Volume 4, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigated the social networks developed by language learners during 14 weeks of an intensive English as a second language (ESL) program using the Study Abroad Social Interaction Questionnaire (Dewey, Bown, Baker, Martinsen, Gold, & Eggett, 2014Dewey, Bown, & Eggett, 2012). It also utilized native speaker judgments to evaluate ESL fluency development. Results showed that participants were successful in developing complex social networks, that their oral fluency increased significantly, and that fluency gains were related to L2 social networks. Density (average number of people in a social group) was the most important predictor of fluency gain when only social network variables were considered. In a hierarchical regression, initial proficiency level and percentage of native English speakers in one’s network were the most significant of the established variables in the first step, and overall network size and density were the most important of the added social network variables in the second step.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. ACTFL
    ACTFL (2012) ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012. Retrieved from https://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/actfl-proficiency-guidelines-2012
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Back, M.
    (2013) Using Facebook data to analyze learner interaction during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 46(3), 377–401. 10.1111/flan.12036
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12036 [Google Scholar]
  3. Badstübner, T. , & Ecke, P.
    (2009) Student expectations, motivations, target language use, and perceived learning progress in a summer study abroad program in Germany. Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 42(1), 41–49. 10.1111/j.1756‑1221.2009.00034.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1221.2009.00034.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker-Smemoe, W. , Cundick, D. K. , Evans, N. , Henrichsen, L. , & Dewey, D. P.
    (2012) Relationship between reported out-of-class English use and proficiency gains in English. Applied Language Learning, 22, 21–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker-Smemoe, W. , Dewey, D. P. , Bown, J. , & Martinsen, R. A.
    (2014) Variables affecting L2 gains during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 47(3), 464–486. 10.1111/flan.12093
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12093 [Google Scholar]
  6. Borgatti, S. P. , & Halgin, D. S.
    (2011) On network theory. Organization Science, 22(5), 1168–1181. 10.1287/orsc.1100.0641
    https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1100.0641 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brecht, R. D. , Davidson, D. E. , & Ginsberg, R. B.
    (1995) Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. (pp.37–66). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.05bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.05bre [Google Scholar]
  8. Breinder-Sanders, K. E. , Lowe, P. , Miles, J. , & Swender, E.
    (2000) ACTFL proficiency guidelines – Speaking, Revised 1999. Foreign Language Annals, 33(1), 13–18. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2000.tb00885.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2000.tb00885.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Burt, R. S.
    (1985) General social survey network items. Connections, 8(1), 19–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chirkov, V. , Vansteenkiste, M. , Tao, R. , & Lynch, M.
    (2007) The role of self-determined motivation and goals for study abroad in the adaptation of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), 199–222. 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  11. Coleman, J. A.
    (1997) Residence abroad within language study. Language Teaching, 30(1), 1–20. 10.1017/S0261444800012659
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800012659 [Google Scholar]
  12. (1998) Language learning and study abroad: The European perspective. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4. Retrieved from www.frontiersjournal.com/issues/vol4/vol4-07_Coleman.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cubillos, J. H.
    (2013) Community engagement and proficiency gains in short-term study abroad programs. NECTFL Review, 71, 17–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. D’Amico, M. L.
    (2012) L2 fluency and willingness to communicate: The impact of short-term study abroad versus at-home study. US-China Foreign Language, 10(10), 1608–1625.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Day, J. T.
    (1987) Student motivation, academic validity, and the summer language program abroad: An editorial. Modern Language Journal, 71(3), 261–266. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1987.tb00365.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1987.tb00365.x [Google Scholar]
  16. DeKeyser, R.
    (2010) Monitoring processes in Spanish as a second language during a study abroad program. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 80–92. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01061.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01061.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Derwing, T. M. , Munro, M. J. , & Thomson, R. I.
    (2007) A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 359–380. 10.1093/applin/amm041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm041 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dewey, D. P.
    (2004) A comparison of reading development by learners of Japanese in intensive domestic immersion and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 303–327. 10.1017/S0272263104262076
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262076 [Google Scholar]
  19. Dewey, D. P. , Belnap, R. K. , & Hillstrom, R.
    (2013) Social network development, language use, and language acquisition during study abroad: Arabic language learners’ perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22, 84–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dewey, D. P. , Bown, J. , Baker, W. , Martinsen, R. A. , Gold, C. , & Eggett, D.
