1887
Volume 51, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0035-3906
  • E-ISSN: 1600-0811
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This study examines the distribution and function of ‘augments’ within modern Occitan verb paradigms. Most augments in Occitan are reflexes of the Latin ingressive infix -(Ī/Ē)SC-, as in other Romance languages; but Occitan has also developed novel inflectional formatives which display similar behaviour. Like the reflexes of -(Ī/Ē)SC-, these formatives serve as inflectional class markers, and their paradigmatic distribution conforms to existing morphomic templates. The study provides an overview of the diverse paradigmatic distributions of augments encountered in Occitan; proposes an account of the origin of the novel formatives; and discusses the apparent correlation between the spread of augments and the neutralisation of conjugational class distinctions in inflectional desinences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/rro.51.2.09esh
2016-11-14
2019-12-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. ALLOc = Ravier, X
    (1978–1993) : Atlas linguistique et éthnographique du Languedoc occidental. CNRS, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. ALLOr = Boisgontier, J
    (1981–1986) : Atlas linguistique et éthnographique du Languedoc oriental. CNRS, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ackerman, F. , J.P. Blevins & R. Malouf
    (2009) : Parts and wholes: Implicative patterns in inflectional paradigms, in : Blevins, J.P. & J. Blevins (eds.): Analogy in grammar. OUP, Oxford, pp. 54–82. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ackerman, F. & R. Malouf
    (2013) : Morphological organization: The low conditional entropy conjecture. Language, 89, pp. 429–464. doi: 10.1353/lan.2013.0054
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2013.0054 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ademá Mora, C
    (1966) : Estudio sobre el dialecto aranés. Editorial Occitania, Barcelona.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Albright, A
    (2009) : Modeling analogy as probabilistic grammar, in : Blevins, J.P. & J. Blevins (eds.): Analogy in grammar. OUP, Oxford, pp. 185–213. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.003.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.003.0009 [Google Scholar]
  7. Alibèrt, L
    (1976) : Gramatica occitana segon los parlars lengadocians. Segonda edicion. CEO, Montpelhièr.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Anglade, J
    (1919) : Las Leys d’Amors. Manuscrit de l’Académie des Jeux Floraux. Privat, Toulouse.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Aronoff, M
    (1994) : Morphology by itself. Stems and inflectional classes. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bach, X. & L. Esher
    (2015) : Morphological evidence for the paradigmatic status of infinitives in French and Occitan, in : Haug, D.T.T . (ed.) : Historical Linguistics 2013. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 135–154. doi: 10.1075/cilt.334.08bac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.334.08bac [Google Scholar]
  11. Bec, P
    (1968) : Les interférences linguistiques entre gascon et languedocien dans les parlers du Comminges et du Couserans. PUF, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bianco, G. , F. Bronzati , J.-M. Effantin , P. Martel & R. Pellerino Comission internacionala per la normalizacion linguística de l’occitan alpin
    [] (2008) : Nòrmas ortograficas, chausias morfològicas e vocabulari de l’occitan alpin oriental. Coni, Espaci Occitan Regione Piemonte.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blinkenberg, A
    (1939) : Le Patois d’Entraunes. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (1948) : Le Patois de Beuil. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, D. & A. Hippisley
    (2012) : Network morphology. A defaults-based theory of word structure. CUP, Cambridge. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511794346
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511794346 [Google Scholar]
  16. Buridant, C
    (2000) : Grammaire nouvelle de l’ancien français. SEDES, Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bybee, J. & M. Brewer
    (1980) : Explanation in morphophonemics: Changes in Provençal and Spanish preterite forms. Lingua, 52, pp. 201–242. doi: 10.1016/0024‑3841(80)90035‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(80)90035-2 [Google Scholar]
  18. Camproux, C
    (1962) : Essai de géographie linguistique du Gévaudan. PUF, Montpellier.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Carrera, A
    (2007) : Gramatica aranesa. Pagès, Lhèida.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Carstairs-McCarthy, A
    (1994) : Inflection classes, gender, and the principle of contrast. Language, 70, pp. 737–788. doi: 10.2307/416326
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416326 [Google Scholar]
  21. Casagrande, S
    (2011) : L’unité et la diversité des systèmes verbaux en langue d’oc et dans les aires limitrophes. Essai de reconstruction. Doctoral thesis, Université de Nice.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Corbett, G.G. & N.M. Fraser
    (1993) : Network morphology: A DATR account of Russian nominal inflection. Journal of Linguistics, 29,1, pp.113–142. doi: 10.1017/S0022226700000074
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700000074 [Google Scholar]
  23. Coromines, J
