Volume 36, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0213-2028
  • E-ISSN: 2254-6774
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The emergence of bilingual education in the Spanish educational landscape has spawned the implementation of a great deal of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs. The need to raise the citizens’ proficiency of foreign languages is imperative so as to embrace the new European mandates in linguistic matter. Each region has implemented its own programs based on the linguistic reality and convictions surrounding it. In fact, the great number of research studies carried out thus far bears witness to the ever-increasing attention that this new form of education awakens in the scientific community. However, as far as the region of Valencia is concerned, despite it being a bilingual region with a long-standing tradition in the implementation of bilingual programs, we know little about the effects of such programs. The only thing that can be ascertained to date is that the road to plurilingual education has been a bumpy one due to the continuous changes in law that plurilingual education has undergone. With this in mind, this article carries out an analysis of the Valencian plurilingual system from the viewpoint of in-service teachers with a special focus on English. The results of this study are thus expected to shed some light on how the plurilingual project is playing out and to push forward the plurilingual agenda of the region.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Admiraal, W., Westhoof, G., & de Bot, K.
    (2006) Evaluation of bilingual secondary education in the Netherlands: Students’ language proficiency in English. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12(1), 75–93. 10.1080/13803610500392160
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13803610500392160 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alcaraz-Mármol, G.
    (2018) Trained and non-trained language teachers on CLIL methodology: Teachers’ facts and opinions about the CLIL approach in the primary education context in Spain. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 11(1), 39–64. 10.5294/laclil.2018.11.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2018.11.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aleixandre Agulló, J., & Cerezo Herrero, E.
    (2019) Bilingual education research: A bibliometric study. Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada, Mon.I1, 325–360. 10.12795/elia.mon.2019.i19.13
    https://doi.org/10.12795/elia.mon.2019.i19.13 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anghel, B., Cabrales, A., & Carro, J. M.
    (2013) Evaluating a bilingual education program in Spain: The impact beyond foreign language learning. Economic Inquiry, 54(2), 1202–1223. 10.1111/ecin.12305
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ecin.12305 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arocena, E., Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D.
    (2015) Teachers’ beliefs in multilingual education in the Basque country and in Friesland. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 3(2), 169–193. 10.1075/jicb.3.2.01aro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.3.2.01aro [Google Scholar]
  6. Ball, P., & Lindsay, D.
    (2010) Teacher training for CLIL in the Basque Country. The case of the Ikastolas – An expediency model. InD. Lasagabaster & Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training (pp.162–187). Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Banegas, D. L.
    (2014) An investigation into CLIL-related sections of EFL coursebooks: issues of CLIL inclusion in the publishing market. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17(3), 345–359. 10.1080/13670050.2013.793651
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2013.793651 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barrios, E., & Milla Lara, M. D.
    (2018) CLIL methodology, materials and resources, and assessment in a monolingual context: an analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions in Andalusia. The Language Learning Journal, 48(1), 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bolarín Martínez, M. J., Porto Currás, M., & García-Villalba, R. M.
    (2012) Los programas bilingües en la Región de Murcia: situación y valoraciones de profesores de disciplinas no lingüísticas. Educatio Siglo XXI, 30(2), 255–288.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Broca, A.
    (2016) CLIL and non-CLIL: differences from the outset. ELT Journal, 70(3), 320–331. 10.1093/elt/ccw011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccw011 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., & Gorter, D.
    (2014) Critical analysis of CLIL: Taking stock and looking forward. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 243–262. 10.1093/applin/amt011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt011 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K.
    (2007) Research methods in education. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203029053
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203029053 [Google Scholar]
  13. Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D.
    (2010) CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009024549
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024549 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cummins, J.
    (1980) The Cross Lingual Dimensions of Language Proficiency. Implications for Bilingual Education and the Optimal Age Issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14(2), 175–187. 10.2307/3586312
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586312 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dallinger, S., Jonkmann, K., Hollm, J., & Fiege, C.
    (2016) The effect of content and language integrated learning on students’ English and history competences – Killing two birds with one stone?Learning and Instruction, 411, 23–31. 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dalton-Puffer, C.
    (2011) Content-and-Language Integrated Learning: From practice to principles. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 311, 182–204. 10.1017/S0267190511000092
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000092 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dalton-Puffer, C., & Smit, U.