    (2014) Language use in six study abroad programs: An exploratory analysis of possible predictors. Language Learning, 64(1), 36–71. 10.1111/lang.12031
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12031 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dewey, D. P. , Bown, J. , & Eggett, D.
    (2012) Japanese language proficiency, social networking, and language use during study abroad: Learners’ perspectives. Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 68(2), 111–137. 10.3138/cmlr.68.2.111
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.68.2.111 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dewey, D. P. , Ring, S. , Gardner, D. , & Belnap, R. K.
    (2013) Social network formation and development during study abroad in the Middle East. System, 41(2), 269–282. 10.1016/j.system.2013.02.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.02.004 [Google Scholar]
  23. Di Silvio, F. , Diao, W. , & Donovan, A.
    (2016) The development of L2 fluency during study abroad: A cross-language study. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 610–624. 10.1111/modl.12343
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12343 [Google Scholar]
  24. Di Silvio, F. , Donovan, A. , & Malone, M. E.
    (2014) The effect of study abroad homestay placements: Participant perspectives and oral proficiency gains. Foreign Language Annals, 47(1), 168–188. 10.1111/flan.12064
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12064 [Google Scholar]
  25. Du, H.
    (2013) The development of Chinese fluency during study abroad in China. The Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 131–143. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2013.01434.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.01434.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Dubiner, D. , Freed, B. , & Segalowitz, N.
    (2006) Native speakers’ perceptions of fluency acquired by study abroad students and their implications for the classroom at home. In S. Wilkinson (Ed.), Insights from study abroad for language programs (pp.2–21). New York, NY: Heine, Cengage.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Freed, B. F.
    (1990) Language learning in a study abroad context: The effects of interactive and non-interactive out-of-class contact on grammatical achievement and oral proficiency. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1990, 459–477.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (1995a) Language learning and study abroad. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. (pp.3–33). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.03fre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.03fre [Google Scholar]
  29. (1995b) What makes us think that students who study abroad become fluent?In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.123–148). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.09fre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.09fre [Google Scholar]
  30. Freed, B. F. , Segalowitz, N. , & Dewey, D. P.
    (2004) Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 275–301. 10.1017/S0272263104262064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262064 [Google Scholar]
  31. García-Amaya, L.
    (2009) New findings on fluency measures across three different learning contexts. In J. Collentine (Ed.), Selected proceedings of the 11th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp.68–80). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Goldoni, F.
    (2013) Students’ immersion experiences in study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 46(3), 359–376. 10.1111/flan.12047
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12047 [Google Scholar]
  33. Grootaert, C.
    (Ed.) (2004) Measuring social capital: An integrated questionnaire. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications. 10.1596/0‑8213‑5661‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-5661-5 [Google Scholar]
  34. Guillot, M.-N.
    (1999) Fluency and its teaching. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hernández, T. A.
    (2010) The relationship among motivation, interaction, and the development of second language oral proficiency in a study-abroad context. The Modern Language Journal, 94(4), 600–617. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2010.01053.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01053.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Isabelli, C. L.
    (2001) Motivation and extended interaction in the study abroad context: Factors in the development of Spanish language accuracy and communication skills (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas, Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 61, 4362A.
  37. Isabelli-García, C.
    (2006) Study abroad social networks, motivation, and attitudes: Implications for second language acquisition. In M. A. DuFon & E. Churchill (Eds.), Language learners in study abroad contexts (pp.231–258). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853598531‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598531-013 [Google Scholar]
  38. Keppie, C. , Lindberg, R. , & Thomason, S.
    (2016) The benefits of study abroad on the fluency of learners of French as a second language. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics / Revue Canadienne de Linguistique Appliquée, 19(2), 44–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kim, J. , Dewey, D. P. , Baker-Smemoe, W. , Ring, S. , Westover, A. , & Eggett, D. L.
    (2015) L2 development during study abroad in China. System, 55, 123–133. 10.1016/j.system.2015.10.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  40. Knoke, D. , & Yang, S.
