Volume 15, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-9751
  • E-ISSN: 1877-976X
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A speaker may conceptualise a situation from three different modal ‘perspectives’: epistemic, evidential, and attitudinal. Languages differ in which of these concepts they perspectivise and how a grammaticalised concept may be extended to the other two. ‘Lesser-known’ languages tend to be misrepresented in the typological literature. E.g., the Modern Tibetic languages, including the Ladakhi dialects, are said to have grammaticalised the concept of . However, their ‘evidential’ systems differ from the cross-linguistically acknowledged evidential systems, in that is co-grammaticalised and knowledge based on perception shares properties with knowledge based on inferences. DeLancey therefore claimed that these systems also encode . The starting point for the development of these typologically rather uncommon ‘evidential’ systems was a lexical marker for non-commitment (or ): the auxiliary .


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): admirative; evidentiality; Ladakhi; language history; speaker attitude; Tibetan
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