1887
Volume 18, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1571-0718
  • E-ISSN: 1571-0726
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper the discourse of a specific type of meme in Spanish, the image macro, is analysed, together with several ways in which memes generate humorous effects. Two main areas are addressed: (a) how humour arises from the processing of the text in the meme (decoding of the text plus further inferential enrichment); and (b) how humour relies on specific combinations of the text and the image in the meme. The pragmatic framework used in the analysis will be relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1995), which in previous research (especially Yus 2016) has proven to be a valid foundation for the analysis of humour.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sic.00070.yus
2021-05-03
2021-05-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ballesteros Doncel, Esmeralda
    2016 “Circulación de memes en WhatsApp: Ambivalencias del humor desde la perspectiva de género.” Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales35: 21–45. 10.5944/empiria.35.2016.17167
    https://doi.org/10.5944/empiria.35.2016.17167 [Google Scholar]
  2. Blakemore, Diane
    1987Semantic Constraints on Relevance. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2002Relevance and Linguistic Meaning. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486456
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486456 [Google Scholar]
  4. Breheny, Caitlin
    2017 “By Any Memes Necessary”: Exploring the Intersectional Politics of Feminist Memes on Instagram. MA Thesis. Uppsala University.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carston, Robyn
    2002Thoughts and Utterances. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470754603
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470754603 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2009 “Explicit/implicit distinction.” InThe Pragmatics Encyclopedia, ed. by Louise Cummings . London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carter, Jonathan
    2016 Enchanting Memes: Memetic Politics in the Face of Technocratic Control. PhD Thesis. University of Nebraska.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coleman, E. Gabriella
    2012 “Phreaks, hackers, and trolls and the politics of transgression and spectacle.” InThe Social Media Reader, ed. by M. Mandiberg , 99–119. New York: New York University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Csordás, Tamás , Dóra Horváth , Ariel Mitev , and Éva Markos-Kujbus
    2017 “User-generated Internet memes as advertising vehicles: Visual narratives as special consumer information sources and consumer tribe integrators.” InCommercial Communication in the Digital Age. Information or Disinformation?ed. by Gabriele Siegert , M. Bjørn Rimscha , and Stephanie Grubenmann , 247–265. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110416794‑014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110416794-014 [Google Scholar]
  10. Denisova, Anastasia
    2016 Political Memes as Tools of Dissent and Alternative Digital Activism in the Russian-language Twitter. PhD Thesis. University of Westminster.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dynel, Marta
    2016 “‘I has seen image macros!’ Advice animal memes as visual-verbal jokes.” International Journal of Communication10: 660–688.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Greidina, Nadejda L.
    2017 “Memes in information warfare context in the South-East Ukraine.” InDigital Transformation in Journalism and News Media Media Management, Media Convergence and Globalization, ed. by Mike Friedrichsen , and Yahya Kamalipour , 295–303. Berlin: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑27786‑8_22
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27786-8_22 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hadley, Bree
    2016 “Cheats, charity cases and inspirations: disrupting the circulation of disability-based memes online.” Disability & Society31(5): 676–692. 10.1080/09687599.2016.1199378
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2016.1199378 [Google Scholar]
  14. Huntington, Heidi E.
    2015 “Pepper Spray Cop and the American Dream: Using synecdoche and metaphor to unlock Internet memes’ visual political rhetoric.” Communication Studies67(1): 77–93. 10.1080/10510974.2015.1087414
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2015.1087414 [Google Scholar]
  15. McCloud, Scott
    1994Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. New York: Harper Collins.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meikle, Graham
    2016Social Media. Communication, Sharing and Visibility. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315884172
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315884172 [Google Scholar]
  17. Milner, Ryan M.
    2012 The World Made Meme: Discourse and Identity in Participatory Media. PhD Thesis. University of Kansas.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Miltner, Kate M.
    2014 “‘There’s no place for lulz on LOLCats’: The role of genre, gender, and group identity in the interpretation and enjoyment of an Internet meme.” First Monday19(4). 10.5210/fm.v19i8.5391
    https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i8.5391 [Google Scholar]
  19. Nissenbaum, Asaf , and Limor Shifman
    2017 “Internet memes as contested cultural capital: The case of 4chan’s /b/ board.” New Media & Society19(4): 483–501. 10.1177/1461444815609313
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815609313 [Google Scholar]
  20. Segev, Elad , Asaf Nissenbaum , Nathan Stolero , and Limor Shifman
    2015 “Families and networks of Internet memes: The relationship between cohesiveness, uniqueness, and quiddity concreteness.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication20: 417–433. 10.1111/jcc4.12120
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12120 [Google Scholar]
  21. Shifman, Limor
    2014Memes in Digital Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sperber, Dan , and Deirdre Wilson
    1995Relevance. Communication and Cognition. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Suls, Jerry M.
    1983 “Cognitive processes in humor appreciation.” InHandbook of Humor Research, Vol. 1: Basic Issues, ed. by Paul E. McGhee , and Jeffrey H. Goldstein , 39–57. New York: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑5572‑7_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5572-7_3 [Google Scholar]
  24. Tay, Geniesa
    2015 “Binders full of LOLitics: Political humour, internet memes, and play in the 2012 US Presidential Election (and beyond).” European Journal of Humour Research2(4): 46–73. 10.7592/EJHR2014.2.4.tay
    https://doi.org/10.7592/EJHR2014.2.4.tay [Google Scholar]
  25. Willmore, James , and Darryl Hocking
    2017 “Internet meme creativity as everyday conversation.” Journal of Asia-Pacific Pop Culture2(2): 140–166. 10.5325/jasiapacipopcult.2.2.0140
    https://doi.org/10.5325/jasiapacipopcult.2.2.0140 [Google Scholar]
  26. Yoon, InJeon
    2016 “Why is it not Just a joke? Analysis of Internet memes associated with racism and hidden ideology of colorblindness.” Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education33: 92–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Yus, Francisco
    1997 “La teoría de la relevancia y la estrategia humorística de la incongruencia-resolución.” Pragmalingüística3–4: 497–508.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 2013a “An inference-centered analysis of jokes: The Intersecting Circles Model of humorous communication.” InIrony and Humor: From Pragmatics to Discourse, L. Ruiz Gurillo , and B. Alvarado (eds.), 59–82. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.231.05yus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.231.05yus [Google Scholar]
  29. 2013b “Analyzing jokes with the Intersecting Circles Model of humorous communication.” Lodz Papers in Pragmatics9(1): 3–24. 10.1515/lpp‑2013‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lpp-2013-0002 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2016Humour and Relevance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.4 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2017 “Incongruity-resolution cases in jokes.” Lingua197: 103–122. 10.1016/j.lingua.2017.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2018 “Identity-related issues in meme communication.” Internet Pragmatics1(1): 113–133. 10.1075/ip.00006.yus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00006.yus [Google Scholar]
  33. 2019 “Multimodality in memes. A cyberpragmatic approach.” InAnalyzing Digital Discourse: New Insights and Future Directions, ed. by Patricia Bou-Franch , and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich (eds.), 105–131. Cham (Switzerland): Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑92663‑6_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92663-6_4 [Google Scholar]
  34. 2021 “Incongruity-resolution humorous strategies in image macro memes.” Internet Pragmatics, 4(1): 131–149. 10.1075/ip.00058.yus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00058.yus [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sic.00070.yus
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): internet humour; memes; relevance theory
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error