1887
Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of a predeparture intervention on developing pragmatic knowledge in a study abroad context. The study included 66 university-level Japanese learners of English who participated in a four-month study abroad program in Canada. The intervention consisted of the implicit-inductive, explicit-deductive, and explicit-inductive methods of instruction on speech acts. Pragmatic development was measured by gain scores on a written a discourse completion test requiring realization of apologies. Results of the analysis of covariance, controlling for levels of English proficiency, revealed that the explicitly taught groups had significantly larger gains in pragmatic knowledge than the implicitly taught group, and that when comparing the deductive and inductive approaches in the explicit instruction, the two groups did not differ significantly. Follow-up interviews using extreme-case sampling revealed that the metacognitive strategies they had acquired at the predeparture stage contributed to the gains. Implications for maximizing pragmatic development during study abroad are discussed.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sar.21006.mat
2022-04-19
2022-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/sar.21006.mat.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/sar.21006.mat&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alcón-Soler, E.
    (2015) Pragmatic learning and study abroad: Effects of instruction and length of stay. System, 48, 62–74. 10.1016/j.system.2014.09.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.005 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bennett, J. M.
    (2008) On becoming a global soul: A path to engagement during study abroad. InV. Savicki (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research, and application in international education (pp.13–31). Stylus.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cohen, A. D.
    (2005) Strategies for learning and performing L2 speech acts. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2–3, 275–301. 10.1515/iprg.2005.2.3.275
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2005.2.3.275 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2020) Considerations in assessing pragmatic appropriateness in spoken language. Language Teaching, 53, 183–202. 10.1017/S0261444819000156
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444819000156 [Google Scholar]
  5. Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L.
    (2007) Acquisition of requests and apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of study abroad and strategy-building intervention. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 189–212. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00540.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00540.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Cohen, A. D., & Sykes, J. M.
    (2013) Strategy-based learning of pragmatics for intercultural education. InF. Dervin, & A. Liddicoat (Eds.), Linguistics for intercultural education in language learning and teaching (pp.87–111). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.33.06coh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.33.06coh [Google Scholar]
  7. Cohen, J.
    (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F.
    (1996) The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29. 10.1037/1082‑989X.1.1.16
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.1.16 [Google Scholar]
  9. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (2003) Implicit and explicit learning. InC. J. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.313–348). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch11
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch11 [Google Scholar]
  10. Félix-Brasdefer, J. C.
    (2008) Teaching Spanish pragmatics in the classroom: Explicit instruction of mitigation. Hispania, 91, 477–492. 10.2307/20063733
    https://doi.org/10.2307/20063733 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fordyce, K.
    (2014) The differential effects of explicit and implicit instruction on EFL learners’ use of epistemic stance. Applied Linguistics, 35, 6–28. 10.1093/applin/ams076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams076 [Google Scholar]
  12. Glaser, K.
    (2013) The neglected combination: A case for explicit-inductive instruction in teaching pragmatics in ESL. TESOL Canada Journal, 30, 150–163. 10.18806/tesl.v30i7.1158
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v30i7.1158 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2016) News from the pragmatics classroom: Contrasting the inductive and the deductive approach in the teaching of pragmatic competence. Intercultural Pragmatics, 13(4), 529–561. 10.1515/ip‑2016‑0023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2016-0023 [Google Scholar]
  14. Halenko, N., & Jones, C.
    (2017) Explicit instruction of spoken requests: An examination of predeparture instruction and the study abroad environment. System, 68, 26–37. 10.1016/j.system.2017.06.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.06.011 [Google Scholar]
  15. Henery, A.
    (2015) On the development of metapragmatic awareness abroad: Two case studies exploring the role of expert-mediation. Language Awareness, 24, 316–331. 10.1080/09658416.2015.1113982
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2015.1113982 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hernández, T. A., & Boero, P.
    (2018) Explicit intervention for Spanish pragmatic development during short-term study abroad: An examination of learner request production and cognition. Foreign Language Annals, 51, 389–410. 10.1111/flan.12334
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12334 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hirschberg, J.
    (2006) Pragmatics and intonation. InL. Horn, & G. Ward (Eds.), The handbook of pragmatics (pp.515–537). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756959.ch23
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756959.ch23 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ishihara, N., & Cohen, A. D.
