image of Exploring diachronic salience of emotion metaphors
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This paper analyzes metaphorical conceptualizations of in the historical corpus of Classical Malay and in the corpus of present-day Indonesian, the national variety of Malay used in Indonesia. The aim is to explore the idea of diachronic salience and universal/variation in metaphorical conceptualizations between diachronic varieties of the same language. Token and type frequencies are used as measures of salience of the metaphors. Seven of the top-10 metaphors in Classical Malay with high token and type frequencies also make into the top-10 metaphors ranked by these measures in Indonesian, suggesting a relatively stable diachronic salience of the metaphoric cognitive models of in these two Malay varieties. The shared metaphors are parts of larger networks of semantic domains, namely , , , , and . The metaphors are discussed in relation to themes reported in earlier cross-cultural psychological studies of the cultural folk models of .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Anggraeny, A., Yuniarti, K. W., Moordiningsih, M., & Kim, U.
    (2016) Happiness orientations among adolescents raised in urban and rural areas. Indigenous: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bergen, B. K.
    (2012) Louder than words: The new science of how the mind makes meaning. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Charteris-Black, J.
    (2003) Speaking with forked tongue: A comparative study of metaphor and metonymy in English and Malay phraseology. Metaphor and Symbol, (), –. 10.1207/S15327868MS1804_5
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1804_5 [Google Scholar]
  4. Clausner, T. C., & Croft, W.
    (1997) Productivity and schematicity in metaphors. Cognitive Science, (), –. 10.1207/s15516709cog2103_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog2103_1 [Google Scholar]
  5. David, O.
    (2017) Computational approaches to metaphor: The case of MetaNet. InB. Dancygier (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, Cambridge handbooks in language and linguistics (pp.–). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316339732.036
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316339732.036 [Google Scholar]
  6. Díaz-Vera, J. E.
    (Ed.) (2015) Metaphor and metonymy across time and cultures: Perspectives on the sociohistorical linguistics of figurative language. Cognitive Linguistics Research. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110335453
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110335453 [Google Scholar]
  7. (2019) The changing pursuit of happiness. InA. Lynch & S. Broomhall (Eds.), The Routledge history of emotions in Europe 1100–1700 (pp.–). London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315190778‑30
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315190778-30 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dodge, E.
    (2016) A deep semantic corpus-based approach to metaphor analysis: A case study of metaphoric conceptualizations of poverty. Constructions & Frames, (), –. 10.1075/cf.8.2.05dod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.8.2.05dod [Google Scholar]
  9. Fabiszak, M.
    (2001) The concept of ‘joy’ in Old and Middle English: A semantic analysis (PhD thesis). Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu, Piła.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fabiszak, M., & Hebda, A.
    (2010) Cognitive historical approaches to emotions: Pride. InM. E. Winters, H. Tissari, & Kathryn Allan (Eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447.261
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447.261 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fang, L. Y.
    (2013) A history of classical Malay literature. (R. Bahari & H. Aveling, Trans.). Indonesia: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. 10.1355/9789814459891
    https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814459891 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gaby, A.
    (2008) Gut feelings: Locating intellect, emotion and lifeforce in the Thaayorre body. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu, & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language. Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gallop, A. T.
    (2013) The language of Malay manuscript art: A tribute to Ian Proudfoot and the Malay Concordance Project. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation (Iman), (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Geeraerts, D., & Grondelaers, S.
    (1995) Looking back at anger: Cultural traditions and metaphorical patterns. InJ. R. Taylor & R. E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world, Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.153
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.153 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gevaert, C.
    (2007) The history of ANGER: The lexical field of ANGER from Old to Early Modern English (PhD thesis). Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Goddard, C.
    (2008) Contrastive semantics and cultural psychology: English heart vs. Malay hati. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu, & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language. Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Goldhahn, D., Eckart, T., & Quasthoff, U.
    (2012) Building large monolingual dictionaries at the Leipzig Corpora Collection: From 100 to 200 languages. Proceedings of the 8th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC) 2012 (pp.–). Istanbul. RetrievedMarch 6, 2014, fromwww.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2012/pdf/327_Paper.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hamka, A. S., Yuniarti, K. W., Moordiningsih, M., & Kim, U.
    (2016) Who makes adolescents happy? An explorative study using the indigenous psychology approach. Indigenous: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Howell, R. T., Chong, W. T., Howell, C. J., & Schwabe, K.
    (2012) Happiness and life satisfaction in Malaysia. InH. Selin & G. Davey (Eds.), Happiness Across Cultures: Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures, Science Across Cultures: the History of Non-Western Science (Vol., pp.–). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑2700‑7_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_4 [Google Scholar]
  20. Jaafar, J. L., Idris, M. A., Ismuni, J., Fei, Y., Jaafar, S., Ahmad, Z., Ariff, M. R. M.
    , (2012) The Sources of Happiness to the Malaysians and Indonesians: Data from a Smaller Nation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, , –. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.164
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.164 [Google Scholar]
  21. Johns, A. H.
    (1990) The poems of Hamzah Fansuri. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, (), –. 10.1163/22134379‑90003221
    https://doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003221 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kahumburu, M.
