1887
Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2405-5522
  • E-ISSN: 2405-5530

Abstract

This article presents a comparative study of the oral English proficiency gains of two groups of students, namely mobility students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic ( = 26), who were matched for background variables such as pre-departure oral proficiency, duration of stay, accommodation, and destination. Oral proficiency was measured before and after the stay using the Oral Proficiency Interview by Computer (OPIc). Results indicate that students staying abroad before the outbreak of the pandemic made significant progress while students staying abroad during the pandemic did not. Student comments suggest that this may be related to the measures taken to contain the pandemic, limiting opportunities for social networking and interaction. However, this impression could not be supported by statistical analyses of the self-reported number of social contacts or amount of English language use. The results point to the need for consideration of qualitative aspects of social interactions and language use and a more frequent and situated assessment of these.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sar.23004.hei
2024-05-14
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/sar.23004.hei.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/sar.23004.hei&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arndt, H. L., Granfeldt, J., & Gullberg, M.
    (2021) Reviewing the potential of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) for capturing second language exposure and use. Second Language Research, 39(1). 10.1177/02676583211020055
    https://doi.org/10.1177/02676583211020055 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arvidsson, K.
    (2023) Studying abroad during and before the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparison of target language use and self-reported linguistic progress. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 8(1), 1–23. 10.1075/sar.21029.arv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.21029.arv [Google Scholar]
  3. Avello, P., Mora, J. C., & Pérez-Vidal, C.
    (2012) Perception of FA by non-native listeners in a study abroad context. Research in Language, 10(1), 63–78. 10.2478/v10015‑011‑0050‑9
    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10015-011-0050-9 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker-Smemoe, W., Dewey, D. P., Bown, J., & Martinsen, R. A.
    (2014) Variables affecting L2 gains during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 47(3), 464–486. 10.1111/flan.12093
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12093 [Google Scholar]
  5. Becker, M.
    (2011) Matching-Verfahren und Gruppenvergleiche. InS. Maschke & L. Stecher (Eds.), Enzyklopädie Erziehungswissenschaft Online (EEO), Fachgebiet Methoden der empirischen erziehungswissenschaftlichen Forschung (pp.1–50). Beltz Juventa.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bleichenbacher, L., Ehrsam, K., Heinzmann, S., & Hilbe, R.
    (under review). Navigating social networking challenges: Unleashing an ideal study abroad student self amidst COVID-19 constraints. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Borràs, J.
    (2023) Comparing L2 learning outcomes in traditional and English as a lingua franca study abroad contexts. The Language Learning Journal, 1–12. 10.1080/09571736.2023.2193581
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2023.2193581 [Google Scholar]
  8. Borràs, J., & Llanes, À.
    (2021) Re-examining the impact of study abroad on L2 development: A critical overview. The Language Learning Journal, 49(5), 527–540. 10.1080/09571736.2019.1642941
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1642941 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2022) Traditional study abroad vs. ELFSA: Differences and similarities in L2 reading, vocabulary, and use. Journal of Language, Identity & Education. 10.1080/15348458.2022.2064287
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2022.2064287 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bortz, J., & Döring, N.
    (2009) Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation für Human-und Sozialwissenschaftler: Limitierte Sonderausgabe. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bradburn, N. M., Rips, L. J., & Shevell, S. K.
    (1987) Answering autobiographical questions: The impact of memory and inference on surveys. Science, 236(4798), 157–161. 10.1126/science.3563494
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3563494 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brecht, R., Davidson, D., & Ginsberg, R.
    (1995) Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad. InB. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp.37–66). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9.05bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.05bre [Google Scholar]
  13. Cohen, J.
    (1992) A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159. 10.1037/0033‑2909.112.1.155
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 [Google Scholar]
  14. Devlin, A. M., & Magliacane, A.
    (2021) “What slowly kills me and frustrates me is…” study abroad during COVID-19: Student narratives of space, language contact, and individual agency. I-LanD Journal: Identity, Language and Diversity, 8–27. 10.26379/IL2021002_002
    https://doi.org/10.26379/IL2021002_002 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dewey, D. P.
    (2008) Japanese vocabulary acquisition by learners in three contexts. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15(1), 127–148. 10.36366/frontiers.v15i1.223
    https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v15i1.223 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dewey, D. P., Belnap, R. K., & Hillstrom, R.
    (2013) Social network development, language use, and language acquisition during study abroad: Arabic language learners’ perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22(1), 84–110. 10.36366/frontiers.v22i1.320
    https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v22i1.320 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dewey, D. P., Bown, J., & Eggett, D.
