Volume 3, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This exploratory study investigates the development of personality dimensions related to multicultural effectiveness and its relation to amount of target language use and self-perceived progress in speaking during a sojourn abroad in seven European countries. The participants were 59 Swedish and Belgian university students. The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire – Short Form ( van der Zee, Van Oudenhoven, Ponterotto, & Fietzer, 2013 ) was administered at the beginning and the end of the semester, and data on self-reported weekly hours of target language use and self-perceived linguistic progress were gathered at Time 2. The main findings are the observed moderate or near moderate correlations between self-perceived progress in speaking and change in Cultural Empathy, and between amount of target language use and change in Cultural Empathy and Openmindedness. This points to the relevance of further studies on the role of target language use and progress in the development of personality characteristics.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Asendorpf, J. B.
    (2008) Developmental perspectives. In G. J. Boyle , G. Matthews , & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment: Personality theories and models (Vol.1, pp.101–123). London: SAGE. doi: 10.4135/9781849200462
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200462 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bardovi-Harlig, K. , & Bastos, M. T.
    (2011) Proficiency, length of stay, and intensity of interaction and the acquisition of conventional expressions in L2 pragmatics. Intercultural Pragmatics, 8(3), 347–384. doi: 10.1515/IPRG.2011.017
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IPRG.2011.017 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bennett, M.
    (2013) Basic concepts of intercultural communication: Paradigms, principles, and practices. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bennett, J. M. , Bennett, M. J. , & Allen, W.
    (2003) Developing intercultural competence in the language classroom. In D. L. Dale & R. M. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning, (pp.237–270). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bleidorn, W. , Kandler, C. , Riemann, R. , Angleitner, A. , & Spinath, F. M.
    (2009) Patterns and sources of adult personality development: Growth curve analyses of the NEO PI-R scales in a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 142–155. doi: 10.1037/a0015434
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015434 [Google Scholar]
  6. Coleman, J. A.
    (2015) Social circles during residence abroad: What students do, and who with. In R. Mitchell , N. Tracy-Ventura , & K. McManus (Eds.), Social interaction, identity and language learning during residence abroad (pp.33–52). (EUROSLA Monograph Series 4).
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cook, V.
    (Ed.) (2002) Portraits of the L2 user. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dewaele, J. -M.
    (2012) Personality. Personality traits as independent and dependent variables. In S. Mercer , S. Ryan , & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice (pp.42–58). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137032829_4
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137032829_4 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dewaele, J. -M. , & Stavans, A.
    (2014) The effect of immigration, acculturation and multicompetence on personality profiles of Israeli multilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(3), 203–221. doi: 10.1177/1367006912439941
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912439941 [Google Scholar]
  11. Dewaele, J. -M. , & Van Oudenhoven, J. P.
    (2009) The effect of multilingualism / multiculturalism on personality: no gain without pain for Third Culture Kids?International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(4), 443–459. doi: 10.1080/14790710903039906
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903039906 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dewaele, J. -M. , & Wei, L.
    (2012) Multilingualism, empathy and multicompetence. International Journal of Multilingualism, 9(4), 352–366. doi: 10.1080/14790718.2012.714380
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2012.714380 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2013) Is multilingualism linked to a higher tolerance of ambiguity?Bilingualism: Language & Cognition, 16(1), 231–240. doi: 10.1177/1367006912439941
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912439941 [Google Scholar]
  14. European Commission
    European Commission (July 2011) Languages for jobs. Retrieved from ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/languages/policy/strategic-framework/documents/languages-for-jobs-report_en.pdf (28 July, 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  15. European Commission
    European Commission. (n.d.). Erasmus +. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/opportunities-for-individuals/students/studying-abroad_en (31 July 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fernández, J. , & Gates Tapia, A. M.
    (2016) An appraisal of the Language Contact Profile as a tool to research local engagement in study abroad. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 1(2), 248–276. doi: 10.1075/sar.1.2.05fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.1.2.05fer [Google Scholar]
  17. Goddard, C. , & Ye, Z.
    (2015) Ethnopragmatics. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp.52–62). Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guiora, A. Z.
    (2005) The language sciences – the challenges ahead. A farewell address. Language Learning, 55(2), 183–189. doi: 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00302.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00302.x [Google Scholar]
  19. IEREST
    IEREST (2015) Intercultural education resources for Erasmus students and their teachers. Koper: Annales University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Isabelli-García, C.
    (2006) Study abroad social networks, motivation and attitudes: Implications for second language acquisition. In M. A. DuFon & E. Churchill (Eds.), Language learners in study abroad contexts (pp.231–258). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jackson, J.
    (2010) Intercultural journeys: From study to residence abroad. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230277083
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230277083 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kluckhohn, C. & Kroeberg, A.
    (1952) Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. New York: Vintage.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Matsumoto, D. , & Hwang, H.
    (2013) Assessing cross-cultural competence: A review of available tests. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(6), 849-873.10.1177/0022022113492891
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113492891 [Google Scholar]
  24. McManus, K. , Mitchell, R. , & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2014) Understanding insertion and integration in a study abroad context: The case of English-speaking sojourners in France. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, 19(2), 97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Neyer, F. J. , & Lehnart, J.
    (2007) Relationships matter in personality development: Evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 75(3), 535–568. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2007.00448.x.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00448.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Ożańska-Ponikwia, K. , & Dewaele, J. -M.
