Volume 28, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0925-4757
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9951
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Considering European literature’s relationship with animals, it is immediately evident that the stag (and its feminine counterpart, the doe) performs a prominent role, and that this role has evolved considerably throughout cultures and centuries. Of further interest is the symbology associated with white stags and hinds, creatures which make several appearances in Western literature and art. Whilst the meanings they carry vary according to space and time, their main feature – being guiding animals – remains basically constant. After a presentation of the most important values of the symbol from the classics to French literature, this paper aims to explore its recurrences in Italian literature in the 14th and 15th century, in order to confirm the survival of the guiding pattern and to unravel the relationships between the Italian examples and their precedents.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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