1887
Volume 31, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0213-2028
  • E-ISSN: 2254-6774
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines the collocational patterns of frequent verbs in medical research articles, and proposes a way to help non-native speakers of English learn word combinations frequently used in specific professional genres. We explore the correlations in the syntactico-semantic behavior and the collocational patterns of related verbs, in order to systematically teach recurrent word combinations.To this end, we present a corpus-based analysis of the collocational patterning of the verbs which belong to the same semantic frame in , the frame EVIDENCE. These verbs were identified in 397 medical research articles from a pre-release version of the PERC (Professional English Research Consortium) corpus (3,155,118 tokens and 115,960 word types). The verbs examined, in approximate order of degree of increasing certainty, are and . The results reveal that verbs that can be grouped into semantic and syntactic coherent sets also share combinatorial properties. We conclude that, rather than studying isolated verbs, making learners aware of these patterns of verb groups can greatly contribute toward efficient learning of the language of professional texts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/resla.16019.ver
2018-12-27
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anthony, L.
    (2010) AntConc (Version 3.2.1) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altenberg, B. & Granger, S.
    (2001) The grammatical and lexical patterning of MAKE in native and non-native student writing. Applied Linguistics, 22 (2), 173–195. 10.1093/applin/22.2.173
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.2.173 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atkins, S., Fillmore, C. J. & Johnson, C. R.
    (2003) Lexicographic relevance: Selecting information from corpus evidence. International Journal of Lexicography, 16 (3), 251–280. 10.1093/ijl/16.3.251
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.3.251 [Google Scholar]
  4. Atkins, S. & Rundell, M.
    (2008) The Oxford guide to practical Lexicography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bestgen, Y. & Granger, S.
    (2014) Quantifying the development of phraseological competence in L2 English writing: An automated approach. Journal of Second Language Writing, 26, 28–41. 10.1016/j.jslw.2014.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2014.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D., S. Johansson, G. Leech, S. Conrad, & E. Finegan
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Cortes, V.
    (2004) If you look at…: Lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks. Applied Linguistics, 25 (3), 371–405. 10.1093/applin/25.3.371
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/25.3.371 [Google Scholar]
  8. Biber, D. & Barbieri, F.
    (2007) Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers. English for Specific Purposes, 26 (3), 263–286. 10.1016/j.esp.2006.08.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2006.08.003 [Google Scholar]
  9. Blanco, C.
    (2006) Framenet as a corpus tool for the learning of second languages and for the lexical awareness of one’s first language. Porta Linguarum, 6, 67–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Canagarajah, S.
    (2002) Multilingual writers and the academic community: towards a critical relationship. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 1, 29–44. 10.1016/S1475‑1585(02)00007‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-1585(02)00007-3 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cortes, V.
    (2004) Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing: Examples from history and biology. English for Specific Purposes, 23 (4), 397–423. 10.1016/j.esp.2003.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2003.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  12. Costino, K. A. & Hyon, S.
    (2011) Sidestepping our ‘scare words’: genre as a possible bridge between L1 and L2 compositionists. Journal of Second Language Writing, 20, 233–252. 10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T. & McNamara, D.
    (2015) Assessing lexical proficiency using analytic ratings: A case for collocation accuracy. Applied Linguistics36(5): 570–590.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cruse, D. A.
    (1986) Lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dolbey, A.
    (2009) BioFramenet. Department of Linguistics, University of California Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dressen-Hammouda, D.
    (2008) From novice to disciplinary expert: Disciplinary identity and genre mastery. English for Specific Purposes, 27, 233–252. 10.1016/j.esp.2007.07.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2007.07.006 [Google Scholar]
  17. Ebeling, J. & Ebeling, S. O.
    (2014) Patterns in Contrast. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fillmore, C. J.
    (1976) Frame semantics and the nature of language. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Conference on the Origin and Development of Language and Speech, 280: 20–32. 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.1976.tb25467.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1976.tb25467.x [Google Scholar]
  19. (1985) Frames and the semantics of understanding. Quaderni di Semantica, 6, 222–254.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fillmore, C. J. & Petruck, M. R.
    (2003) Glossary. Background to FrameNet. International Journal of Lexicography, 16 (3), 359–361. 10.1093/ijl/16.3.359
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.3.359 [Google Scholar]
  21. Fillmore, C. J., Johnson, C. R. & Petruck, M. R.
    (2003) Background to FrameNet. International Journal of Lexicography, 16 (3), 235–250. 10.1093/ijl/16.3.235
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.3.235 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fillmore, C. J. & Baker, C.