    (2013) Content and Language Integrated Learning: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 46(4), 545–559. 10.1017/S0261444813000256
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000256 [Google Scholar]
  18. Decree 233
    Decree 233/1997, de 2 de septiembre, del Gobierno Valenciano, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento Orgánico y Funcional de las Escuelas de Educación Infantil y de los Colegios de Educación Primaria.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Decree 234
    Decree 234/1997, de 2 de septiembre, del Gobierno Valenciano, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento orgánico y funcional de los institutos de educación secundaria.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Decree 127
    Decree 127/2012, de 3 de agosto, por el que se regula el plurilingüismo en las enseñanzas no universitarias de la Comunitat Valenciana.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Durán-Martínez, R., & Beltrán-Llavador, F.
    (2016) A regional assessment of bilingual programs in Primary and Secondary Schools: The teachers’ views. Porta Linguarum, 251, 79–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Esparza Montero, C. M., & Belmonte, M. L.
    (2020) Percepción docente sobre el bilingüismo en centros de Educación Infantil y Educación Primaria de la Región de Murcia. Revista Complutense de Educación, 31(2), 251–260. 10.5209/rced.63130
    https://doi.org/10.5209/rced.63130 [Google Scholar]
  23. Esteve, O., Fernández, F., Martín-Peris, E., & Atienza, E.
    (2015) The Integrated Plurilingual Approach: A didactic model providing guidance to Spanish schools for reconceptualizing the teaching of additional languages. Language and Sociocultural Theory, 4(1), 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. European Commission
    European Commission (2012) Europeans and their languages. Special Eurobarometer 386. European Commission.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. European Commission
    European Commission (1995) White paper on education and training. Teaching and learning. Towards the learning society. European Commission.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fernández Fernández, R., Pena Díaz, C., García Gómez, A., & Halbach, A.
    (2005) La implantación de proyectos educativos bilingües en la Comunidad de Madrid: las expectativas del profesorado antes de iniciar el proyecto. Porta Linguarum, 31, 161–173. 10.30827/Digibug.29128
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.29128 [Google Scholar]
  27. Fernández, R., & Halbach, A.
    (2011) Analysing the situation of teachers in the Madrid autonomous bilingual project. InY. Ruiz de Zarobe, J. M. Sierra, & F. Gallado del Puerto (Eds.), Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning. Contribution to multilingualism in European context (pp.103–127). Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fernández-Sanjurjo, J., Fernández-Costales, A., & Arias Blanco, J. M.
    (2019) Analysing students’ content-learning in science in CLIL vs. non-CLIL programmes: empirical evidence from Spain. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(6), 661–674. 10.1080/13670050.2017.1294142
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1294142 [Google Scholar]
  29. Frigols Martín, M. J.
    (2008) CLIL implementation in Spain: an approach to different models. InC. M. Coonan (Eds.), CLIL e l’apprendimento delle lingue. Le sfide del nuovo ambiente di apprendimento (pp.221–232). Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Frigols Martín, M. J., & Marsh, D.
    (2014) Informe de evaluación externa: Programa CLIL de la consejería de educación, universidades y sostenibilidad de Canarias. Gobierno de Canarias, Consejería de Educación, Universidades y Sostenibilidad.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. García-Bellido, M. R.
    (2015) Diseño y validación de un instrumento para evaluar la competencia “Aprender a aprender” en profesionales de la educación [Doctoral dissertation, University of Valencia]. Universitat de València.
  32. Guillamón-Suesta, F., & Renau Renau, M. L.
    (2015) A critical vision of the CLIL approach in secondary education: A study in the Valencian Community in Spain. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 8(1), 1–12. 10.5294/laclil.2015.8.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2015.8.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gürel, E., & Tat, M.
    (2017) SWOT analysis: a theoretical review. The Journal of International Social Research, 10(51). 10.17719/jisr.2017.1832
    https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2017.1832 [Google Scholar]
  34. Halbach, A.
    (2008) Una metodología para la enseñanza bilingüe en la etapa de Primaria. Revista de Educación, 3461, 455–466.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hüttner, J., Dalton-Puffer, C., & Smit, U.