    (1991) : El parlar de la Vall d’Aran. Gramàtica, diccionari i estudis lexicals sobre el gascó. Curial Edicions Catalanes, Barcelona.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dalbera, J.-P
    (1994) : Les parlers des Alpes-Maritimes : étude comparative, essai de reconstruction. AIEO, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Da Tos, M
    (2013) : The Italian finire-type verbs: A case of morphomic attraction, in : Cruschina, S. , M. Maiden & J. Charles Smith (eds.) : The boundaries of pure morphology. OUP, Oxford, pp.45–67. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678860.003.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678860.003.0004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Enger, H.-O
    (2012) : Morphological theory and grammaticalisation: The role of meaning and local generalisations. Language Sciences, 36, pp.18–31. doi: 10.1016/j.langsci.2012.03.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2012.03.017 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2014) : Reinforcement in inflection classes: Two cues may be better than one. Word Structure, 7,2, pp.153–181. doi: 10.3366/word.2014.0064
    https://doi.org/10.3366/word.2014.0064 [Google Scholar]
  28. Esher, L
    (2012a) : Future, conditional and autonomous morphology in Occitan. D. Phil thesis, University of Oxford.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2012b) : The morphological evolution of infinitive, future and conditional forms in Occitan, in : Kemenade, A. van & N. de Haas (eds.): Historical Linguistics 2009: selected papers from the 19th International Conference on Historical Linguistics. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp.315–332. doi: 10.1075/cilt.320.16esh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.320.16esh [Google Scholar]
  30. (2013) : Future and conditional in Occitan: A non-canonical morphome, in : Cruschina, S. , M. Maiden & J.C. Smith , (eds.) : The boundaries of pure morphology: Diachronic and synchronic perspectives. OUP, Oxford, pp.95–115. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678860.003.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678860.003.0006 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fabra, P
    (1966) : Gramàtica catalana. Teide, Barcelona.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Grosclaude, M. & G. Nariòo
    (1998) : Répertoire des conjugaisons occitanes de Gascogne. Per Noste/La Civada, Ortès.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jourdan, R
    (2009) : Lou Vërnantin/Lo Vernantin. Chambra d’Oc, La Ròcha.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kirby, S. , T. Griffiths & K. Smith
    (2014) : Iterated learning and the evolution of language’. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 28, pp.108–114. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.07.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2014.07.014 [Google Scholar]
  35. Laurent, J.-P
    (2001) : Le Dialecte de la vallée de Massat. J-P Laurent, Montséron.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (2002) : Le Dialecte gascon d’Aulus. J-P Laurent, Montséron.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lieutard, H
    (2004) : Phonologie et morphologie du parler occitan de Graulhet (Tarn). Structure, contenu et rôle de la syllable. CEO/Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Maiden, M
    (1995) : A linguistic history of Italian. Longman, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (1996) : The romance gerund and system-dependent naturalness in morphology. Transactions of the Philological Society, 94, pp.167–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑968X.1996.tb01181.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.1996.tb01181.x [Google Scholar]
  40. (2001) : A strange affinity: Perfecto y tiempos afines. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 58, pp.441–464. doi: 10.3828/bhs.78.4.441
    https://doi.org/10.3828/bhs.78.4.441 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2004) : Verb augments and meaninglessness in Romance morphology. Studi di grammatica italiana, 22, pp.1–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2005) : Morphological autonomy and diachrony. Yearbook of Morphology, 2004, pp.137–175. doi: 10.1007/1‑4020‑2900‑4_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2900-4_6 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2009a) : From pure phonology to pure morphology. The reshaping of the Romance verb. Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes, 38, pp.45–82. doi: 10.4000/rlv.1765
    https://doi.org/10.4000/rlv.1765 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2009b) : Where does heteroclisis come from? Evidence from Romanian dialects. Morphology, 19, pp.59–86. doi: 10.1007/s11525‑009‑9130‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-009-9130-0 [Google Scholar]
  45. (2011a) : Morphological persistence, in : Maiden, M. , J. Charles Smith & A. Ledgeway (eds.):The Cambridge history of the Romance Languages. CUP, Cambridge, pp.155–215.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2011b) : Morphophonological innovation, in : Maiden, M. , J. Charles Smith & A. Ledgeway (eds.):The Cambridge history of the Romance languages. CUP, Cambridge, pp.216–267.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2012) : A paradox? The morphological history of the Romance present subjunctive, in : Gaglia, S. & M.-O. Hinzelin (eds.) : Inflection and word formation in Romance languages. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp.27–54. doi: 10.1075/la.186.02mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.186.02mai [Google Scholar]