    (2010) A frames approach to semantic analysis. InB. Heine & H. Narrog (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis (pp.313–339). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Flowerdew, J.
    (2003) Signalling nouns in discourse. English for Specific Purposes, 22, 239–46. 10.1016/S0889‑4906(02)00017‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(02)00017-0 [Google Scholar]
  24. Flowerdew, L.
    (2009) Applying corpus linguistics to pedagogy. A critical evaluation. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14 (3), 393–417. 10.1075/ijcl.14.3.05flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.14.3.05flo [Google Scholar]
  25. Fontenelle, T.
    (2012) WordNet, FrameNet and other semantic networks in the International Journal of Lexicography – The Net Result?International Journal of Lexicography, 25 (4), 437–449. 10.1093/ijl/ecs027
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecs027 [Google Scholar]
  26. Francis, G., Hunston, S. & Manning, E.
    (1996) Grammar patterns I. Verbs. Harper Collins Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gavioli, L.
    (2005) Exploring corpora for ESP learning. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.21
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.21 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gilquin, G. & Granger, S.
    (2010) How can data-driven learning be used in language teaching?InA. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp.359–370). London and New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203856949.ch26
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203856949.ch26 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gledhill, C. J.
    (2000) Collocations in science writing. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Granger, S.
    (1998) Prefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing: Collocations and formulae. InA. P. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology (pp.145–160). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Granger, S. & Paquot, M.
    (2009) In search of general academic English: A corpus-driven study. InK. Katsampoxaki-Hodgetts (Ed.), Options and practices of LSP practitioners. Conference Proceedings (pp.94–108). University of Crete Publications, E-media,
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Grabowski, L.
    (2015) Keywords and lexical bundles within English pharmaceutical discourse: A corpus-driven description. English for Specific Purposes, 38, 23–33. 10.1016/j.esp.2014.10.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2014.10.004 [Google Scholar]
  33. Greaves, C. & Warren, M.
    (2010) What can a corpus tell us about multi-word units?InA. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp.212–225). London and New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203856949.ch16
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203856949.ch16 [Google Scholar]
  34. Halliday, M. A. K.
    (1992) Language as system and Language as instance: The corpus as a theoretical construct. InJ. Svartvik (Ed.), Directions in Corpus Linguistics (pp.61–77). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110867275.61
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110867275.61 [Google Scholar]
  35. Halliday, M. A. K. & Martin, J.
    (1993) Writing science: Literacy and discourse power. London: Falmer Press
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Henriksen, B.
    (2013) Research on L2 learners’ collocational competence and development – A progress report. InC. Bardel, C. Lindqvist, & B. Laufer (Eds.), Vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use. New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis. Eurosla Monographs Series2, 29–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hinkel, E.
    (2004) Teaching academic ESL writing: Practical techniques in vocabulary and grammar. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Howarth, P.
    (1998) The phraseology of learners’ academic writing. InCowie, A. P. (Ed.), Phraseology (pp.161–186). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hunston, S. & Francis, G.
    (2000) Pattern grammar: A corpus-driven approach to the lexical grammar of English. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.4 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hyland, K.
    (2008) As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation. English for Specific Purposes, 27, 4–21. 10.1016/j.esp.2007.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2007.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2009) Academic discourse. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Johns, T.
    (1994) From printout to handout: Grammar and vocabulary teaching in the context of data-driven learning. InT. Odlin (Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp.293–313). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524605.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524605.014 [Google Scholar]
  43. Johnson, M. & Lenci, A.
    (2013) Verbs of visual perception in Italian FrameNet. InM. Fried & K. Nikiforidou (Eds.), Advances in Frame Semantics (pp.13–50). Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/bct.58.01joh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bct.58.01joh [Google Scholar]
  44. Kjellmer, G.
    (1991) A mint of phrases. InK. Aijmer & B. Altenberg (Eds.), English corpus linguistics: Studies in honour of Jan Svartvik (pp.111–127). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Korhonen, A. & Briscoe, T.
    (2004) Extended lexical-semantic classification of English verbs. Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL Workshop on Computational Semantics, 38–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Kövecses, Z. & Csábi, S.
