Volume 2, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This study examined the language-related experiences of Turkish students during their time in the U.S., and how these experiences related to their perceptions about learning English in an English-speaking community and interacting with host community members. The study also examined why Turkish students preferred a native speaker environment such as the U.S. as a venue for learning English. The participants of the study included 31 Turkish students who took English classes in a short-term summer study program in the U.S. The study used face-to-face interviews for data collection and content analysis to categorize students’ experiences. Findings show that although the majority of the students benefited from their stay in the U.S., they faced various challenges that limited their interaction with the host community and restricted their access to language input.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Akalın, S. , & Zengin, B.
    (2007) Türkiye’de halkın yabancı dil ile ilgili algıları. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 3, 181–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, H. W. , & Dupuy, B.
    (2012) Study abroad, foreign language use, and the communities standard. Foreign Language Annals, 45(4), 468–493. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2013.01209.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2013.01209.x [Google Scholar]
  3. ALTO
    ALTO (2008) Global directions in travel 2008. Retrieved on20 February 2014, from c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.altonet.org/resource/resmgr/files/alto-global-directions-2008.pdf
  4. Amuzie, G. L. , & Winke, P.
    (2009) Changes in language learning beliefs as a result of study abroad. System, 37(3), 366–379. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2009.02.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.02.011 [Google Scholar]
  5. Badstübner, T. , & Ecke, P.
    (2009) Students’ expectations, target language use, and perceived learning progress in a summer study abroad program in Germany. Die Unterrichtspraxis: Teaching German, 42, 41–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1756‑1221.2009.00034.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1221.2009.00034.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Bal, S. M.
    (2006) Teachers’ perceptions of communicative language teaching (CLT) in Turkish EFL setting: Theory vs. practices. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baro, A. L. , & Serrano, R. S.
    (2011) Length of stay and study abroad: Language gains in two versus three months abroad. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 24, 95–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barratt, M. F. , & Huba, M. E.
    (1994) Factors related to international undergraduate student adjustment in an American community. College Student Journal, 28, 422–435.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barron, A.
    (2003) Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.108
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.108 [Google Scholar]
  10. Block, D.
    (2007) Second language identities. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brecht, R. , Davidson, D. , & Ginsberg, R.
    (1993) Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center Occasional Paper.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brecht, R. , Davidson D. , & Ginsberg, R.
    (1995) Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.37–66). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.05bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.05bre [Google Scholar]
  13. British Council
    British Council (2004) Vision 2020: Forecasting international student mobility; A UK perspective. British Council, Universities UK and IDP Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. British Council
    British Council (2012) Student insight Turkey. Retrieved on20 February 2014, from ihe.britishcouncil.org/educationintelligence/student-insight-turkey
  15. Brux, J. M. , & Fry, B.
    (2010) Multicultural students in study abroad: Their interests, their issues, and their constraints. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 508–527. doi: 10.1177/1028315309342486
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315309342486 [Google Scholar]
  16. Carroll, J.
    (1967) Foreign language proficiency levels attained by language majors near graduation from college. Foreign Language Annals, 1, 131–151. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1967.tb00127.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1967.tb00127.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Cohen, J.
    (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46. doi: 10.1177/001316446002000104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000104 [Google Scholar]
  18. Collentine, J.
    (2004) The effects of learning contexts on morphosyntactic and lexical development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 227–248. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262040 [Google Scholar]
  19. Conacher, J. E.
    (2008) Home thoughts on abroad: Zur identität und integration irischer ERASMUS-studentinnen in Deutschland. [On identity and integration of Irish ERASMUS students in Germany]. German as a Foreign Language, 2, 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cubillos, J. , Chieffo L. , & Fan, C.
    (2008) The impact of short-term study abroad programs on L2 listening comprehension skills. Foreign Language Annals, 41, 157–185. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2008.tb03284.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2008.tb03284.x [Google Scholar]
  21. DeKeyser, R.
    (1990) From learning to acquisition? Monitoring in the classroom and abroad. Hispania, 73, 238–47. doi: 10.2307/343012
    https://doi.org/10.2307/343012 [Google Scholar]
  22. (1991) Foreign language development during a semester abroad. In B. Freed (Ed.), Foreign language acquisition: Research and the classroom (pp.104–19). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dewey, D.
    (2004) A comparison of reading development by learners of Japanese in intensive and domestic immersion and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 303–327. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262076
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262076 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2008) Japanese vocabulary acquisition by learners in three contexts. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15, 127–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Díaz-Campos, M.
    (2004) Context of learning in the acquisition of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 249–273. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262052
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262052 [Google Scholar]
  26. Duru, E. , & Poyrazli, S.
    (2007) Personality dimensions, psychosocial-demographic variables, and English language competency in predicting level of acculturative stress among Turkish international students in the USA. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 99–110. doi: 10.1037/1072‑5245.14.1.99
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.99 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dyson, P.