    (2012) Japanese language proficiency, social networking, and language use during study abroad: Learners’ perspectives. Canadian Modern Language Review, 68(2), 111–137. 10.3138/cmlr.68.2.111
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.68.2.111 [Google Scholar]
  18. Elmer, T., Mepham, K., & Stadtfeld, C.
    (2020) Students under lockdown: Comparisons of students’ social networks and mental health before and during the COVID-19 crisis in Switzerland. PLOS ONE, 15(7), 1–22. 10.1371/journal.pone.0236337
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236337 [Google Scholar]
  19. Émon, A., Greene, J., & Timonen, V.
    (2021) Generation covid: Experiences of the coronavirus pandemic among secondary school graduates of 2020 in Ireland. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1–14. 10.1080/2331186X.2021.1947014
    https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1947014 [Google Scholar]
  20. Fraser, C. C.
    (2002) Study abroad: An attempt to measure the gains. German as a Foreign Language Journal, 11, 45–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Freed, B. F.
    (1990) Language learning in a study abroad context: The effects of interactive and non-interactive out-of-class contact on grammatical achievement and oral proficiency. InJ. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1990 (pp.459–477). Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (Ed.) (1995) Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9 [Google Scholar]
  23. Freed, B. F., Dewey, D. P., Segalowitz, N., & Halter, R.
    (2004) The Language Contact Profile. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 349–356. www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S027226310426209X. 10.1017/S027226310426209X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310426209X [Google Scholar]
  24. Hardison, D. M.
    (2014) Changes in second-language learners’ oral skills and socio-affective profile following study abroad: A mixed-methods approach. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 70(4), 415–444. 10.3138/cmlr.2202
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2202 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hardison, D. M., & Okuno, T.
    (2022) Changes in second language learners’ oral skills and socio-affective profile following short-term study abroad to Japan. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 7(2), 204–239. 10.1075/sar.21023.har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.21023.har [Google Scholar]
  26. Hari, A., Nardon, L., & Zhang, H.
    (2021) A transnational lens into international student experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Global Networks, 231, 14–30. 10.1111/glob.12332
    https://doi.org/10.1111/glob.12332 [Google Scholar]
  27. Heinzmann, S., Hilbe, R., Bleichenbacher, L., & Ehrsam, K.
    (2023) Returning to a new normal: Social and mental adaptation of study abroad returnees during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 8(1), 50–75. 10.1075/sar.21037.hei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.21037.hei [Google Scholar]
  28. Heinzmann, S., Hilbe, R., Ehrsam, K., & Bleichenbacher, L.
    (forthcoming). SA students’ social contacts in different linguistic contexts and their relationship with English use and development. Language Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hernández, T. A.
    (2010) The relationship among motivation, interaction, and the development of second language oral proficiency in a study-abroad context. The Modern Language Journal, 94(4), 600–617. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2010.01053.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01053.x [Google Scholar]
  30. Isabelli-García, C.
    (2006) Study abroad social networks, motivation and attitudes: Implications for second language acquisition. InM. A. DuFon & E. Churchill (Eds.), Language learners in study abroad contexts (pp.231–258). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853598531‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598531-013 [Google Scholar]
  31. Isbell, D. R., & Winke, P.
    (2019) ACTFL Oral proficiency interview–computer (OPIc). Language Testing, 36(3), 467–477. 10.1177/0265532219828253
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532219828253 [Google Scholar]
  32. Isbell, D. R., Winke, P., & Gass, S. M.
    (2019) Using the ACTFL OPIc to assess proficiency and monitor progress in a tertiary foreign languages program. Language Testing, 36(3), 439–465. 10.1177/0265532218798139
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532218798139 [Google Scholar]
  33. Jochum, C.
    (2014) Measuring the effects of a semester abroad on students’ oral proficiency gains: A comparison of at-home and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(1), 93–104. 10.36366/frontiers.v24i1.338
    https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v24i1.338 [Google Scholar]
  34. Juan-Garau, M.
    (2014) Oral accuracy growth after formal instruction and study abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.87–111). John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.13.06ch4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.13.06ch4 [Google Scholar]
  35. Juan-Garau, M., & Pérez-Vidal, C.
    (2007) The effect of context and contact on oral performance in students who go on a stay abroad. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 41, 117–134.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kennedy Terry, K. M.
