1887
Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Analyzing approximately nine hours of video-recorded naturally-occurring conversations over eight weeks of study abroad between three L2 speakers of Japanese and their L1 speaker host family members, the present study uses conversation analysis to explore how the participants manage intersubjectivity using communication strategies in word searches. Specifically the study explores the following: (a) how participants deploy, manipulate, and respond to communication strategies as interactional resources used to co-construct meaning and progressively disambiguate the referent sought; (b) how strategies are used within the sequential organization of word searches to guide the trajectory of the search on a turn-by-turn basis; (c) how linguistic and non-linguistic resources such as intonation and eye gaze are used in conjunction with strategies to organize participant structure and relevant action in the unfolding talk; and (d) how a microanalytic, interactional approach can redefine our understanding of how strategic mechanisms are used and labeled in interaction.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sar.16011.mcm
2017-12-30
2019-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aston, G.
    (1993) Notes on the interlanguage of comity. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp.224–250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bialystok, E.
    (1990) Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second-language use. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bongaerts, T. , & Poulisse, N.
    (1989) Communication strategies in L1 and L2: Same or different?Applied Linguistics, 10(3), 253–268. doi: 10.1093/applin/10.3.253
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/10.3.253 [Google Scholar]
  4. Brouwer, C.
    (2003) Word searches in NNS-NS interaction: Opportunities for language learning?Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 534–545. doi: 10.1111/1540‑4781.00206
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00206 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2004) Doing pronunciation: A specific type of repair sequence. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language talk (pp.148–178). London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brouwer, C. , Rasmussen, G. , & Wagner, J.
    (2004) Embedded corrections in second language talk. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language conversations (pp.75–92). London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Burch, A. R.
    (2014) Pursuing information: A conversation analytic perspective on communication strategies. Language Learning, 64(3), 651–684. doi: 10.1111/lang.12064
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12064 [Google Scholar]
  8. Chiarenza, A. C.
    (2010) Word searches in L1 and L2 Italian conversation: Re-establishing intersubjectivity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. David, V.
    (2011) Nonnative speakers’ communication strategies in word searches from a conversation analytic perspective. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. DeKeyser, R.
    (1991) The semester overseas: What difference does it make?ADFL Bulletin, 22(2), 42–48. doi: 10.1632/adfl.22.2.42
    https://doi.org/10.1632/adfl.22.2.42 [Google Scholar]
  11. Dörnyei, Z.
    (1995) On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 55–85. doi: 10.2307/3587805
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587805 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dörnyei, Z. , & Scott, M.
    (1995a) Communication strategies: What are they and what are they not?Paper presented at theAnnual Conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Long Beach, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1995b) Communication strategies: An empirical analysis with retrospection. In J. Turley & K. Lusby (Eds.), Selected papers from the proceedings of the 21st Annual Symposium of the Desert Language and Linguistics Society (pp.155–168). Provo, UT: Brigham Young University.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dörnyei, Z. , & Scott, M. L.
    (1997) Review article: Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47(1), 173–210. doi: 10.1111/0023‑8333.51997005
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.51997005 [Google Scholar]
  15. Egbert, M. , Niebecker, L. , & Rezarra, S.
    (2004) Inside first and second language speakers’ trouble in understanding. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language conversations. (pp.178–200). London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Faerch, C. , & Kasper, G.
    (1983) Strategies in interlanguage communication. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Frawley, W. & Lantolf, J.
    (1985) Second language discourse: A Vygotskyan perspective. Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 19–44. doi: 10.1093/applin/6.1.19
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/6.1.19 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gardner, R. & Wagner, J.
    (2004) Second language conversations. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Goodwin, C.
    (1980) Restarts, pauses, and the achievement of mutual gaze at turn-beginning. Sociological Inquiry, 50, 272–302. doi: 10.1111/j.1475‑682X.1980.tb00023.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1980.tb00023.x [Google Scholar]
  20. Goodwin, M.
    (1983) Searching for a word as an interactive activity. In J. N. Deely & M. D. Lenhart (Eds.), Semiotics (pp.129–138). New York, NY: Plenum.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Goodwin, M. , & Goodwin, C.
    (1986) Gesture and coparticipation in the activity of searching for a word. Semiotica, 62, 51–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gumperz, J.