    (1988) The year abroad. Report for the Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges. Oxford: Oxford University Language Teaching Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Foster, P.
    (2009) Lexical diversity and native-like selection: the bonus of studying abroad. In B. Richards , M. H. Daller , D. D. Malvern , P. M. Meara , J. Milton , & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Vocabulary studies in first and second language acquisition: The interface between theory and application (pp.91–106). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Freed, B.
    (1995) What makes us think that students who study abroad become fluent?In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. (pp.123–148). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.09fre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.09fre [Google Scholar]
  30. (1998) An overview of issues and research in language learning in a study abroad setting. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4, 31–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Freed, B. , Segalowitz, N. , & Dewey, D.
    (2004) Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 275–301. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262064 [Google Scholar]
  32. Friedman, B. A. , & Aziz, N.
    (2012) Turkey and the United States: Entrepreneurship activity, motives, aspirations, and perceptions. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), 96–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Gomes Da Costa, B. , Smith, T. M. F , & Whitely, D.
    (1975) German language attainment: A sample survey of universities and colleges in the UK.Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Gore, J. E.
    (2005) Dominant beliefs and alternative voices. Discourse, belief, and gender in American study abroad. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hofstede, G.
    (1997) Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (2001) Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2011) Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). Retrieved on6 June 2016, from doi: 10.9707/2307‑0919.1014
    https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2016) Retrieved on2 September 2016, from https://geert-hofstede.com/turkey.html
  39. Ife, A. , Vives Boix, G. , & Meara, P. M.
    (2000) The impact of study abroad on the vocabulary development of different proficiency groups. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 4, 55–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Institute of International Education
    Institute of International Education (2015) Open doors report on international educational exchange. Retrieved on23 April 2016, from www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors
  41. Juan-Garau, M.
    (2014) Oral accuracy growth after formal instruction and study abroad: Onset level, contact factors and long-term effects. In C. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.87–110). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kaypak, E. , & Ortaçtepe, D.
    (2014) Language learner beliefs and study abroad: A study on English as a lingua franca (ELF). System, 42, 355–367. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2014.01.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.01.005 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kinginger, C.
    (2008) Language learning in study abroad: Case studies of Americans in France (The Modern Language Journal Monograph Series 1). Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kırkgoz, Y.
    (2008) A case study of teachers’ implementation of curriculum innovation in English language teaching in Turkish primary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1859–1875. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2008.02.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.02.007 [Google Scholar]
  45. Lapkin, S. , Hart, D. , & Swain, M.
    (1995) A Canadian interprovincial exchange: Evaluating the linguistic impact of a three-month stay in Quebec. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.67–94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.06lap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.06lap [Google Scholar]
  46. Lennon, P.
    (1990) Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40, 387–417. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1990.tb00669.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00669.x [Google Scholar]
  47. Lewthwaite, M.
    (1996) Study of international students’ perspectives on cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 19, 167–185. doi: 10.1007/BF00114787
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00114787 [Google Scholar]
  48. Llanes, À. , & Muñoz, C.
    (2009) A short stay abroad: Does it make a difference?System, 37, 353–365. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2012) Age effects in a study abroad context: Children and adults studying abroad and at home. Language Learning, 63, 63–90. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00731.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00731.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Lombard, M. , Snyder-Duch, J. , & Bracken, C. C.
    (2010) Practical resources for assessing and reporting intercoder reliability in content analysis research projects. Retrieved on25 September 2012, from astro.temple.edu/~lombard/reliability/
  51. Long, M. H.
    (1980) Input, interaction, and second language acquisition. Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (1996) The role of linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Martinsen, R. A.
    (2010) Short‐term study abroad: Predicting changes in oral skills. Foreign Language Annals, 43, 504–530. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01095.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01095.x [Google Scholar]
  54. Mendelson, V. G.
    (2004) Hindsight is 20/20, Student perceptions of language learning and the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 43–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Miller, L. , & Ginsberg, R.
    (1995) Folklinguistic theories of language learning. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.293–316). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.18mil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.18mil [Google Scholar]
  56. Milton, J. , & Meara, P.
    (1995) How periods abroad affect vocabulary growth in a foreign language. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics, 107/108, 17–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Montgomery, C. , & McDowell, L.
    (2009) Social networks and the international student experience: a community of practice?Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(4), 455–466. doi: 10.1177/1028315308321994
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315308321994 [Google Scholar]
  58. Mora, J. C.
    (2008) Learning context effects on the acquisition of a second language phonology. In C. Pérez-Vidal , M. Juan-Garau , & A. Bel (Eds.), A portrait of the young in the new multilingual Spain (pp.241–263). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Ozsevik, Z.