    (2022) At the intersection of SLA and sociolinguistics: The predictive power of social networks during study abroad. The Modern Language Journal, 106(1), 245–266. 10.1111/modl.12763
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12763 [Google Scholar]
  37. Koris, R., Mato-Díaz, F. J., & Hernández-Nanclares, N.
    (2021) From real to virtual mobility: Erasmus students’ transition to online learning amid the COVID-19 crisis. European Educational Research Journal, 20(4), 463–478. 10.1177/14749041211021247
    https://doi.org/10.1177/14749041211021247 [Google Scholar]
  38. Köylü, Z.
    (2016) The influence of context on L2 development: The case of Turkish undergraduates at home and abroad. [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida]. Digital Commons @ University South Florida. https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/etd/6528/
  39. (2021) The ERASMUS sojourn: Does the destination country or pre-departure proficiency impact oral proficiency gains?The Language Learning Journal, 51(1), 48–60. 10.1080/09571736.2021.1930112
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2021.1930112 [Google Scholar]
  40. Köylü, Z., & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2022) Learning English in today’s global world: A comparative study of at home, Anglophone, and lingua franca study abroad. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 44(5), 1330–1355. 10.1017/S0272263121000917
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263121000917 [Google Scholar]
  41. Labrague, L. J., De los Santos, J. A. A., & Falguera, C. C.
    (2021) Social and emotional loneliness among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic: The predictive role of coping behaviors, social support, and personal resilience. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 57(4), 1578–1584. 10.1111/ppc.12721
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12721 [Google Scholar]
  42. Llanes, À.
    (2011) The many faces of study abroad: An update on the research on L2 gains emerged during a study abroad experience. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(3), 189–215. 10.1080/14790718.2010.550297
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2010.550297 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2019) Study abroad as a context for learning English as an international language: An exploratory study. InM. Howard (Ed.), Study abroad, second language acquisition and interculturality (pp.136–154). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781788924153‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781788924153-008 [Google Scholar]
  44. Llanes, À., Arnó, E., & Mancho-Baré, G.
    (2016) Erasmus students using English as a “lingua franca”: Does study abroad in a non-English-speaking country improve L2 English?Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 292–303. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1198099
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1198099 [Google Scholar]
  45. Magnan, S. S., & Back, M.
    (2007) Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 43–61. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2007.tb02853.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2007.tb02853.x [Google Scholar]
  46. Marinoni, G., van’t Land, H., & Jensen, T.
    (2020) The impact of Covid-19 on higher education around the world. IAU Global Survey Report. https://www.iau-aiu.net/IMG/pdf/iau_covid19_and_he_survey_report_final_may_2020.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Mathieu, E., Ritchie, H., Rodés-Guirao, L., Appel, C., Giattino, C., Hasell, J., Macdonald, B., Dattani, S., Beltekian, D., Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Roser, M.
    (2020) Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus
  48. Mbous, Y. P. V., Mohamed, R., & Rudisill, T. M.
    (2024) International students challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic in a university in the United States: A focus group study. Current Psychology, 431, 8325–8337. 10.1007/s12144‑022‑02776‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-02776-x [Google Scholar]
  49. Mitchell, R.
    (2021) Documenting L2 input and interaction during study abroad: Approaches, instruments and challenges. Second Language Research, 39(1), 1–25. 10.1177/02676583211030626
    https://doi.org/10.1177/02676583211030626 [Google Scholar]
  50. Muñoz, C., & Llanes, À.
    (2014) Study abroad and changes in degree of foreign accent in children and adults. The Modern Language Journal, 98(1), 432–449. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2014.12059.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2014.12059.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Rubin, D. B.
    (1973) Matching to remove bias in observational studies. Biometrics, 29(1), 159–183. 10.2307/2529684
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2529684 [Google Scholar]
  52. Segalowitz, N., & Freed, B. F.
    (2004) Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition: Learning Spanish in at home and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 173–199. 10.1017/S0272263104262027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262027 [Google Scholar]
  53. Sitarz, R., Forma, A., Karakuła, K., Juchnowicz, D., Baj, J., Bogucki, J., & Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H.
    (2021) How do Polish students manage emotional distress during the COVID-19 lockdown? A web-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(21), 1–22. 10.3390/jcm10214964
    https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214964 [Google Scholar]
  54. Thompson, G. L., Cox, T. L., & Knapp, N.
    (2016) Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The effect of test method on oral proficiency scores and student preference. Foreign Language Annals, 49(1), 75–92. 10.1111/flan.12178
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12178 [Google Scholar]
  55. Valls-Ferrer, M., & Mora, J. C.
    (2014) L2 fluency development in formal instruction and study abroad. InC. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.111–136). John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.13.07ch5
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.13.07ch5 [Google Scholar]
  56. Whitworth, K. F.
    (2006) Access to language learning during study abroad: The roles of identity and subject positioning. [Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University]. PennState University Libraries. https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/6917
  57. Yager, K.
    (1998) Learning Spanish in Mexico: The effect of informal contact and student attitudes on language gain. Hispania, 81(4), 898–913. 10.2307/345798
    https://doi.org/10.2307/345798 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sar.23004.hei
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/sar.23004.hei
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error