    (1982) Discourse strategies: Studies in interactional sociolinguistics 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hayashi, M.
    (2003) Joint utterance construction in Japanese conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sidag.12
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sidag.12 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2004) Projection and grammar: Notes on the ‘action-projecting’ use of the distal demonstrative are in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(8): 1315–36. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2004.05.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2004.05.006 [Google Scholar]
  25. (2010) Language and the body as resources for collaborative action: A study of word searches in Japanese conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 36(2), 109–141. doi: 10.1207/S15327973RLSI3602_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3602_2 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hayashi, M. , & Yoon, K.
    (2006) A cross-linguistic exploration of demonstratives in interaction: with particular reference to the context of word-formation trouble. Studies in Language, 30(3), 485–540. doi: 10.1075/sl.30.3.02hay
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.30.3.02hay [Google Scholar]
  27. Heritage, J.
    (1984) A change-of-state token and aspects of its sequential placement. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action (pp.299–345). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hosoda, Y.
    (2000) Other-repair in Japanese conversations between nonnative and native speakers. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 11, 39–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2002) Analyzing Japanese native-nonnative conversation: Categories, other repair, and production delay. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Temple University, Philadelphia.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2006) Repair and relevance of differential language expertise in second language conversations. Applied Linguistics, 27, 25–50. doi: 10.1093/applin/ami022
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ami022 [Google Scholar]
  31. Iino, M.
    (1999) Issues of video recording in language studies. Obirin Studies in Language and Literature, 39, 65–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jefferson, G.
    (1985) On the interactional unpackaging of a ‘gloss’. Language in Society, 14, 435–466. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500011465
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500011465 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kasper, G. , & Kellerman, E.
    (1997) Communication strategies. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kellerman, E.
    (1991) Compensatory strategies in second language research: A critique, a revision, and some (non-)implications for the classroom. In R. Phillipson , E. Kellerman , L. Selinker , M. Sharwood-Smith , & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign / second language pedagogy research (pp.142–61). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kellerman, E. , & Bialystok, E.
    (1997) The psychological plausibility in the study of communication strategies. In G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (Eds.), Communication strategies (pp.31–48). New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kinginger, C.
    (2009) Language learning and study abroad: A critical reading of research. London: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230240766
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230240766 [Google Scholar]
  37. Koshik, I. , & Seo, M. S.
    (2012) Word (and other) search sequences initiated by language learners. Text & Talk, 32, 167–189. doi: 10.1515/text‑2012‑0009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2012-0009 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kurhila, S.
    (2001) Correction in talk between native and non-native speaker. Journal of Pragmatics, 33, 1083–1110. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(00)00048‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(00)00048-5 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2006) Second language interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.145
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.145 [Google Scholar]
  40. Laakso, M.
    (1997) Self-initiated repair by fluent aphasic speakers in conversation. Helsinki: Finnish Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lafford, B.
    (1995) Getting into, through and out of a situation: A comparison of communicative strategies used by students studying Spanish abroad and ‘at home’. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.97–121). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.08laf
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.08laf [Google Scholar]
  42. (2004) The effect of the context of learning on the use of communication strategies by learners of Spanish as a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 201–226. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262039
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262039 [Google Scholar]
  43. Laufer, B.
    (1998) The development of passive and active vocabulary in a second language: Same or different?Applied Linguistics, 12, 255–271. doi: 10.1093/applin/19.2.255
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/19.2.255 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lerner, G.
    (1996) On the ‘semi-permeable’ character of grammatical units in conversation: Conditional entry into the turn space of another speaker. In E. Ochs , E. Schegloff & S. Thompson (Eds.) Interaction and Grammar (pp.238–276). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620874.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620874.005 [Google Scholar]
  45. Levinson, S.
    (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Long, M.
    (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Markee, N.
    (2005) A conversation analytic perspective on off-task classroom talk: Implications for second language acquisition studies. In K. Richards & P. Seedhouse (Eds.), Applying conversation analysis (pp.187–213). London: Palgrave MacMillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230287853_12
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230287853_12 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mazeland, M. , & Zaman-Zadeh, M.
