1887
Volume 32, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0213-2028
  • E-ISSN: 2254-6774
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Resumen

Este estudio se adscribe al ámbito de la cognición del profesor de idiomas. En él analizamos las creencias sobre los estilos de aprendizaje de una muestra de 301 profesores de español como lengua extranjera. Centramos el análisis en dos cuestiones: la delimitación conceptual sobre los estilos de aprendizaje y sus implicaciones en la enseñanza de la lengua. En ambos casos, el análisis parte de una revisión bibliográfica que permitirá contrastar las creencias de los profesores con las aportaciones de los expertos en la materia. De este modo, podemos determinar las relaciones existentes entre sus creencias, sus conocimientos y su práctica docente. De la interpretación de los datos se desprenden tanto coincidencias como incongruencias entre las creencias de los profesores y las propuestas de los investigadores. Asimismo, se constata una relación discordante entre lo que los profesores creen y lo que hacen en el aula.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/resla.17041.dom
2019-11-05
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allen, L.
    (1996) The evolution of a learner’s beliefs about language learning. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies, 13, 67–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alonso, C. M., Gallego, D. J., & Honey, P.
    (1995) Los estilos de aprendizaje: procedimientos de diagnóstico y mejora. Bilbao: Mensajero.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Apter, M., Mallows, R., & Williams, S.
    (1998) The development of the Motivational Style Profile. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1), 7–18. 10.1016/S0191‑8869(97)00148‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00148-7 [Google Scholar]
  4. Armstrong, S. J., Peterson, E. R., & Rayner, S. G.
    (2012) Understanding and defining cognitive style and learning style: a Delphi study in the context of educational psychology. Educational Studies, 38(4), 449–455. 10.1080/03055698.2011.643110
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2011.643110 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arnold Morgan, J.
    (2006) Los factores afectivos en el aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera. Études de Linguistique Appliquée, 144, 407–426.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Arnold Morgan, J. K., & Fonseca Mora, M. C.
    (2004) Multiple Intelligence Theory and Foreign Language Learning: A Brain-based perspective. International journal of English studies, 4, 119–136.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bantwini, B. D.
    (2015) Do Teachers’ Learning Styles Influence Their Classroom Practices? A Case of Primary School Natural Science Teachers from South Africa. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 11(1), 1–14. 10.1080/09751122.2015.11890369
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2015.11890369 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barcelos, A. M. F.
    (2003) Teachers’ and students’ beliefs within a Deweyan framework: conflict and influence. EnP. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp.171–199). New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑4751‑0_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4751-0_8 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barcelos, A. M. F., & Kalaja, P.
    (2011) Beliefs about SLA Revisited. System, 39(3), 281–416. 10.1016/j.system.2011.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhagat, A., Vyas, R., & Singh, T.
    (2015) Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning. International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research, 5(1), 58–65. 10.4103/2229‑516X.162281
    https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-516X.162281 [Google Scholar]
  11. Borg, M.
    (2001) Key Concepts in TLT: Teachers’ Beliefs. ELT Journal, 55(2), 186–188. 10.1093/elt/55.2.186
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/55.2.186 [Google Scholar]
  12. Borg, S.
    (2003) Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81–109. 10.1017/S0261444803001903
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444803001903 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boström, L.
    (2011) Students’ learning styles compared with their teachers’ learning styles in upper secondary school–a mismatched combination. Education Inquiry, 2(3), 475–495. 10.3402/edui.v2i3.21995
    https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v2i3.21995 [Google Scholar]
  14. Breen, M. P.
    (Ed.) (2001) Learner contributions to language learning: new directions in research. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, H. D.
    (1994) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cassidy, S.
    (2004) Learning Styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24, 419–444. 10.1080/0144341042000228834
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000228834 [Google Scholar]
  17. Castaño Collado, G.
    (2005) Independencia de los estilos de aprendizaje de las variables cognitivas y afectivo motivacionales. Tesis doctoral. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chapelle, C.
    (1995) Field dependence/field independence in the L2 classroom. EnJ. Reid (Ed.), Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom (pp.158–168). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Claxton, C. S., & Ralston, I.
    (1978) Learning styles: Their impact on teaching and administration. Washington D.C.: National Institute of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Coffield, F.
    (2012) Learning styles: unreliable, invalid and impractical and yet still widely used. EnP. Adey & J. Dillon (Eds.), Bad education: debunking myths in education (pp.215–230). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K.
    (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review. Trowbridge: Learning and Skills Research Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cohen, A.
    (2003) The learner’s side of foreign language learning: Where do styles, strategies, and tasks meet?International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41, 279–291. 10.1515/iral.2003.013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2003.013 [Google Scholar]
  23. Consejo de Europa
    Consejo de Europa (2002) Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas: aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación. Madrid: Secretaría General Técnica del MECD y Grupo ANAYA.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cools, E.