    (2014) Lexicography and cognitive linguistics. RESLA, 27 (1), 118–139. 10.1075/resla.27.1.05kov
    https://doi.org/10.1075/resla.27.1.05kov [Google Scholar]
  47. Laso, N. & Salazar, D.
    (2013) Collocations, lexical bundles and SciE-Lex: A review of corpus research on multiword units of meaning. InI. Verdaguer, N. J. Laso & D. Salazar (Eds.). Biomedical English: A corpus-based approach (pp.1–20). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.56.01las
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.56.01las [Google Scholar]
  48. Laso, N. & John, S.
    (2013a) An exploratory study of NNS medical writer’s awareness of the collocational patterning of abstract nouns in medical discourse. RESLA, Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 26: 307–331.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (2013b) A corpus-based analysis of the collocational patterning of adjectives with abstract nouns in medical English. InI. Verdaguer, N. J. Laso and D. Salazar (Eds.). Biomedical English: A corpus-based approach (pp.55–72). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.56.04las
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.56.04las [Google Scholar]
  50. Laufer, B., & Waldman, T.
    (2011) Verb-noun collocations in second-language writing: A corpus analysis of learners’ English. Language Learning, 61(2), 647–672. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00621.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00621.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Lee, D. & Swales, J.
    (2006) A corpus-based EAP course for NNS doctoral students: moving from available specialized corpora to self-compiled corpora. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 56–75. 10.1016/j.esp.2005.02.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2005.02.010 [Google Scholar]
  52. Levin, B.
    (1993) Verb classes and their alternations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. L’Homme, M. C.
    (2008) Le DiCoInfo. Méthodologie pour une nouvelle génération de dictionnaires spécialisés. Traduire, 217: 78–103. 10.4000/traduire.966
    https://doi.org/10.4000/traduire.966 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2010) Designing terminological dictionaries for learners based on lexical semantics: The representation of actants. InP. Fuertes-Olivera (Ed.), Specialised dictionaries for learners (pp.141–153). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2014) Why lexical semantics is important for e-lexicography. International Journal of Lexicography, 27 (4), 360–377.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. L’Homme, M. C. & Robichaud, B.
    (2014) Frames and terminology: representing predicative units in the field of the environment. Cognitive aspects of the lexicon (Cogalex 2014), Dublin.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Li, J., & Schmitt, N.
    (2009) The acquisition of lexical phrases in academic writing: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 85–102. 10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  58. Luzón Marco, M. J.
    (2000) Collocational frameworks in medical research papers: A genre-based study. English for Specific Purposes, 19 (1), 63–86. 10.1016/S0889‑4906(98)00013‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(98)00013-1 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2011) Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing. IJES, International Journal of English Studies, 11 (2), 77–95. 10.6018/ijes/2011/2/149651
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2011/2/149651 [Google Scholar]
  60. Maswana, S., Kanamaru, T. & Tajino, A.
    (2015) Move analysis of research articles across five engineering fields: What they share and what they do not. Ampersand, 2, 1–11. 10.1016/j.amper.2014.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amper.2014.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  61. Meunier, F. & Granger, S.
    (Eds.) (2008) Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/z.138
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.138 [Google Scholar]
  62. Millar, N.
    (2011) The processing of malformed formulaic language. Applied Linguistics, 32(2), 129–148. 10.1093/applin/amq035
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amq035 [Google Scholar]
  63. Murray, N.
    (2016) An academic literacies argument for decentralizing EAP provision. ELT Journal, 70 (4): 435–443. 10.1093/elt/ccw030
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccw030 [Google Scholar]
  64. Myers, G.
    (1989) The pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles. Applied Linguistics, 10 (1): 1–35. 10.1093/applin/10.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/10.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  65. Nesselhauf, N.
    (2004) Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Noguchi, J.
    (2003) Teaching ESP writing: OCHA in a CALL class. Cybermedia Forum 4. Osaka University. www.cmc.osaka-u.ac.jp/publication/for-2003/40-45.html
  67. Noguchi, J., Orr, T. & Tono, Y.
    (2006) Using a dedicated corpus to identify features of professional English usage: What do “we” do in science journal articles?InA. Wilson, D. Archer & P. Rayson (Eds.), Language and computers, corpus linguistics around the world. (pp.155–166). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401202213_013
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401202213_013 [Google Scholar]
  68. Paquot, M.
    (2008) Exemplification in learner writing. InF. Meunier, & S. Granger, (Eds.), Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. (pp.101–119). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/z.138.09paq
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.138.09paq [Google Scholar]
  69. Paquot, M., & Granger, S.
    (2012) Formulaic language in learner corpora. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32, 130–149. 10.1017/S0267190512000098
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190512000098 [Google Scholar]
  70. Pawley, A. & Syder, F. H.
    (1983) Two puzzles for linguistic theory: Nativelike selection and nativelike fluency. InJ. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and communication (pp.191–226). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Pérez-Llantada, C.