    (2010) Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kinginger, C.
    (2011) English language learning in study abroad. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 58–73. 10.1017/S0267190511000031
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000031 [Google Scholar]
  20. Martínez-Flor, A., & Alcón-Soler, E.
    (2007) Developing pragmatic awareness of suggestions in the EFL classroom: A focus on instructional effects. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 47–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Matsumura, S.
    (2003) Modelling the relationships among interlanguage pragmatic development, L2 proficiency, and exposure to L2. Applied Linguistics, 24, 465–491. 10.1093/applin/24.4.465
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.4.465 [Google Scholar]
  22. Nguyen, M. T. T.
    (2017) Using conversation tasks and retrospective methodology to investigate L2 pragmatics development: The case of EFL criticisms and responses to criticisms. The Language Learning Journal, 45(3), 399–417. 10.1080/09571736.2014.908404
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2014.908404 [Google Scholar]
  23. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2020) Education at a glance 2020: OECD indicators. OECD Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L.
    (2004) Assessing the impact of strategies-based curriculum on language and culture learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 253–276. 10.36366/frontiers.v10i1.144
    https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v10i1.144 [Google Scholar]
  25. Pérez Vidal, C., & Shively, R. L.
    (2019) L2 pragmatic development in study abroad settings. InN. Taguchi (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and pragmatics (pp.355–371). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rogosa, D.
    (1988) Myths about longitudinal research. InK. W. Schaie, R. T. Campbell, W. M. Meredith, & S. C. Rawlings (Eds.), Methodological issues in aging research (pp.171–209). Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shively, R. L.
    (2010) From the virtual world to the real world: A model of pragmatics instruction for study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 43, 105–137. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01063.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01063.x [Google Scholar]
  28. (2011) L2 pragmatic development in study abroad: A longitudinal study of Spanish service encounters. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 1818–1835. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.030
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.030 [Google Scholar]
  29. Simin, S., Eslami, Z., Eslami-Rasekh, A., & Ketabi, S.
    (2014) The effects of explicit teaching of apologies on Persian EFL learners’ performance: When e-communication helps. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 3, 71–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sykes, J. M., & Cohen, A. D.
    (2018) Strategies and interlanguage pragmatics: Explicit and comprehensive. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 381–402. 10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.9
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.9 [Google Scholar]
  31. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S.
    (2013) Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson International Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Taguchi, N.
    (2015) Instructed pragmatics at a glance: Where instructional studies were, are, and should be going. Language Teaching, 48, 1–50. 10.1017/S0261444814000263
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444814000263 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2018) Pragmatic competence in foreign language education: Cultivating learner autonomy and strategic learning of pragmatics. InI. Walker, D. K. G. Chan, M. Nagami, & C. Bourguignon (Eds.), New perspectives on the development of communicative and related competence in foreign language education (pp.53–69). Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501505034‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501505034-004 [Google Scholar]
  34. Taguchi, N., & Roever, C.
    (2017) Second language pragmatics. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Taguchi, N., & Sykes, J. M.
    (2013) Technology in interlanguage pragmatics research and teaching. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.36
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.36 [Google Scholar]
  36. Takahashi, S.
    (2010) The effect of pragmatic instruction on speech act performance. InA. Martínez-Flor, & E. Usó-Juan (Eds.), Speech act performance: Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues (pp.127–142). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.26.08tak
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.26.08tak [Google Scholar]
  37. Takimoto, M.
    (2008) The effects of deductive and inductive instruction on the development of language learners’ pragmatic competence. The Modern Language Journal, 92, 369–386. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2008.00752.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00752.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Thomas, J.
    (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4, 91–112. 10.1093/applin/4.2.91
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91 [Google Scholar]
  39. Winke, P. M., & Teng, C.
    (2010) Using task-based pragmatics tutorials while studying abroad in China. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7, 363–399. 10.1515/iprg.2010.016
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.016 [Google Scholar]
  40. Xiao, Z.
    (2015) Adult second language learners’ pragmatic development in the study abroad context: Review. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 25, 132–149. 10.36366/frontiers.v25i1.349
    https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v25i1.349 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sar.21006.mat
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/sar.21006.mat
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error