1887
Volume 5, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study examines the sustainability of gains in overall English proficiency made by 81 German students on ERASMUS study abroad placements in the UK (lasting one term or one academic year) following their return to their home country. Students were tracked using C-tests and questionnaires from pre-study abroad up until nine months post-return. Their development was compared with that of 25 peers who applied for ERASMUS placements, but continued studying at home. The analysis presented focuses on the post-return phase and includes factors associated with individual differences in L2 proficiency development post-return, self-perceived L2 skills development, and returnees’ perceived needs regarding further language classes. Results show that students tended to sustain gains in overall L2 proficiency made during study abroad. L2 proficiency level achieved by the end of study abroad, self-efficacy in using the L2 in social interactions, and majoring in English were all positively associated with post-return L2 development.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sar.19011.hes
2020-02-24
2020-09-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Asano, Y.
    (2014) Misst ein C-Test das, was er messen soll?InR. Grotjahn (Ed.), Language testing and evaluation, Volume 34: Der C-Test / The C-Test: Aktuelle Tendenzen / Current Trends (pp.76–98). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Babaii, E., & Ansary, H.
    (2001) The C-test: a valid operationalization of reduced redundancy principle?System, 29(2), 209–219. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(01)00012‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(01)00012-4 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandura, A.
    (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beattie, J., Valls-Ferrer, M., & Pérez-Vidal, C.
    (2014) Listening performance and onset level in formal instruction and study abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.195–216). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Davidson, D. E.
    (2010) Study abroad: When, how long, and with what results? New data from the Russian front. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 6–26. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01057.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01057.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Dörnyei, Z., & Katona, L.
    (1992) Validation of the C-test amongst Hungarian EFL learners, Language Testing, 9, 187–206. 10.1177/026553229200900206
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553229200900206 [Google Scholar]
  7. Eckes, T., & Grotjahn, R.
    (2006) A closer look at the construct validity of C-tests. Language Testing, 23(3), 290–312. 10.1191/0265532206lt330oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532206lt330oa [Google Scholar]
  8. Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J.
    (1993) An Introduction to the bootstrap. New York, NY: Chapman & Hall. 10.1007/978‑1‑4899‑4541‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-4541-9 [Google Scholar]
  9. Engel, L., Sandstrom, A.-M., Van der Aa, R., & Glass, A.
    (2015) The EAIE Barometer: Internationalisation in Europe. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education (EAIE).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. European Commission
    European Commission (2014) ERASMUS+ Programme Guide (Version 2). Brussels: Directorate General Education and Culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. European Commission
    European Commission (2015) ERASMUS – Facts, figures & trends. The European Union support for student and staff exchanges and university cooperation in 2013–2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Field, A.
    (2013) Discovering statistics using SPSS (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Grotjahn, R.
    (2010) Der C-Test: Beiträge aus der aktuellen Forschung. Einleitung und Übersicht über den Band. InR. Grotjahn (Ed.). The C-Test: Contributions from Current Research (pp.viiii–xxix). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2014) Der C-Test: Aktuelle Tendenzen The C-Test: Current Trends. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑653‑04578‑9
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-04578-9 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hessel, G.
    (2016) The impact of study abroad in the UK on students’ overall English proficiency, self-efficacy, English use anxiety and self-motivation to continue learning English: A mixed methods investigation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Oxford, St Edmund Hall.
  16. (2017) A new take on individual differences in L2 proficiency gain during study abroad. System, 66, 39–55. 10.1016/j.system.2017.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  17. (2019) Study abroad: L2 self-efficacy and engagement in intercultural interactions. InA. Kostoulas (Ed.), Challenging boundaries in language education (pp.199–210). Basel: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑17057‑8_12
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17057-8_12 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hessel, G., & Vanderplank, R.
    (2018) What difference does it make? Examining English proficiency gain as an outcome of participation in ERASMUS study abroad programmes in the UK. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 3(2), 191–219. 10.1075/sar.16020.hes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.16020.hes [Google Scholar]
  19. Howard, M.
    (2009) Short- versus long-term effects of naturalistic exposure on the advanced instructed learner’s L2 development: A case study. InE. Labeau & F. Myles (Eds.). The advanced learner varieties: The case of French (pp.93–123). Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Huensch, A., & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2017) L2 utterance fluency development before, during, and after residence abroad: A multidimensional investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 101, 275–293. 10.1111/modl.12395
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12395 [Google Scholar]
  21. Huensch, A., Tracy-Ventura, N., Bridges, J., & Cuesta Medina, J. A.
    (2019) Variables affecting the maintenance of L2 proficiency and fluency four years post-study abroad. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 4(1), 97–126. 10.1075/sar.17015.hue
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.17015.hue [Google Scholar]
  22. Ife, A., Vives, G., & Meara, P.
    (2000) The impact of study abroad on the vocabulary development of different proficiency groups. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 4(1), 55–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Juan-Garau, M.
    (2014) Oral accuracy growth after formal instruction and study abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.87–110). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Juan-Garau, M., Salazar-Noguera, J., & Prieto-Arranz, J. I.