    (2010) The use of communicative language teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL teachers’ perceived difficulties in implementing CLT in Turkey. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Illinois.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Nguyen, S.
    (2014) “F” is for family, friend and faculty influences: Examining the communicated messages about study abroad at a Hispanic-serving institution (HSI).International Education, 43(2), 77–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Park, G.
    (2012) “I am never afraid of being recognized as an NNES:” One teacher’s journey in claiming and embracing her nonnative speaker identity. TESOL Quarterly, 46(1), 127–151. doi: 10.1002/tesq.4
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.4 [Google Scholar]
  62. Pellegrino Aveni, V.
    (1998) Student perspectives on language learning in a study abroad context. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4, 91–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Pérez-Vidal, C. & Juan-Garau, M.
    (2009) The effect of study abroad on written performance. Eurosla Yearbook, 9, 269–295. doi: 10.1075/eurosla.9.13per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.13per [Google Scholar]
  64. Polanyi, L.
    (1995) Language learning and living abroad: Stories from the field. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.271–291). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.9.17pol
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.17pol [Google Scholar]
  65. Poyrazlı, S. , Arbona, C. , Bullington, R. , & Pisecco, S.
    (2001) Adjustment issues of Turkish college students studying in the United States. College Student Journal, 35, 52–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Regan, V. , Howard, M. , & Lemée, I.
    (2009) The acquisition of sociolinguistic competence in a study abroad context. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Ricento, T.
    (2013) Language policy, ideology and attitudes in English-dominant countries. In R. Bayley , R. Cameron , & C. Lucas (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of sociolinguistics (pp.525–544). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Sasaki, M.
    (2009) Changes in English as a foreign language students’ writing over 3.5 years: A sociocognitive account. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp.49–76). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Schauer, G.
    (2009) Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Schumann, J.
    (1978) The acculturation model for second-language acquisition. In R. Gringas (Ed.), Second language acquisition and foreign language teaching (pp.27–50). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Segalowitz, N. , & Freed, B.
    (2004) Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition: Learning Spanish in at home and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 173–199. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262027 [Google Scholar]
  72. Segalowitz, N. , Freed, B. F. , Collentine, J. , Lafford, B. , Lazar, N. , & Díaz-Campos, M.
    (2004) A comparison of Spanish second language acquisition in two different learning contexts: Study abroad and the domestic classroom. Frontiers: The Interdiscplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Siegal, M.
    (1996) The role of learner subjectivity in second language sociolinguistic competency: Western women learning Japanese. Applied Linguistics, 17(3), 356–382. doi: 10.1093/applin/17.3.356
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.3.356 [Google Scholar]
  74. Surtees, V.
    (2016) Beliefs about language learning in study abroad: Advocating for a language ideology approach. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 17, 85–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Swain, M.
    (1985) Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp.235–253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. (1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics (pp.125–144). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Tanaka, K.
    (2007) Japanese students’ contact with English outside the classroom during study abroad. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 13, 36–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Tanaka, K. , & Ellis, R.
    (2003) Study-abroad, language proficiency, and learner beliefs about language learning. JALT Journal, 25, 63–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Teichler, U.
    (1994) Research on academic mobility and international cooperation in higher education. In A. Smith , U. Teichler , & M. Van der Wende (Eds.), The international dimension of higher education: Setting the research agenda (pp.10–21). Wien: IFK Materialien.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Tracy-Ventura, N. , Dewaele, J. M. , Köylü, Z. , & McManus, K.
    (2016) Personality changes after the ‘Year Abroad’? A mixed-methods study. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 1, 107–126.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Van Dijk, T. A.
    (1998) Ideology: A multidisciplinary approach. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Walsh, R.
    (1994) The year abroad: a linguistic challenge. Teanga, 14, 48–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ward, C. , & Kennedy, A.
    (1999) The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–677. doi: 10.1016/S0147‑1767(99)00014‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wilkinson, S.
    (1998) On the nature of immersion during study abroad: Some participant perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4, 121–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Willis, F. M. , Doble, G. , Sankarayya, U. , & Smithers, A.
    (1977) Residence abroad and the student of modern languages: A preliminary survey. Bradford: University of Bradford Modern Languages Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Yeh, C. J. , & Inose, M.
    (2003) International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15–28. doi: 10.1080/0951507031000114058
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507031000114058 [Google Scholar]
  87. Zemach-Bersin, T.
    (2009) Selling the world. In R. Lewin (Ed.), The Handbook of practice and research in study abroad (pp.303–320). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): language ideologies; linguistic experiences; study abroad; Turkish students
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error