    (2015) Formulaic language in L1 and L2 expert academic writing: Convergent and divergent usage. English for Academic Purposes, 14, 84–94. 10.1016/j.jeap.2014.01.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2014.01.002 [Google Scholar]
  72. Robinson, M. S., Stoller, F. L., Costanza-Robinson, M. S. & Jones, J. K.
    (2008) Write like a chemist. Oxford: Oxford University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Rodríguez López, I. C.
    (2007) Understanding scientific communication through the extraction of the conceptual and rhetorical information codified by verbs. Terminology, 13 (1), 61–84. 10.1075/term.13.1.04lop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.13.1.04lop [Google Scholar]
  74. Salager-Meyer, F.
    (1992) A text-type and move analysis study of verb tense and modality distribution in medical English abstracts. English for Specific Purposes, 2, 93–113. 10.1016/S0889‑4906(05)80002‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(05)80002-X [Google Scholar]
  75. Salazar, D. & Verdaguer, I.
    (2009) Polysemous verbs and modality in native and non-native argumentative writing: A corpus-based study. International Journal of English Studies, 9, 209–219.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Simpson-Vlach, R. and Ellis, N.
    (2010) An academic formulas list: New methods in phraseology research. Applied Linguistics, 31(4), 487–512. 10.1093/applin/amp058
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp058 [Google Scholar]
  77. Sinclair, J.
    (1991) Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Schmitt, N.
    (2004) Formulaic sequences. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/lllt.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.9 [Google Scholar]
  79. Tarone, E., S. Dwyer, S. Gillette, & Icke, V.
    (1998) On the use of the passive and active voice in astrophysics journal papers: With extensions to other languages and other fields. English for Specific Purposes, 17 (1): 113–132. 10.1016/S0889‑4906(97)00032‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(97)00032-X [Google Scholar]
  80. Thomas, S. & Hawes, T. P.
    (1994) Reporting verbs in medical journal articles. English for Specific Purposes, 13 (2), 129–148. 10.1016/0889‑4906(94)90012‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-4906(94)90012-4 [Google Scholar]
  81. Tojo, K., Hayashi, H. & Noguchi, J.
    (2014) Linguistic dimensions of hint expressions in science and engineering research presentations. JACET International Convention Selected Papers, 1: 131–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Venturi, G.
    (2013) A semantic annotation of Italian legal texts. A FrameNet-based approach. InM. Fried & K. Nikiforidou (Eds.), Advances in frame semantics. (pp.51–84). Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/bct.58.02ven
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bct.58.02ven [Google Scholar]
  83. Verdaguer, I.
    (2004) Word meaning and collocations in scientific English. Specific, 1, 93–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Verdaguer, I., Poch, A., Laso, N. J. & Giménez, E.
    (2010) SciE-Lex: A linguistic tool for the efficient production of scientific English texts. Language Forum, 35(2): 95–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Verdaguer, I., Laso, N. J. & Salazar, D.
    (Eds.) (2013) Biomedical English: A corpus-based approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.56
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.56 [Google Scholar]
  86. Walker, W.
    (2008) Factors which influence the process of collocation. InF. Boers & S. Lindstromberg (Eds.), Cognitive linguistic approaches to teaching vocabulary (pp.291–308). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Wang, Y.
    (2016) The Idiom Principle and L1 influence. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.77
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.77 [Google Scholar]
  88. Warren, M.
    (2011) Using corpora in the learning and teaching of phraseological variation. InA. Frankenberg Garcia, L. Flowerdew & G. Aston (Eds.), New trends in corpora and language learning (pp.153–166). London/New York: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Wood, D.
    (2015) Fundamentals of formulaic language: An introduction. London/New York: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Wray, A.
    (2002) Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511519772
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519772 [Google Scholar]
  91. (2008) Formulaic language: Pushing the boundaries. Oxford applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Yu, X.
    (2009) A formal criterion for identifying lexical phrases: implication from a classroom experiment. System, 37 (4), 689–699. 10.1016/j.system.2009.09.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.09.012 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/resla.16019.ver
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/resla.16019.ver
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error