    (2008) Social network analysis (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage. 10.4135/9781412985864
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412985864 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kormos, J. , & Dénes, M.
    (2004) Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System, 32(2), 145–164. 10.1016/j.system.2004.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Krashen, S. D.
    (1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lennon, P.
    (1990) Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40(3), 387–417. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1990.tb00669.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00669.x [Google Scholar]
  44. (2000) The lexical element in spoken second language fluency. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp.25–42). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Leonard, K. R.
    (2015) Speaking fluency and study abroad: what factors are related to fluency development? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Iowa Research Online, ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5728&context=etd&sei-redir=1&referer=https%3A%2F%2F 10.17077/etd.5ku9rrs7
  46. Leonard, K. R. , & Shea, C. E.
    (2017) L2 speaking development during study abroad: Fluency, accuracy, complexity, and underlying cognitive factors. The Modern Language Journal, 101(1), 179–193. 10.1111/modl.12382
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12382 [Google Scholar]
  47. Llanes, À. , & Muñoz, C.
    (2009) A short stay abroad: Does it make a difference?System, 37, 353–365. 10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  48. Long, M.
    (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory. In S. M. Gass & C. M. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition, (pp.377–393). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Long, M. H.
    (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bathia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Magnan, S. S. , & Back, M.
    (2007) Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 43–61. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2007.tb02853.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2007.tb02853.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Martinsen, R. A. , Baker, W. , Dewey, D. P. , Bown, J. , & Johnson, C.
    (2010) Exploring diverse settings for language acquisition and use: Comparing study abroad, service learning abroad, and foreign language housing. Applied Language Learning, 20(1–2), 45–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. McManus, K. , Mitchell, R. , & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2014) Understanding insertion and integration in a study abroad context: The case of English-speaking sojourners in France. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, 19(2), 97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. McManus, K. , Tracy-Ventura, N. , & Mitchell, R.
    (2016) L2 linguistic development before, during, and after a nine-month sojourn: Evidence from L2 French and Spanish. Paper presented at theSecond Language Research Forum (SLRF), Columbia University, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Meara, P.
    (1994) The year abroad and its effects. Language Learning Journal, 10, 32–38. 10.1080/09571739485200351
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571739485200351 [Google Scholar]
  55. Mendelson, V. G.
    (2004) Hindsight is 20/20: Student perceptions of language learning and the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10(3), 43–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Mercer, S.
    (2015) Social network analysis and complex dynamic systems. In Z. Dörnyei , A. Henry , & P. D. MacIntyre (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp.73–82). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Mitchell, R. , Tracy-Ventura, N. , & McManus, K.
    (2015) Social interaction, identity and language learning during residence abroad. Paris: Eurosla Monographs.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2017) Anglophone students abroad: Identity, social relationships, and language learning: London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315194851
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315194851 [Google Scholar]
  59. Mora, J. C. , & Valls-Ferrer, M.
    (2012) Oral fluency, accuracy, and complexity in formal instruction and study abroad learning contexts. TESOL Quarterly, 46(4), 610–641.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Norton, B.
    (2013) Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783090563
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090563 [Google Scholar]
  61. Norton Pierce, B.
    (1995) Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 9–31. 10.2307/3587803
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587803 [Google Scholar]
  62. Nyaupane, G. P. , Paris, C. M. , & Teye, V.
    (2010) Why do students study abroad? Exploring motivations beyond earning academic credits. Tourism Analysis, 15(2), 263–267. 10.3727/108354210X12724863327920
    https://doi.org/10.3727/108354210X12724863327920 [Google Scholar]
  63. (2011) Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(3), 205–217. 10.1002/jtr.811
    https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.811 [Google Scholar]
  64. O’Brien, I. , Segalowitz, N. , Freed, B. , & Collentine, J.
    (2007) Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29(4), 557–581.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Papatsiba, L.
    (2006) Study abroad and experiences of cultural distance and proximity: French Erasmus students. In M. Byram & A. Feng (Eds.), Living and studying abroad: Research and practice (pp.108–132). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599125‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599125-008 [Google Scholar]
  66. Polanyi, L.
    (1995) Language learning and living abroad: Stories from the field. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.271–291). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.17pol
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.17pol [Google Scholar]
  67. Putnam, R. D.
    (2000) Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. In L. Crothers & C. Lockart (Eds.), Culture and politics (pp.223–234). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Regan, V.
