Volume 57, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0035-3906
  • E-ISSN: 1600-0811
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Old Catalan presents two affirmative particles competing for the same function between the 13th and the 17th centuries: and . This article explores their syntax and the factors that contributed to the rise of the former and the disappearance of the latter and accounts for their distribution in the written record. Traditionally, it was believed that was the only positive sentential proform active in the language until the 15th century. However, had already been grammaticalised as such by the 13th century, its new function being obscured in the written record by the pervasive use of the official koine established by the Crown of Aragon’s in learned prose. Nevertheless, in documents closer to speech, makes a much earlier appearance and shows great vitality before the 15th century, the last century when was still hegemonic before finally disappearing as a consequence of external and internal factors.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Crown of Aragon; Old Catalan; positive polarity; register; sentential proforms
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