    (2012) Personality and L2 use: The advantage of being openminded and self-confident in an immigration context. Eurosla Yearbook, 12(1), 112–134. doi: 10.1075/eurosla.12.07oza
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.12.07oza [Google Scholar]
  27. Palmer, G. , & Sharifian, F.
    (2007) Applied cultural linguistics. In F. Sharifian & G. Palmer (Eds.), Applied Cultural Linguistics (Vol.7, pp.1–14). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/celcr.7.02pal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.7.02pal [Google Scholar]
  28. Pellegrino Aveni, V. A.
    (2005) Study abroad and second language use: Constructing the self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620584
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620584 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ranta, L. , & Meckelborg, A.
    (2013) How much exposure to English do international graduate students really get? Measuring language use in a naturalistic setting. Canadian Modern Language Review, 69(1), 1–33. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.987
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.987 [Google Scholar]
  30. Roberts, B. W. , Caspi, A. , & Moffitt, T. E.
    (2003) Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 582–593. doi: 10.1037/0022‑3514.84.3.582
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.582 [Google Scholar]
  31. Roberts, B. W. , & Mroczek, D.
    (2008) Personality trait change in adulthood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(1), 31–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑8721.2008.00543.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00543.x [Google Scholar]
  32. Roberts, B. W. , Walton, K. , Bogg, T. , & Caspi, A.
    (2006) De-investment in work and non-normative personality trait change in young adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 20(6), 461–474. doi: 10.1002/per.607
    https://doi.org/10.1002/per.607 [Google Scholar]
  33. Roberts, B. W. , Walton, K. E. , & Viechtbauer, W.
    (2006) Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 1–25. doi: 10.1037/0033‑2909.132.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ruben, B.
    (1976) Assessing communicative competency for intercultural adaptation. Group and Organisation Studies, 1(3), 334-354.10.1177/105960117600100308
    https://doi.org/10.1177/105960117600100308 [Google Scholar]
  35. Schartner, A.
    (2016) The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence: a longitudinal case study of international postgraduate students at a British university. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(4), 402–418. doi: 10.1080/01434632.2015.1073737
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1073737 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sharifian, F.
    (2015) The Routledge handbook of language and culture. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Specht, J. , Bleidorn, W. , Denissen, J. J. , Hennecke, M. , Hutteman, R. , Kandler, C. , Luhmann, M. , Orth, U. , Reitz, A. K. , & Zimmermann, J.
    (2014) What drives adult personality development? A comparison of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. European Journal of Personality, 28(3), 216–230. doi: 10.1002/per.1966
    https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1966 [Google Scholar]
  38. Stangor, C. , Jonas, K. , Stroebe, W. , & Hewstone, M.
    (1996) Influence of student exchange on national stereotypes, attitudes and perceived group variability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26(4), 663–675. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099‑0992(199607)26:4<663::AID‑EJSP778>3.0.CO;2‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199607)26:4<663::AID-EJSP778>3.0.CO;2-6 [Google Scholar]
  39. Stroebe, W. , Lenkert, A. , & Jonas, K.
    (1988) Familiarity may breed contempt: The impact of student exchange on national stereotypes and attitudes. In W. Stroebe , A. W. Kruglanski , D. Bar-Tal , & M. Hewstone (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup conflict (pp.167–187). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑52124‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-52124-9 [Google Scholar]
  40. Stronkhorst, R.
    (2005) Learning outcomes of international mobility at two Dutch institutions of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(4), 292–315. doi: 10.1177/1028315305280938
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305280938 [Google Scholar]
  41. Tracy-Ventura, N. , Dewaele, J. -M. , Köylü, Z. , & McManus, K.
    (2016) Personality changes after the ‘year abroad’?: A mixed-methods study. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 1(1), 107–127. doi: 10.1075/sar.1.1.05tra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.1.1.05tra [Google Scholar]
  42. Van Der Zee, K. I. , & Van Oudenhoven, J. P.
    (2000) The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire: a multidimensional instrument of multicultural effectiveness. European Journal of Personality, 14(4), 291–309. doi: 10.1002/1099‑0984(200007/08)14:4<291::AID‑PER377>3.0.CO;2‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-0984(200007/08)14:4<291::AID-PER377>3.0.CO;2-6 [Google Scholar]
  43. Van der Zee, K. I. , & Van Oudenhoven, J. P.
    (2001) The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire: reliability and validity of self-and other ratings of multicultural effectiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 35(3), 278–288. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.2001.2320
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.2001.2320 [Google Scholar]
  44. Van der Zee, K. , Van Oudenhoven, J. P. , Ponterotto, J. G. , & Fietzer, A. W.
    (2013) Multicultural Personality Questionnaire: Development of a short form. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(1), 118–124. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2012.718302
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2012.718302 [Google Scholar]
  45. Van Oudenhoven, J. P. , & Van der Zee, K. I.
    (2002) Predicting multicultural effectiveness of international students: The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(6), 679–694. doi: 10.1016/S0147‑1767(02)00041‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(02)00041-X [Google Scholar]
  46. Wierzbicka, A.
    (2015) Language and cultural scripts. In F. Shafian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp.339–356). Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zimmermann, J. , & Neyer, F. J.
    (2013) Do we become a different person when hitting the road? Personality development of sojourners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(3), 515–530. doi: 10.1037/a0033019
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033019 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error