    (2014) English L2 learners’ lexico-grammatical and motivational development at home and abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.235–258). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Keijzer, M.
    (2007) Last in first out? An investigation of the regression hypothesis in Dutch emigrants in Anglophone Canada (LOT Dissertation Series Nr. 163). Available at https://www.lotpublications.nl/last-in-first-out-last-in-first-out-an-investigation-of-the-regression-hypothesis-in-dutch-emigrants-in-anglophone-canada (6December 2019).
  26. Khabbazbashi, N.
    (2013) An investigation into the effects of topic and background knowledge of topic on second language speaking performance assessment in language proficiency interviews (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Oxford University, Worcester College.
  27. Kubota, M.
    (2017) Post study abroad investigation of kanji knowledge in Japanese as a second language learners. System, 69, 143–152. 10.1016/j.system.2017.07.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.07.006 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kuckartz, U.
    (2012) Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Methoden, Praxis, Computerunterstützung. Basel: Beltz Juventa.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Leiner, D. J.
    (2019) SoSci Survey (Version 3.1.06) [Computer software]. Available at https://www.soscisurvey.de (6December 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Llanes, À.
    (2012) The short-and long-term effects of a short study abroad experience: The case of children. System, 40(2), 179–190. 10.1016/j.system.2012.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  31. Llanes, À., & Muñoz, C.
    (2009) A short stay abroad: Does it make a difference?System, 37(3), 353–365. 10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  32. Mehotcheva, T. H.
    (2010) After the fiesta is over: Foreign language attrition of Spanish in Dutch and German Erasmus students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
  33. Mercer, S.
    (2012) The dynamic nature of a tertiary learner’s foreign language self-concepts. InM. Pawlak (Ed.). New perspectives on individual differences in language learning and teaching (pp.201–215). Berlin: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑20850‑8_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20850-8_13 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mitchell, R., Tracy-Ventura, N., & McManus, K.
    (2017) Anglophone students abroad: Identity, social relationships and language learning. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315194851
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315194851 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pérez-Vidal, C.
    (2014) Study abroad and formal instruction contrasted: The SALA project. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.17–58). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pérez-Vidal, C., & Barquin, E.
    (2014) Comparing progress in academic writing after formal instruction and study abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.217–234). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Pérez-Vidal, C., & Juan-Garau, M.
    (2009) The effect of study abroad on written performance. Eurosla Yearbook, 9, 269–295. 10.1075/eurosla.9.13per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.13per [Google Scholar]
  38. Pizziconi, B.
    (2017) Japanese vocabulary development in and beyond study abroad: the timing of the year abroad in a language degree curriculum. The Language Learning Journal, 45(2), 133–152. 10.1080/09571736.2013.786119
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.786119 [Google Scholar]
  39. Raatz, U., & Klein-Braley, C.
    (1982) The C-test – a modification of the cloze procedure. InT. Culhane, C. Klein-Braley, & D. K. Stevenson (Eds.), Practice and problems in language testing IV (pp.113–138). Colchester: University of Essex, Dept. of Language and Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rees, J., & Klapper, J.
    (2007) Analysing and evaluating the linguistic benefit of residence abroad for UK foreign language students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 331–353. 10.1080/02602930600801860
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930600801860 [Google Scholar]
  41. Regan, V.
    (2005) From speech community back to classroom: What variation analysis can tell us about the role of context in the acquisition of French as a foreign language. InJ-M. Dewaele (Ed.), Focus on French as a foreign language (pp.191-209). Clevedon, UK: Mutilingual Matters. 10.1075/sibil.9.15reg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.15reg [Google Scholar]
  42. Sasaki, M.
    (2009) Changes in English as a Foreign Language students’ writing over 3.5 years: A sociocognitive account. InR. Manchon (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp.49–76). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691859‑006
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691859-006 [Google Scholar]
  43. Sax, K.
    (2003) Acquisition of stylistic variation by American learners of French (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
  44. Singleton, D., & Singleton, E.
    (2002) The C-Test and L2 acquisition / processing research. InJ. A. Coleman, R. Grotjahn, & U. Raatz (Eds.). University language testing and the C-test (pp.143–168). Bochum: AKS-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Valls-Ferrer, M., & Mora, J. C.
    (2014) L2 fluency development in formal instruction and study abroad: The role of initial fluency level and language contact. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Second language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.111–136). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Van Mol, C., & Timmerman, C.
    (2014) Should I stay or should I go? An analysis of the determinants of intra-European student mobility. Population, Space and Place, 20(5), 465–479. 10.1002/psp.1833
    https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1833 [Google Scholar]
  47. Vande Berg, M., Connor-Linton, J., & Paige, R. M.
    (2009) The Georgetown Consortium Project: Interventions for student learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XVIII, 1–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wächter, B., & Maiworm, F.
    (Eds.) (2014) English-taught programmes in European higher education: The state of play in 2014. Bonn: Lemmens.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sar.19011.hes
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/sar.19011.hes
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): advanced learners , English as a foreign language (EFL) , L2 proficiency and post-return
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error