    (2009) A reflection on the future of the cognitive style field: a proposed research agenda. Reflecting Education, 5(2), 19–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Curry, L.
    (1990) A critique of the research on learning styles. Educational Leadership, 48(2), 50–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Deesmedt, E., & Valcke, M.
    (2004) Mapping the Learning Styles “Jungle”: An overview of the literature based on citation analysis. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 445–464. 10.1080/0144341042000228843
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000228843 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dunn, R., & Dunn, K.
    (1978) Teaching students through their individual learning styles: a practical approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dunn, R., & Griggs, S.
    (1998) Learning styles: Link between teaching and learning. EnR. Dunn & S. Griggs (Eds.), Learning styles and the nursing profession (pp.11–23). New York: NLN Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Dunn, R., Honigsfeld, A., Doolan, L. S., Boström, L., Russo, K., Schiering, M. S., Suh, B., & Tenedero, H.
    (2009) Impact of learning-style instructional strategies on students’ achievement and attitudes: perceptions of educators in diverse institutions. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(3), 135–140. 10.3200/TCHS.82.3.135‑140
    https://doi.org/10.3200/TCHS.82.3.135-140 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R.
    (1990) Adult Language Learning Styles and Strategies in an Intensive Training Setting. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311–327. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1990.tb01069.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1990.tb01069.x [Google Scholar]
  31. Entwistle, N.
    (1981) Styles of teaching and learning: an integrated outline of educational psychology for students, teachers and lecturers. Chichester: Willey.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fourier, M. J.
    (1984) Disclosure of cognitive style information: Effects on achievement of adult learners. Adult Education Quarterly, 34, 147–154. 10.1177/0001848184034003003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0001848184034003003 [Google Scholar]
  33. Friedman, P., & Alley, R.
    (1984) Learning/Teaching Styles: Applying the Principles. Theory into Practice, 23(1), 77–81. 10.1080/00405848409543093
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00405848409543093 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gappi, L. L.
    (2013) Relationships between Learning Style Preferences and Academic Performance of Students. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 4(2), 70–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gardner, H.
    (1987) La teoría de las inteligencias múltiples. México: Fondo de Cultura.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Geake, J.
    (2008) Neuromythologies in education. Educational Research, 50, 123–133. 10.1080/00131880802082518
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00131880802082518 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gregorc, A. F.
    (1979) Learning/teaching styles: Their nature and effects. En National Association of Secondary School Principals, Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs (pp.19–26). Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hattie, J.
    (2012) Visible learning for teachers: maximising impact on learning. Londres: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203181522
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203181522 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hernández Ruiz, L.
    (2004) La importancia de los estilos de aprendizaje en la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera. Espéculo: Revista de Estudios Literarios, 27. Recuperado dependientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero27/estilosa.html
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Herrmann, N.
    (1990) The Creative Brain. Lake Lure: Brain Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Honey, P., & Mumford, A.
    (1986) The Manual of learning styles. Maidenhead: Peter Honey.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Horwitz, E. K.
    (1985) Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1985.tb01811.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1985.tb01811.x [Google Scholar]
  43. Howard-Jones, P.
    (2014) Neuroscience and education: Myths and messages. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15, 817–824. 10.1038/nrn3817
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3817 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hunt, D. E.
    (1979) Learning style and student needs: An introduction to conceptual level. En National Association of Secondary School Principals, Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs (pp.27–38). Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Instituto Cervantes
    Instituto Cervantes (2006) Plan curricular del Instituto Cervantes: niveles de referencia para el español. Madrid: Biblioteca nueva. Disponible en
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Instituto Cervantes
    Instituto Cervantes (2016) El español: una lengua viva. Memoria del Instituto Cervantes 2015–2016. Disponible enwww.cervantes.es/imagenes/File/prensa/EspanolLenguaViva16.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jackson, P.
    (1968) Life in Classrooms. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Jackson, C. J.
    (2005) An applied neuropsychological model of functional and dysfunctional learning: Applications for business, education, training and clinical psychology. Australia: Cymeon.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Johnson, K. E.
    (1992) The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices during literacy instruction for non-native speakers of English. Journal of reading behavior, 24(1), 83–108. 10.1080/10862969209547763
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10862969209547763 [Google Scholar]
  50. Jung, C. G.
    (1968) Analytical psychology: Its theory and practice. New York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kagan, J.
    (1965) Individual difference in the resolutions of response uncertainty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 154–160. 10.1037/h0022199
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022199 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, A. M. F.
    (Eds.) (2003) Beliefs about SLA. New Research Approaches. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑4751‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4751-0 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kampwirth, T. J., & Bates, M.