    (2016) The externality of anger as conceptualized in Kiswahili. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1075/rcl.14.2.06kah
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.14.2.06kah [Google Scholar]
  23. Koivisto-Alanko, P., & Tissari, H.
    (2006) Sense and sensibility: Rational thought versus emotion in metaphorical language. InA. Stefanowitsch & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kövecses, Z.
    (2000) Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2017) Levels of metaphor. Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1515/cog‑2016‑0052
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2016-0052 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Woman, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  27. (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed., pp.–). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lakoff, G., & Turner, M.
    (1989) More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Levshina, N.
    (2015) How to do Linguistics with R: Data exploration and statistical analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.195
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.195 [Google Scholar]
  32. López, A. M. R.
    (2011) Distinguishing near-synonyms and translation equivalents in metaphorical terms: Crisis vs. recession in English and Spanish. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1075/rcl.9.1.13roj
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.9.1.13roj [Google Scholar]
  33. Mischler, J. J.
    (2013) Metaphor across time and conceptual space: The interplay of embodiment and cultural models. Cognitive Linguistic Studies In Cultural Contexts. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.3 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mohd Hashim, I. H., & Mohd Zaharim, N.
    (2020) Happiness among Malaysian adolescents: The role of sociodemographic factors and everyday events. SAGE Open, (), 2158244020940695. SAGE Publications. 10.1177/2158244020940695
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020940695 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nguyen, V. T.
    (2017) The cross-cultural analysis of the metaphorical conceptualization of happiness in English and Vietnamese: Idioms can tell. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1075/rcl.14.2.02ngu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.14.2.02ngu [Google Scholar]
  36. Ogarkova, A., & Soriano, C.
    (2014) Variation within universals: The metaphorical profile approach and ANGER concepts in English, Russian, and Spanish. InA. Musolff, F. Macarthur, & G. Pagani (Eds.), Metaphor and intercultural communication (pp.–). London & New York: Bloomsbury Academic. 10.5040/9781472593610.ch‑005
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472593610.ch-005 [Google Scholar]
  37. Oster, U.
    (2010) Using corpus methodology for semantic and pragmatic analyses: What can corpora tell us about the linguistic expression of emotions?Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1515/cogl.2010.023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2010.023 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2018) Emotions in motion: Towards a corpus-based description of the diachronic evolution of anger words. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1075/rcl.00008.ost
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.00008.ost [Google Scholar]
  39. Petruck, M. R. L.
    (2016) Introduction to MetaNet. Constructions & Frames, (), –. 10.1075/cf.8.2.01pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.8.2.01pet [Google Scholar]
  40. Polley, C. A.
    (2012) Metaphors for HAPPINESS in English and Mandarin Chinese (PhD thesis). University of Hawai’i, Mānoa.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ponsonnet, M.
    (2014) Figurative and non-figurative use of body-part words in descriptions of emotions in Dalabon (Northern Australia). International Journal of Language and Culture, (), –. 10.1075/ijolc.1.1.06pon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijolc.1.1.06pon [Google Scholar]
  42. Primasari, A., & Yuniarti, K. W.
    (2012) What makes teenagers happy? An exploratory study using indigenous psychology approach. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, (), –. 10.5861/ijrsp.2012.v1i2.80
    https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2012.v1i2.80 [Google Scholar]
  43. Proudfoot, I.
    (1991) Concordances and classical Malay. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, (), –. 10.1163/22134379‑90003200
    https://doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003200 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2017) Malay Concordance Project. An electronic corpus of Malay texts. RetrievedMay 20, 2017, frommcp.anu.edu.au/Q/mcp.html
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rajeg, G. P. W.
    (2014) Metaphorical profiles of five Indonesian quasi-synonyms of ANGER: Multiple distinctive collexeme analysis. Proceedings of the international congress of the linguistic society of Indonesia 2014 (pp.–). Presented at theKIMLI 2014, Bandar Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia: Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia (MLI).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2019a, April8). Metaphorical profiles and near-synonyms: A corpus-based study of Indonesian words for happiness (PhD thesis). Monash University, Australia, Clayton, VIC.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2019b) Happyr: The accompanying R package for Rajeg’s (2019) PhD thesis titled ‘Metaphorical profiles and near-synonyms: A corpus-based study of Indonesian words for Happiness’. R, . RetrievedSeptember 15, 2018, fromhttps://gederajeg.github.io/happyr
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Rajeg, I. M.
    (2013) Metafora emosi Bahasa Indonesia (Disertasi doktoral). Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Ras, J. J.
    (1985) Ahmad Rijaluddin’s Hikayat Perintah Negeri Benggala. Edited and translated byC. Skinner. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff 1982 Maps, Appendices, Bibliography. Paperback. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Robson, S. O.