    (2013) The power of beliefs: lay theories and their influence on the implementation of CLIL programmes. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(3), 267–284. 10.1080/13670050.2013.777385
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2013.777385 [Google Scholar]
  36. Jäppinen, A. K.
    (2005) Thinking and Content Learning of Mathematics and Science as Cognitional Development in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Teaching Through a Foreign Language in Finland. Language and Education, 19(2), 148–169. 10.1080/09500780508668671
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780508668671 [Google Scholar]
  37. Jiménez Catalán, R. M., & Agustín Llach, M. P.
    (2017) CLIL or time? Lexical profiles of CLIL and non-CLIL EFL learners. System, 661, 87–99. 10.1016/j.system.2017.03.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.016 [Google Scholar]
  38. Laorden Gutiérrez, C., & Peñafiel Pedrosa, E.
    (2010) Proyectos bilingües en los centros de la Comunidad de Madrid: percepción de los equipos directivos. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 28(2), 325–344.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lancaster, N.
    (2016) Stakeholder perspectives on CLIL in a monolingual context. English Language Teaching, 9(2), 148–177. 10.5539/elt.v9n2p148
    https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n2p148 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lasagabaster, D., & López Beloqui, R.
    (2015) The impact of type of approach (CLIL Versus EFL) and methodology (book-based Versus project work) on motivation. Porta Linguarum, 231, 41–57. 10.30827/Digibug.53737
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.53737 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lasagabaster, D., & Ruiz de Zarobe, Y.
    (Eds.) (2010) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, results and teacher training. Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Law 4
    Law 4/1983, de 23 de noviembre, Llei d’Ús i Ensenyament del Valencià.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Law 4
    Law 4/2018, de 21 de febrero, de la Generalitat, por la que se regula y promueve el plurilingüismo en el sistema educativo valenciano.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lorenzo, F., Casal, S. & Moore, P.
    (2009) The effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning in European education: Key findings from the Andalusian bilingual sections evaluation project. Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 418–442. 10.1093/applin/amp041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp041 [Google Scholar]
  45. Lova Mellado, M., Bolarín Martínez, M. J., & Porto Currás, M.
    (2013) Programas bilingües en Educación Primaria: Valoraciones de docentes. Porta Linguarum, 201, 253–268. 10.30827/Digibug.22306
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.22306 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lozano-Martínez, L.
    (2017) Los docentes en los programas de educación bilingüe en Cantabria. Estudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada, 171, 93–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lozano-Martínez, L., & Chacón Beltrán, R.
    (2017) La legislación de los programas bilingües en Educación Infantil y Primaria desde la perspectiva docente. Revista Electrónica de Lingüística Aplicada, 16(1), 3–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Martínez Agudo, J. D.
    (2019) The impact of CLIL on English language competence in a monolingual context: a longitudinal perspective. The Language Learning Journal. 10.1080/09571736.2019.1610030
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1610030 [Google Scholar]
  49. Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M. J.
    (2008) Uncovering CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in bilingual and multilingual education. MacMillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Milla Lara, M. D., & Casas Pedrosa, A. V.
    (2018) Teacher perspectives on CLIL implementation: A within-group comparison of key variables. Porta Linguarum, 291, 159–180. 10.30827/Digibug.54032
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.54032 [Google Scholar]
  51. Moore, P., & Lorenzo, F.
    (2015) Task-based learning and content and language integrated learning materials design: process and product. The Language Learning Journal, 43(3), 334–357. 10.1080/09571736.2015.1053282
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2015.1053282 [Google Scholar]
  52. Nieto Moreno, E.
    (2016) The impact of CLIL on the acquisition of L2 competences and skills in primary education. International Journal of English Studies, 16(2), 81–101. 10.6018/ijes/2016/2/239611
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2016/2/239611 [Google Scholar]
  53. Nieto Moreno, E., & Ruiz Cordero, M. B.
    (2018) Evaluación de los programas AICLE en Castilla-La Mancha. InJ. L. Ortega-Martín, S. P. Hughes, & D. Madrid (Eds.), Influencia de la política educativa de centro en la enseñanza bilingüe en España. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (MECD).