    (1980) Modality preference and teaching method: a review of research. Academic Therapy, 15, 597–605. 10.1177/105345128001500509
    https://doi.org/10.1177/105345128001500509 [Google Scholar]
  54. Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R.
    (1987) Substance over style: assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching. Exceptional Children, 54(3), 228–239. 10.1177/001440298705400305
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001440298705400305 [Google Scholar]
  55. Keefe, J. W.
    (Ed.) (1979) Student learning styles: diagnosing and prescribing programs. Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kennedy, M. M.
    (1997) Defining an ideal teacher education program. Washington DC: National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kinsella, K.
    (1995) Understanding and empowering diverse learners in ESL classrooms. EnJ. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp.170–194). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kirton, M. J.
    (1976) Adaptors and innovators: a description and measure. Journal of applied Psychology, 61, 622–629. 10.1037/0021‑9010.61.5.622
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.61.5.622 [Google Scholar]
  59. Klein, P.
    (2003) Rethinking the multiplicity of cognitive resources and curricular representations. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35(1), 45–81. 10.1080/00220270210141891
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00220270210141891 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kolb, D.
    (1984) Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. A.
    (1999) Learning styles and learning spaces: enhancing experiential learning in Higher Education. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kubanyiova, M., & Feryok, A.
    (2015) Language Teacher Cognition in Applied Linguistics Research: Revisiting the Territory, Redrawing the Boundaries, Reclaiming the Relevance. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 435–449. 10.1111/modl.12239
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12239 [Google Scholar]
  63. Loo, R.
    (2004) Kolb’s learning styles and learning preferences: is there a linkage?Educational Psychology, 24, 99–108. 10.1080/0144341032000146476
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341032000146476 [Google Scholar]
  64. Madrid Fernández, D.
    (1995) Internal and external factors affecting foreign language teaching. EnL. García & C. Medina (Coords.), I Jornadas de estudios ingleses (pp.59–82). Jaén: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Mariani, L.
    (1995) Learning styles: an approach to individual differences. EnD. A. Hill (Ed.), Milan’ 95: English Language Teaching (pp.147–153). Milán: The British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Marshall, C.
    (1991) Teachers Learning Styles: How They Affect Student Learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies Issues and Ideas, 64(4), 225–227. 10.1080/00098655.1991.9955852
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.1991.9955852 [Google Scholar]
  67. Martínez Agudo, J. D.
    (2002) Tendencias en los estilos de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. Didáctica (Lengua y Literatura), 14, 175–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. (2005) Creencias relativas al aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. CAUCE, Revista Internacional de Filología y su Didáctica, 28, 219–234.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Martín Peris, E.
    (2000) La enseñanza centrada en el alumno. Algo más que una propuesta políticamente correcta. Frecuencia-L, 15, 3–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Messick, S.
    (1976) Individuality in Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Montgomery, S., & Groat, L.
    (1998) Students learning styles and their implications for teaching. CRLT Occasional Papers, 10, 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Myers, K., & Briggs, I.
    (1962) The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press. 10.1037/14404‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/14404-000 [Google Scholar]
  73. Newton, P. M.
    (2015) The Learning Styles Myth is Thriving in Higher Education. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1908. 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01908
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01908 [Google Scholar]
  74. Oxford, R. L., & Anderson, N. J.
    (1989) A crosscultural view of learning styles. Language Teaching, 28(4), 201–215. 10.1017/S0261444800000446
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800000446 [Google Scholar]
  75. Pajares, M. F.
    (1992) Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning Up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332. 10.3102/00346543062003307
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062003307 [Google Scholar]
  76. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R.
    (2009) Learning styles: concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105–119. 10.1111/j.1539‑6053.2009.01038.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x [Google Scholar]
  77. Pederson, N. L., Plomin, R., & McClearn, G. E.
    (1994) Is there a G beyond g? (Is there genetic influence on specific cognitive abilities independent of genetic influence on general cognitive ability?). Intelligence, 18, 133–143. 10.1016/0160‑2896(94)90024‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896(94)90024-8 [Google Scholar]
  78. Reid, J.
    (1987) The Learning Style Preferences of ESL Students. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 87–111. 10.2307/3586356
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586356 [Google Scholar]
  79. (1995) Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Richards, J. C., Gallo, P. B., & Renandya, W. A.
    (2001) Exploring Teachers’ Beliefs and the Processes of Change. PAC Journal, 1, 41–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Richards, J., & Lockhart, C.
    (1998) Estrategias de reflexión sobre la enseñanza de idiomas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Riding, R. J., & Cheema, I.
