90024‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(75)90024-9 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ruppenhofer, J., Ellsworth, M., Petruck, M. R. L., Johnson, C. R., & Scheffczyk, J.
    (2010) FrameNet II: Extended theory and practice. Berkeley, California: International Computer Science Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Santa Ana, O.
    (1999) ‘Like an animal I was treated’: Anti-immigrant metaphor in US public discourse. Discourse & Society, 10(2), 191–224. 10.1177/0957926599010002004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926599010002004 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2002) Brown tide rising. Austin: University of Texas Press. 10.7560/777668
    https://doi.org/10.7560/777668 [Google Scholar]
  50. Semino, E.
    (2008) Metaphor in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Spencer, A.
    (2012) The social construction of terrorism: Media, metaphors and policy implications. Journal of International Relations and Development15(3), 393–419. 10.1057/jird.2012.4
    https://doi.org/10.1057/jird.2012.4 [Google Scholar]
  52. Steen, G. J., Dorst, A. G., Herrmann, J. B., Kaal, A. A., Krennmayr, T., & Pasma, T.
    (2010) A method for linguistic metaphor identification: From MIP to MIPVU. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.14 [Google Scholar]
  53. Steen, G. J., Reijnierse, W. G., & Burgers, C.
    (2014) When do natural language metaphors influence reasoning? A follow-up study to Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2013). PloS ONE, 9(12), e11536. 10.1371/journal.pone.0113536
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113536 [Google Scholar]
  54. Stewart, C. [Google Scholar]
  55. Stop the Mosques Australia
    Stop the Mosques Australia (2017, October24). CHECK THIS OUT [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/StopMosq/posts/1964198303824253
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Stop the Mosque in Bendigo
    Stop the Mosque in Bendigo (2017) Stop the Mosque in Bendigo. [Group]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/StopMosq/?hc_ref=ARQyh8WZnFm-wbUBs9qjtYYTp7nMK5rpEGjK4bTX6UgnOlIHWsx3lkXqfDdm9k8W6ik&fref=nf
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Sullivan, K.
    (2007) Grammar in metaphor: A Construction Grammar account of metaphoric language. PhD Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
  58. (2008) Genre-dependent metonymy in Norse skaldic poetry. Language and Literature, 17(1), 21–36. 10.1177/0963947007085051
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947007085051 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2009) Grammatical constructions in metaphoric language. InB. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and K. Dziwirek (Ed.), Studies in cognitive corpus linguistics (pp.57–80). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. (2013) Frames and constructions in metaphoric language. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.14 [Google Scholar]
  61. Thibodeau, P.
    (2017) The function of metaphor framing, deliberate or otherwise, in a social world. Metaphor and the Social World, 7(2), 270–290. 10.1075/msw.7.2.06thi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.7.2.06thi [Google Scholar]
  62. Thibodeau, P. H., & Boroditsky, L.
    (2011) Metaphors we think with: The role of metaphor in reasoning. PLoS ONE, 6(2), e16782. 10.1371/journal.pone.0016782
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016782 [Google Scholar]
  63. (2013) Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning. PloS ONE, 8(1), e52961. 10.1371/journal.pone.0052961
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052961 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2015) Measuring effects of metaphor in a dynamic opinion landscape. PloS ONE, 10(7), e0133939. 10.1371/journal.pone.0133939
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133939 [Google Scholar]
  65. Van Gorp, B.
    (2010) Strategies to take subjectivity out of framing analysis. InP. D’Angelo & J. A. Kuypers (Eds.) Doing news framing analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives (pp.84–109). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Wikipedia
    Wikipedia (2020, December5). Wikipedia: Neutral point of view. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): anti-Muslim; Facebook; metaphoric framing; racism; semantic framing; social media
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error