    [Google Scholar]
  54. ORDER of
    ORDER of30June 1998, de la Conselleria de Cultura, Educación y Ciencia, por la que se establecen los requisitos básicos, criterios y procedimientos para aplicar en los centros educativos un programa de educación bilingüe enriquecido por la incorporación precoz de una lengua extranjera, como lengua vehicular, desde el primer ciclo de la educación primaria.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Paran, A.
    (2013) Content and Language Integrated Learning: Panacea or policy borrowing myth?Applied Linguistics Review, 4(2): 317–342. 10.1515/applirev‑2013‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2013-0014 [Google Scholar]
  56. Pena Díaz, C., & Porto Requejo, M. D.
    (2008) Teacher beliefs in a CLIL education project. Porta Linguarum, 101, 151–161. 10.30827/Digibug.31786
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.31786 [Google Scholar]
  57. Pérez Cañado, M. L.
    (2016a) Are teachers ready for CLIL? Evidence from a European study. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(2), 202–221. 10.1080/02619768.2016.1138104
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2016.1138104 [Google Scholar]
  58. (2016b) Teacher training needs for bilingual education: in-service teacher perceptions. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(3), 266–295. 10.1080/13670050.2014.980778
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.980778 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2016c) From the CLIL craze to the CLIL conundrum: Addressing the current CLIL controversy. Bellaterra Journal of Teaching & Learning Language & Literature, 9(1), 9–31. 10.5565/rev/jtl3.667
    https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/jtl3.667 [Google Scholar]
  60. (2017) CLIL teacher education: Where do we stand and where do we need to Go?InM. E. Gómez Parra & R. Johnstone (Eds.), Bilingual Education: educational trends and key competences (pp.129–144). Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (2018) CLIL and Educational Level: A Longitudinal Study on the Impact of CLIL on Language Outcomes. Porta Linguarum, 291, 51–70. 10.30827/Digibug.54022
    https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.54022 [Google Scholar]
  62. (2020) CLIL and elitism: myth or reality?The Language Learning Journal, 48(1), 4–17. 10.1080/09571736.2019.1645872
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1645872 [Google Scholar]
  63. Pladevall-Ballester, E.
    (2015) Exploring primary school CLIL perceptions in Catalonia: students’, teachers’ and parents’ opinions and expectations. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 18(1), 45–59. 10.1080/13670050.2013.874972
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2013.874972 [Google Scholar]
    RESOLUCIÓN de30 de julio de 2008, de la Dirección General de Ordenación y Centros Docentes y de la Dirección General de Personal, por la que se establecen los requisitos básicos, criterios y procedimientos para aplicar en los centros educativos un programa de educación plurilingüe que permita fomentar una primera aproximación a la lengua inglesa en el segundo ciclo de educación infantil.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ródenas, J. A.
    (2016) La educación bilingüe en la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia: influencia en la creatividad, rendimiento y motivación académica del alumnado de Educación Primaria [Doctoral Dissertation. University of Murcia]. Universidad de Murcia.
  66. Romeu, M. C., Cerezo, E., & Llamas, E.
    (2020) Thinking skills in Primary Education: An analysis of CLIL textbooks in Spain. Porta Linguarum, 331, 183–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Surmont, J., Van de Craen, P., Struys, E., & Somers, T.
    (2014) Evaluating a CLIL-student: Where to find the CLIL advantage. InR. Breeze, C. Martínez Pasamar, C. Llamas Saíz, & C. Tabernero Sala (Eds.), Integration of theory and practice in CLIL. Rodopi, 55–72
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Sylvén, L. K., & Ohlander, S.
    (2014) The CLISS project: Receptive vocabulary in CLIL versus non-CLIL groups. Moderna Språk, 21, 80–108. 10.58221/mosp.v108i2.8002
    https://doi.org/10.58221/mosp.v108i2.8002 [Google Scholar]
  69. Tragant, E., Marsol, A., Serrano, R., & Llanes, A.
    (2016) Vocabulary learning at primary schools: a comparison of EFL and CLIL. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(5), 579–591. 10.1080/13670050.2015.1035227
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1035227 [Google Scholar]
  70. Travé González, G.
    (2013) Un estudio sobre las representaciones del profesorado de Educación Primaria acerca de la enseñanza bilingüe. Revista de Educación, 3611, 379–402.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error