    (2002) From Malay to Indonesian: The genesis of a national language. Working papers (Monash University. Centre of Southeast Asian Studies); . Melbourne: Monash Asia Institute, Monash University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Safarnejad, F., Ho-Abdullah, I., & Awal, N. M.
    (2014) A Cognitive Study of Happiness Metaphors in Persian and English. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, International Conference on Knowledge-Innovation-Excellence: Synergy in Language Research and Practice (2013), Organized by School of Language Studies and Linguistics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia), , –. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.015 [Google Scholar]
  52. Shaver, P. R., Murdaya, U., & Fraley, R. C.
    (2001) Structure of the Indonesian emotion lexicon. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, (), –. 10.1111/1467‑839X.00086
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00086 [Google Scholar]
  53. Siahaan, P.
    (2008) Did he break your heart or your liver? A contrastive study on metaphorical concepts from the source domain ORGAN in English and in Indonesian. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language. Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sneddon, J. N., Adelaar, A., Djenar, D. N., & Ewing, M. C.
    (2010) Indonesian reference grammar (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Soriano, C.
    (2013a) Linguistic theories of lexical meaning. InJ. R. J. Fontaine, K. R. Scherer, & C. Soriano (Eds.), Components of emotional meaning (pp.–). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.003.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.003.0005 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2013b) Conceptual Metaphor Theory and the GRID paradigm in the study of anger in English and Spanish. InJ. R. J. Fontaine, K. R. Scherer, & C. Soriano (Eds.), Components of emotional meaning (pp.–). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.003.0029
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.003.0029 [Google Scholar]
  57. Stefanowitsch, A.
    (2004) HAPPINESS in English and German: A metaphorical-pattern analysis. InM. Achard & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Language, culture, and mind (pp.–). Stanford, CA: CSLI.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2006) Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. InA. Stefanowitsch & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199895.63
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199895.63 [Google Scholar]
  59. Stickles, E.
    (2016) The interaction of syntax and metaphor in gesture: A corpus-experimental approach (PhD thesis). University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. RetrievedAugust 14, 2016, from.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Sullivan, K.
    (2013) Frames and constructions in metaphoric language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.14 [Google Scholar]
  61. Taylor, J. R., & Mbense, T. G.
    (1998) Red dogs and rotten mealies: How Zulus talk about anger. InA. Athanasiadou & E. Tabakowska (Eds.), Speaking of emotions: Conceptualisation and expression, Cognitive linguistics research (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806007.191
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806007.191 [Google Scholar]
  62. Tissari, H.
    (2008) Happiness and Joy in corpus contexts: A cognitive semantic analysis. InH. Tissari, A. B. Pessi & M. Salmela (Eds.), Happiness: Cognition, experience, language, COLLEGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences (pp.–). Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. RetrievedApril 24, 2012, fromhttps://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/25771/10_Tissari_2008_3.pdf?sequence=1
    [Google Scholar]
  63. (2010) English words for emotions and their metaphors. InM. E. Winters, H. Tissari & Kathryn Allan (Eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447.298
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447.298 [Google Scholar]
  64. Trim, R.
    (2010) Conceptual networking theory in metaphor evolution: Diachronic variation in models of love. InM. E. Winters, H. Tissari & Kathryn Allan (Eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447.223 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2011) Metaphor and the historical evolution of conceptual mapping. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230337053
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230337053 [Google Scholar]
  66. Türker, E.
    (2013) A corpus-based approach to emotion metaphors in Korean: A case study of anger, happiness, and sadness. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1075/rcl.11.1.03tur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.11.1.03tur [Google Scholar]
  67. Uchida, Y., & Kitayama, S.
    (2009) Happiness and unhappiness in east and west: Themes and variations. Emotion, (), –. 10.1037/a0015634
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015634 [Google Scholar]
  68. Uchida, Y., Norasakkunkit, V., & Kitayama, S.
    (2004) Cultural constructions of happiness: Theory and emprical evidence. Journal of Happiness Studies, (), –. 10.1007/s10902‑004‑8785‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-004-8785-9 [Google Scholar]
  69. Yu, N.
    (1995) Metaphorical expressions of Anger and Happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, (), –. 10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1 [Google Scholar]
  70. Yuditha, T.
    (2013, February17). Indonesian metaphorical conceptualizations of ANGER, LOVE, and HATE: An overview. Paper presented at theInternational Workshop on ‘Special Genres’ in and around Indonesia, Tokyo, Japan. RetrievedJune 23, 2015, fromrepository.tufs.ac.jp/bitstream/10108/75521/1/B130_123-142.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Yuniarti, K. W.
    (2014) The conception of emotion among Indonesian and German students: An exploratory studies using cross-indigenous psychology approach (Research report). Yogyakarta – Indonesia: Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. RetrievedJuly 16, 2015, frompsikologi.ugm.ac.id/uploads/resources/File/Database%20Penelitian%20Dosen/kwarta.pdf
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error