1887
image of Gradience in iconicity
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

While it has largely been taken for granted by most linguists that the relationship between linguistic signifier and signified is arbitrary in nature, a growing number of studies suggest otherwise. In this article, we demonstrate that iconicity in total reduplicative constructions in Nigerian Pidgin is graded in nature, and that the degree of iconicity of any given reduplicative is largely correlated with the word class to which its simplex form belongs, with reduplicated ideophones and adverbials exhibiting the highest degree of iconicity, reduplicated pronouns the lowest degree of iconicity, and reduplicated adjectives, nouns, numerals and verbs intermediate degrees of iconicity.

Our results shed light, not only on which word classes are more prototypically involved in reduplication than others in the world’s languages, but also on typical pathways that reduplicatives follow in processes of grammaticalization, whereby their isomorphic form-meaning relationship appears increasingly attenuated, albeit due to varying language-internal factors that are specific to individual languages.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00150.odi
2023-05-26
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akinmade, T. A., & Salami, O.
    (Eds.) (2021) Current trends in Nigerian Pidgin English. A sociolinguistic perspective. Boston & Berlin: De Gruyter, Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakker, P.
    (2008) Pidgins versus Creoles and Pidgincreoles. InS. Kouwenberg & J. V. Singler (Eds.), The handbook of pidgin and creole studies (pp.–). West-Sussex: Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444305982.ch6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444305982.ch6 [Google Scholar]
  3. Booij, G.
    (2012) The Grammar of words. An introduction to linguistic morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Deuber, D.
    (2005) Nigerian Pidgin in Lagos. Language contact, variation and change in an African urban setting. London: Battlebridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dingemanse, M.
    (2015) Ideophones and reduplication: Depiction, description, and the interpretation of repeated talk in discourse. Studies in Language, (), –. 10.1075/sl.39.4.05din
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.4.05din [Google Scholar]
  6. Egbokhare, F.
    (2021) The accidental lingua franca: The paradox of the ascendancy of Nigerian Pidgin in Nigeria. InA. T. Akande & O. Salami (Eds.), Current trends in Nigerian Pidgin English. A sociolinguistic perspective (pp.–). Boston & Berlin: De Gruyter, Mouton. 10.1515/9781501513541‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501513541-004 [Google Scholar]
  7. Elugbe, B., & Omamor, A.
    (1991) Nigerian Pidgin: Background and prospects. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational books Plc.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Faraclas, N.
    (1996) Nigerian Pidgin. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (2004) Nigerian Pidgin English: Morphology and syntax. InB. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (Eds.), A handbook of varieties of English (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (2021) Naija: A language of the future. InA. T. Akande & O. Salami (Eds.), Current trends in Nigerian Pidgin English. A sociolinguistic perspective (pp.–). Boston & Berlin: De Gruyter, Mouton. 10.1515/9781501513541‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501513541-002 [Google Scholar]
  11. Flaksman, M.
    (2015) Old and modern English onomatopoeia: Two different systems?Papers from the IV University conference ‘Current trends in linguistics’ (pp.–).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2017) Iconic treadmill hypothesis: The reasons behind continuous onomatopoeic coinage. InM. Bauer, A. Zirker, O. Fisher & C. Ljungberg (Eds.), Dimensions of iconicity (pp.–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ill.15.02fla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ill.15.02fla [Google Scholar]
  13. (2020) Pathways of de-iconization: How borrowing, semantic evolution and regular sound change obscure iconicity. In, P. Perniss, O. Fischer & C. Ljungberg (Eds.), Operationalizing iconicity (pp.–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ill.17.05fla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ill.17.05fla [Google Scholar]
  14. Gil, D.
    (2005) From repetition to reduplication in Riau Indonesia. InB. Hurch (Ed.), Studies on reduplication (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2007) Creole complexity and associational semantics. InL. Lim, S. Matthews & U. Ansaldo (Eds.), Deconstructing creoles (pp.–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.73.06gil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.73.06gil [Google Scholar]
  16. Givón, T.
    (1985) Iconicity, isomorphism and non-arbitrary coding in syntax. InJ. Haiman (Ed.), Iconicity in syntax (pp.–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.6.10giv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.6.10giv [Google Scholar]
  17. Greenberg, J. H.
    (1995) On language internal iconicity. InM. E. Landsberg (Ed.), Syntactic iconicity and linguistic freezes: The human dimension (pp.–). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110882926.57
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110882926.57 [Google Scholar]
  18. Haiman, J.
    (1980) The iconicity of grammar: Isomorphism and motivation. Language, (), –. 10.2307/414448
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414448 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hammarström, H., Forkel, R., Haspelmath, M., & Bank, S.