    (1995) The acquisition of sociolinguistic native speech norms: Effects of a year abroad on second language learners of French. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.245–267). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.15reg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.15reg [Google Scholar]
  69. (1998) Sociolinguistics and language learning in a study abroad context. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(3), 61–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ring, S. A. , Gardner, D. , & Dewey, D. P.
    (2013) Social network development during study abroad in Japan. In K. Kondo-Brown , Y. Saito-Abbott , S. Satsutani , M. Tsutsui , & A. Wehmeyer (Eds.), New perspectives on Japanese language learning, linguistics, and culture (pp.95–122). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Scott, J.
    (2000) Social network analysis: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Segalowitz, N.
    (2010) Cognitive bases of second language fluency. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203851357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203851357 [Google Scholar]
  73. Segalowitz, N. , & Freed, B. F.
    (2004) Context, contact and cognition in oral fluency acquisition: Learning Spanish in at home and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 173–199. 10.1017/S0272263104262027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262027 [Google Scholar]
  74. Segalowitz, N. , & Ryder, A.
    (2006) Montreal Index of Linguistic Integration (MILI) (Unpublished questionnaire). Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Concordia University.
  75. Skehan, P.
    (2001) Tasks and language performance. In M. Bygate , P. Skehan , & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp.167–186). New York, NY: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. (2009) Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30(4), 510–532. 10.1093/applin/amp047
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp047 [Google Scholar]
  77. Swain, M.
    (1993) The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 50(1), 158–164. 10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158 [Google Scholar]
  78. Taguchi, N.
    (2008) The role of learning environment in the development of pragmatic comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(4), 423–452. 10.1017/S0272263108080716
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263108080716 [Google Scholar]
  79. Talburt, S. , & Stewart, M. A.
    (1999) What’s the subject of study abroad?: Race, gender, and living culture. The Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 163–175. 10.1111/0026‑7902.00013
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00013 [Google Scholar]
  80. Towell, R.
    (2002) Relative degrees of fluency: A comparative case study of advanced learners of French. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 40(2), 117–150. 10.1515/iral.2002.005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2002.005 [Google Scholar]
  81. Trenchs-Parera, M.
    (2009) Effects of formal instruction and a stay abroad on the acquisition of native-like oral fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65(3), 365–393. 10.3138/cmlr.65.3.365
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.65.3.365 [Google Scholar]
  82. Trofimovich, P. , & Baker, W.
    (2006) Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(1), 1–30. 10.1017/S0272263106060013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060013 [Google Scholar]
  83. Twombly, S. B.
    (1995) Piropos and friendships: Gender and culture clash in study abroad. Frontiers, I(Fall), 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Umino, T. , & Benson, P.
    (2016) Communities of practice in study abroad: A four-year study of an Indonesian student’s experience in Japan. The Modern Language Journal, 100(4), 757–774. 10.1111/modl.12351
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12351 [Google Scholar]
  85. Valls-Ferrer, M. , & Mora, J. C.
    (2014) L2 fluency development in formal instruction and study abroad. In C. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.111–136). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Wang, C.
    (2010) Toward a second language socialization perspective: Issues in study abroad research. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 50–63. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01059.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01059.x [Google Scholar]
  87. Whitworth, K. F.
    (2006) Access to language learning during study abroad: The roles of identity and subject positioning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Penn State Electronic Theses and Dissertations for Graduate School, https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/files/final_submissions/3546), The Pennsylvania State University, State Park, PA.
  88. Wilkinson, S.
    (1998a) On the nature of immersion during study abroad: Some participant perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, IV(Fall), 121–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. (1998b) Study abroad from the participants’ perspective: A challenge to common beliefs. Foreign Language Annals, 31(1), 23–39. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1998.tb01330.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1998.tb01330.x [Google Scholar]
  90. Xu, D. , Wang, X. , & Wei, L.
    (2008) Social network analysis. In L. Wei & M. G. Moyer (Eds.), The Blackwell guide to research methods in bilingualism and multilingualism (pp.263–274). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): fluency; immersion; intensive English program; social network
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error