    (1991) Cognitive styles: an overview and integration. Educational Psychology, 11, 193–215. 10.1080/0144341910110301
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341910110301 [Google Scholar]
  83. Riding, R. J., & Taylor, E. M.
    (1976) Imagery performance and prose comprehension in 7 year old children. Educational Studies, 2, 21–27. 10.1080/0305569760020103
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0305569760020103 [Google Scholar]
  84. Riener, C., & Willingham, D.
    (2010) The myth of learning styles. Change, 42, 32–35. 10.1080/00091383.2010.503139
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2010.503139 [Google Scholar]
  85. Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P.
    (2015) Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 64–78. 10.1037/a0037478
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037478 [Google Scholar]
  86. Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H.
    (2012) Learning styles: where’s the evidence. Medical Education, 46(7), 634–635. 10.1111/j.1365‑2923.2012.04273.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04273.x [Google Scholar]
  87. Rossi-Le, L.
    (1995) Learning styles and strategies in adult immigrant ESL students. EnJ. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp.118–125). New York: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Rubin, J.
    (1975) What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 41–51. 10.2307/3586011
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586011 [Google Scholar]
  89. Rubin, J., & Thompson, I.
    (1994) How to be a more successful language learner. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Ruiz Olabuénaga, J. I.
    (2012) Metodología de la investigación cualitativa. Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Schmeck, R.
    (1982) Inventory of Learning Processes. En National Association of Secondary School Principals, Students Learning Styles and Brain Behavior (pp.27–36). Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Sharp, J., Bowker, R., & Byrne, J.
    (2008) VAK or VAK-uous? Towards the trivialisation of learning and the death of scholarship. Research Papers in Education, 23(3), 293–314. 10.1080/02671520701755416
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671520701755416 [Google Scholar]
  93. Truong, H. M.
    (2016) Integrating learning styles and adaptive e-learning system: Current developments, problems and opportunities. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 1185–1193. 10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.014 [Google Scholar]
  94. Vermunt, J.
    (1992) Learning styles and guidance of learning processes in higher education. Amsterdam: Lisse Swets and Zeitlinger.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Villanueva, M. L.
    (2010) Los estilos de aprendizaje ante los retos de la Europa multilingüe. MarcoELE, 10, 243–262.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Villanueva, M. L., & Navarro, I.
    (1997) Los estilos de aprendizaje de lenguas. Alicante: Universidad Jaime I.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Viriya, C., & Sapsirin, S.
    (2014) Gender differences in language learning styles and language learning strategies. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 77–88. 10.17509/ijal.v3i2.270
    https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v3i2.270 [Google Scholar]
  98. Walberg, H.
    (1972) Decision and perception: New constructs in research on teaching effects. Cambridge Journal of Education, 7, 12–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Wallace, J.
    (1995) When Teachers’ Learning Styles Differ From Those of Their Students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(1), 99–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Wallace, G.
    (2011) Why is the Research on Learning Styles Still Being dismissed by Some Learning Leaders and Practitioners?Learn Magazine. Disponible enelearnmag.acm.org/featured.cfm?aid=2070611. 10.1145/2060096.2070611
    https://doi.org/10.1145/2060096.2070611 [Google Scholar]
  101. Wallace, B., & Oxford, R.
    (1992) Disparity in Learning Styles and Teaching Styles in the ESL Classroom: Does This Mean War?AMTESOL Journal, 1, 45–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Wenden, A.
    (1999) An introduction to metacognitive knowledge and beliefs in language learning: Beyond the basics. System, 27, 435–441. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(99)00043‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00043-3 [Google Scholar]
  103. Williams, M., & Burden, R. L.
    (1999) Psicología para profesores de idiomas: enfoque del constructivismo social. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Willing, K.
    (1994) Learning Strategies in Adult Migrant Education. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G.
    (2015) The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266–271. 10.1177/0098628315589505
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628315589505 [Google Scholar]
  106. Wong, L., & Nunan, D.
    (2011) The Learning Styles and Strategies of Effective Language Learners. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 39(2), 144–163. 10.1016/j.system.2011.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  107. Woods, D.
    (1996) Teacher cognition in language teaching: beliefs, decision-making and classroom practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Xu, L.
    (2012) The role of Teachers’ Beliefs in the Language Teaching-learning Process. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1397–1402. 10.4304/tpls.2.7.1397‑1402
    https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.2.7.1397-1402 [Google Scholar]
  109. Yamazaki, Y.
    (2005) Learning styles and typologies of cultural differences: A theoretical and empirical comparison. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(5), 521–548. 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.006 [Google Scholar]
  110. Ysseldyke, J. E.
    (1973) Dianostic- Prescriptive Teaching: the search for Aptitude-Treatment Interactions. EnL. Mann & D. A. Sabatino (Eds.), First Review of Special Education (pp.5–31). Philadelphia: JSE.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Zhenhui, R.
    (2001) Matching teaching styles with learning styles in East Asian contexts. The Internet TESL Journal, 7(7), 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/resla.17041.dom
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/resla.17041.dom
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error