    (2022) Glottolog 4.6. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. (Available online atglottolog.org, Accessed on23-09-2022). 10.5281/zenodo.6578297
    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6578297 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kouwenberg, S., & LaCharité, D.
    (2001) Iconic interpretations of reduplication: Issues in the study of reduplication in Caribbean Creole languages. European Journal of English Studies, (), –. 10.1076/ejes.5.1.59.4783
    https://doi.org/10.1076/ejes.5.1.59.4783 [Google Scholar]
  21. (2003) The meaning s of “more of the same”. Iconicity in reduplication and the evidence for substrate influence in the genesis of Caribbean Creole languages. InS. Kouwenberg (Ed.), Twice as meaningful. Reduplication in pidgins, creoles and other contact languages (pp.–). London: Battlebridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2005) Less is more: Evidence from diminutive reduplication in Caribbean Creole languages. InB. Hurch (Ed.), Studies on reduplication (pp.–). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2011) The typology of the Caribbean Creole reduplication. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, (), –. 10.1075/jpcl.26.1.07kou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.26.1.07kou [Google Scholar]
  24. (2015) Arbitrariness and iconicity in total reduplication. Evidence from Caribbean Creoles. Studies in Language, (), –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sl.39.4.03kou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.4.03kou [Google Scholar]
  25. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Women, fire and dangerous things. What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B.
    (2007) Polysemy, prototypes, and radial categories. InD. Geeraerts & H. Cuyckens (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp.–). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mensah, E. O.
    (2011) Lexicalization in Nigerian Pidgin. Studies in linguistics, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Occhino, C., Anible, B., Wilkinson, E., & Morford, J.
    (2017) Iconicity is in the eye of the beholder: How language experience affects perceived iconicity. Gesture, (), –. 10.1075/gest.16.1.04occ
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.16.1.04occ [Google Scholar]
  29. Odiegwu, N. C.
    (Forthcoming). Radial representations of the semantics of reduplicative constructions in Nigerian Pidgin (Naija). Cognitive Semantics.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Osisanwo, A.
    (2012) A morphological analysis of Nigerian Pidgin: The examples of selected advertisement jingles. The Journal of the Linguistics Association of Nigeria, , –.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Peirce, C. S.
    (1931–1958) Collected papers of Charles Sanders Pierce, 1–6. C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss (Eds.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Perlman, M., & Cain, A. A.
    (2014) Iconicity in vocalization, comparisons with gesture, and implications for theories on the evolution of language. Gesture, (), –. 10.1075/gest.14.3.03per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.14.3.03per [Google Scholar]
  33. Rozhanskiy, I.
    (2015) Two semantic patterns of reduplication. Iconicity revisited. Studies in language, (), –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sl.39.4.02roz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.4.02roz [Google Scholar]
  34. Stolz, T.
    (2007) Re: duplication. Iconic vs counter-iconic principles (and their areal correlates). InP. Ramat & E. Roma (Eds.), Studies in language companion series 88 (pp.–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.88.14sto
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.88.14sto [Google Scholar]
  35. Stolz, T., & Levkovych, N.
    (2018) Function vs Form – On ways of telling repetition and reduplication apart. InR. Finkbeiner & U. Freywald (Eds.), Exact repetition in grammar and discourse (pp–). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110592498‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110592498-002 [Google Scholar]
  36. Van Goethem, K., Norde, M., Coussé, E., & Vanderbauwhede, G.
    (2018) Category change from a constructional perspective. Introduction. InK. Van Goethem, M. Norde, E. Coussé & G. Vanderbauwhede (Eds.), Category change from a constructional perspective (pp–). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.20.01van
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.20.01van [Google Scholar]
  37. Van Langendonck, W.
    (2007) Iconicity. InD. Geeraerts & H. Cuyckens (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp.–). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Voeltz, E. F. K., & Kilian–Hatz, C.
    (Eds.) (2001) Ideophones. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.44
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.44 [Google Scholar]
  39. Wa Thiong ´O, N.
    (1986) Decolonizing the mind: The politics of language in African literature. London: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wilcox, S.
    (2004) Cognitive iconicity: Conceptual spaces, meaning, and gesture in signed language. Cognitive Linguistics, (), –. 10.1515/cogl.2004.005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2004.005 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00150.odi
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/rcl.00150.odi
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: Nigerian Pidgin ; de-iconization ; Naija ; iconicity ; total reduplication ; arbitrariness
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error