    (2004) The logic of clarification: Some observations about word-clarification repairs in Finnish-as-a-lingua-franca interactions. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language talk (pp.208–246). London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. McMeekin, A.
    (2003) NS-NNS negotiation and communication strategy use in the host family versus the study abroad classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Mori, J.
    (2002) Task design, plan and development of talk-in-interaction: An analysis of a small group activity in a Japanese language classroom. Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 323–347. doi: 10.1093/applin/23.3.323
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/23.3.323 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2003) Construction of interculturality: A study of initial encounters between Japanese and American students. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 36(2), 143–184. doi: 10.1207/S15327973RLSI3602_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3602_3 [Google Scholar]
  52. (2004) Negotiating sequential boundaries and learning opportunities: A case from a Japanese language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 88, 536–550. doi: 10.1111/j.0026‑7902.2004.t01‑17‑.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2004.t01-17-.x [Google Scholar]
  53. (2010) Learning language in real time: A case study of the Japanese demonstrative pronoun are in word-search sequences. In G. Kasper , H. T. Nguyen , D. Yoshimi , & J. Yoshioka , (Eds.), Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume12 (pp.15–42). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, National Foreign Language Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ohta, A.
    (2001) Second language acquisition processes in the classroom. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Olsher, D.
    (2004) Talk and gesture: The embodied completion of sequential actions in spoken interaction. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language talk (pp.346–380). London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Park, I.
    (2007) Co-construction of word search activities in native and non-native speaker interaction. Teachers College, Columbia University, Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 1–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Piaget, J.
    (1962) The language and thought of the child (translated by M. Gabain ). Cleveland, OH: Meridian.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Poulisse, N.
    (1987) Problems and solutions in the classification of compensatory strategies. Second Language Research, 3, 141–53. doi: 10.1177/026765838700300204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026765838700300204 [Google Scholar]
  59. (1990) The use of compensatory strategies by Dutch learners of English, Dordrecht: Foris.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Rost, M. , & Ross, S.
    (1991) Learner use of strategies in interaction: Typology and teachability. Language Learning, 41, 235–273. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00685.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00685.x [Google Scholar]
  61. Schegloff, E. , Jefferson, G. , & Sacks, H.
    (1977) The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language, 53, 361–382. doi: 10.1353/lan.1977.0041
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1977.0041 [Google Scholar]
  62. Schegloff, E. , & Sacks, H.
    (1973) Opening up closings. Semiotica, 8, 289–327. doi: 10.1515/semi.1973.8.4.289
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1973.8.4.289 [Google Scholar]
  63. Schwartz, J.
    (1980) The negotiation for meaning: Repair in conversations between second language learners of English. In D. Larsen-Freeman (Ed.), Discourse analysis in second language research (pp.138–153). Rowley, MA: Newberry House.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Shortreed, I.
    (1993) Variation in foreigner talk input: The effects of task and proficiency. In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp.96–122). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Streeck, J.
    (1993) Gesture as communication: I. Its coordination with gaze and speech. Communication Monographs, 60(4), 275–299. doi: 10.1080/03637759309376314
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759309376314 [Google Scholar]
  66. Tarone, E.
    (1977) Conscious communication strategies in interlanguage: A progress report. In H. Brown , C. Yorio & R. Crimes (Eds.), On TESOL ‘77: Teaching and Learning ESL (pp.194–203). Washington DC: TESOL.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Temmerman, M.
    (2009) Communicative aspects of definitions in classroom interaction: Learning to define in class for first and second language learners. Linguistics and Education, 20, 126–144. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2009.04.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2009.04.003 [Google Scholar]
  68. Wagner, J. , & Firth, A.
    (1997) Communication strategies at work. In G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (Eds.), Communication strategies (pp.323–344). New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Walsh, R.
    (1994) The year abroad – A linguistic challenge. Teanga, 14, 48–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Willey, B.
    (1999) Examining a ‘communicative strategy’ from a conversation analytic perspective: Eliciting help from native speakers inside and outside of word search sequences. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Yule, G. & Tarone, E.
    (1997) Investigating communication strategies in L2 reference: Pros and cons. In G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (Eds.), Communication strategies (pp.17–30). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sar.16011.mcm
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/sar.16011.mcm
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error