  48. (2013) : The Latin ‘third stem’ and its Romance descendants. Diachronica, 30, pp.492–530. doi: 10.1075/dia.30.4.03mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.30.4.03mai [Google Scholar]
  49. (2016) : Some Lessons from History. Morphomes in Diachrony’, in : Luís, A. & R. Bermúdez-Otero (eds.) : The morphome debate: Diagnosing and analysing morphomic patterns. OUP, Oxford.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Martin, G. & B. Moulin
    (2007) : Grammaire provençale et cartes linguistiques. Deuxième édition revue et corrigée. Comitat Sestian d’Estudis Occitans, Aix-en-Provence.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Maschi, R. & L. Vanelli
    (2010) : Morfologia verbale, in : Salvi, G. & L. Renzi (eds.) : Grammatica dell’italiano antico. Vol.II. il Mulino, Bologna, pp.1431–1491.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Matthews, P
    (2014) : The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics. OUP, Oxford. (accessed7 March 2015). doi: 9780199675128.001.0001
    https://doi.org/9780199675128.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  53. Meul, C
    (2010) : The intra-paradigmatic distribution of the infix -I/ESC- from Latin to Modern Romance: Morphomic patterning and beyond. Morphology, 20, pp.1–40. doi: 10.1007/s11525‑009‑9135‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-009-9135-8 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2013) : The Romance reflexes of the Latin infixes -I/ESC- and -IDI-: restructuring and remodeling processes. Buske, Hamburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Moll, F. de B
    (1952) : Gramática histórica catalana. Gredos, Madrid.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Moulin, B
    (2006) : Grammaire occitane : le parler bas-vivarois de la région d’Aubenas. IEO, Aubenas.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Nevins, A. , C. Rodrigues & K. Tang
    (2015) : The rise and fall of the L-shaped morphome: Diachronic and experimental studies. Probus, 27,1, pp.101–155. doi: 10.1515/probus‑2015‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/probus-2015-0002 [Google Scholar]
  58. O’Neill, P
    (2011) : The notion of the morphome, in : Maiden, M. , J.C. Smith , M.-O. Hinzelin & M. Goldbach (eds.) : Morphological autonomy: Perspectives from Romance inflectional morphology. OUP, Oxford, pp.70–94. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589982.003.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589982.003.0005 [Google Scholar]
  59. Pope, M.K
    (1934) : From Latin to Modern French. University of Manchester, Manchester.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Ravier, X
    (1970) : Flexion dite inchoative en languedocien ariégeois et fait dialectal. Via Domitia, 16, pp.17–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Rodríguez Castellano, L
    (1952) : La varietat dialectal del Alto Aller. Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, Oviedo.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Romieu, M. & A. Bianchi
    (2005) : Gramatica de l’occitan gascon contemporanèu. Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Ronjat, J
    (1937) : Grammaire istorique des parlers provençaux modernes, vol. III. Société des Langues Romanes, Montpellier.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Round, E
    (2015) : Rhizomorphomes, meromorphomes and metamorphomes, in : Baerman, M. , D. Brown & G.G. Corbett (eds.):Understanding and measuring morphological complexity. OUP, Oxford, pp.29–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Roux, J. & J.-L. Lévêque
    (2011) : Précis de conjugaison occitane. Dialecte limousin. Novelum/IEO, Périgueux.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Sanchis Guarner, M
    (1950) : Gramàtica valenciana. Torre, València.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Skårup, P
    (1997) : Morphologie élémentaire de l’ancien occitan. Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Stump, G. & R.A. Finkel
    (2013) : Morphological typology. From word to Paradigm. CUP, Cambridge. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139248860
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139248860 [Google Scholar]
  69. Toscano, R
    (1996) : Conjugar en niçard. Auba Novèla, Nice.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. (1998) : Gramàtica niçarda. Princi Néguer, Toulouse.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wheeler, M
    (1988) : Occitan, in : Harris, M. & N. Vincent (eds.):The Romance languages. Routledge, London, pp.246–277.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. (2011) : The evolution of a morphome in Catalan verb inflection, in : Maiden, M. , J. Charles Smith , M.-O. Hinzelin & M. Goldbach (eds.) :Morphological autonomy: Perspectives from Romance inflectional morphology. OUP, Oxford, pp.183–209.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Winkelmann, O
    (1989) : Untersuchungen zur Sprachvariation des Gaskognischen im Val d’Aran (Zentralpyrenäen). Niemeyer, Tübingen. doi: 10.1515/9783110945454
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110945454 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/rro.51.2.09esh
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error