Volume 20, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1571-0718
  • E-ISSN: 1571-0726
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



A sentence like (‘María looks very pretty’) attributes the property of being pretty to María but also conveys the assumption that the state-of-affairs described is based on direct experience. Several explanatory hypotheses are found in the literature to account for this fact: (i) experientiality is a property of the copula ; (ii) experientiality is an effect of contextual factors; and (iii) experientiality is the result of resolving the aspectual mismatch produced by combining with an Individual-Level Predicate (ILP). To test the predictions of these hypotheses, a comprehension-based survey was carried out. Participants were given isolated copular sentences with followed by either an ILP or an SLP (Stage-Level Predicate). Using a 5-point Likert scale, they had to rate how likely it was that the utterer had direct experience about the quality s/he was asserting. The results show a significant preference for the experiential interpretation in +ILP, an outcome that is consistent only with the hypothesis that the linguistic mismatch found in +ILP is enough to induce the accommodation of a direct experience presupposition.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Arche, María
    2006Individuals in time. John Benjamins: Amsterdam. 10.1075/la.94
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.94 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bott, Lewis, and Ira A. Noveck
    2004 “Some utterances are underinformative: The onset and time course of scalar inferences.” Journal of Memory and Language51 (3): 437–457. 10.1016/j.jml.2004.05.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.05.006 [Google Scholar]
  3. Brucart, José María
    2012 “Copular alternation in Spanish and Catalan attributive sentences.” Revista de Estudos Linguisticos da Universidade do Porto71: 9–43
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bylinina, Lisa
    2017 “Judge-dependence in degree constructions”. Journal of Semantics341: 291–331. 10.1093/jos/ffw011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffw011 [Google Scholar]
  5. Camacho, José
    2012 “Ser and estar: the individual/stage level distinction and aspectual predication.” InThe Handbook of Spanish Linguistics, ed. byJosé Ignacio Hualde, Antxon Olarrea, and Erin O’rourke, 453–476. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118228098.ch22
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118228098.ch22 [Google Scholar]
  6. Carlson, Greg N.
    1977Reference to kinds in English (PhD). UMass, Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clark, Billy
    2018 “Cognitive pragmatics: Relevance-theoretic methodology.” InMethods in pragmatics, ed. byAndreas Jucker, Klaus Schneider, and Wolfram Bublitz, 185–201. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110424928‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110424928-007 [Google Scholar]
  8. Clements, Clancy
    1988 “The semantics and pragmatics of the Spanish copula+adjective construction.” Linguistics261: 779–882. 10.1515/ling.1988.26.5.779
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1988.26.5.779 [Google Scholar]
  9. Demonte, Violeta, and Pascual José Masullo
    1999 “Los complementos predicativos”. InGramática descriptiva de la lengua española, ed. byIgnacio Bosque and Violeta Demonte, Vol.21, 2461–2524, Madrid: Espasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Deo, Ashwini, Sarah Sánchez-Alonso, and María Mercedes Piñango
    2018 “Alternative circumstances of evaluation and the ser/estar distinction in Spanish.” (lingbuzz/003543) Preprint. CitetononCRdoi:10.13140/RG.2.2.24224.64002
    https://doi.org/Cite to nonCR doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24224.64002 [Google Scholar]
  11. Escandell-Vidal, Victoria, and Manuel Leonetti
    2002 “Coercion and the stage/individual distinction.” InFrom words to discourse, ed. byJavier Gutiérrez-Rexach, 159–179. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1163/9780585475295_011
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9780585475295_011 [Google Scholar]
  12. Escandell-Vidal, Victoria
    2018a “Evidential commitment and feature mismatch in Spanish estar constructions.” Journal of Pragmatics1281: 102–115. 10.1016/j.pragma.2017.10.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.10.004 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2018b “Ser y estar con adjetivos. Afinidad y desajustes de rasgos.” Revista Española de Lingüística481: 57–114. 10.31810/RSEL.48.3
    https://doi.org/10.31810/RSEL.48.3 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2019 “Evidential explicatures and mismatch resolution.” InRelevance, pragmatics and interpretation, ed. byKate Scott, Billy Clark, and Robin Carston, 66–79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108290593.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108290593.007 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fábregas, Antonio
    2012 “A guide to IL and SL in Spanish: properties, problems and proposals.” Borealis1 (2): 1–71. 10.7557/
    https://doi.org/10.7557/ [Google Scholar]
  16. Fernald, Ted
    1999 “Evidential Coercion: Using Individual-Level Predicates in Stage-Level Environments.” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences291: 43–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fernández Leborans, María Jesús
    1995 “Sobre construcciones absolutas.” Revista Española de Lingüística251:365–395.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 1999 “La predicación. Las oraciones copulativas.” InGramática descriptiva de la lengua española, ed. byIgnacio Bosque, and Violeta Demonte, vol.21, 2357–2460. Madrid: Espasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gibbs, Raymond W., and Jacqueline F. Moise
    1997 “Pragmatics in understanding what is said.” Cognition621: 51–74. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(96)00724‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(96)00724-X [Google Scholar]
  20. Gili Gaya, Samuel
    1961Curso superior de sintaxis española. Barcelona: Biblograf.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gumiel-Molina, Silvia, Norberto Moreno-Quibén, and Isabel Pérez-Jiménez
    2016 “Depictive secondary predicates in Spanish and the relative/absolute distinction.” InRomance Linguistics 2013: Selected papers from the 43rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), ed. byChristina Tortora, Marcel den Dikken, Ignacio L. Montoya, and Teresa O’Neill, 139–157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/rllt.9.08gum
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rllt.9.08gum [Google Scholar]
  22. Hemanz, Maria Luïsa
    1988 “En torno a la sintaxis y la semántica de los complementos predicativos en español.” Estudi General81: 7–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hernanz, Maria Luïsa
    1991 “Spanish absolute constructions and aspect.” Catalan Working Papers in Linguistics11:75–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hernanz, Maria Luïsa, and Avel·lina Suñer
    1999 “La predicación: La predicación no copulativa. Las construcciones absolutas.” InGramática descriptiva de la lengua española, ed. byIgnacio Bosque, and Violeta Demonte, vol21, 2525–2560. Madrid: Espasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Horno-Chéliz, María del Carmen, and José Manuel Igoa
    2017 “Adjetivos i-level y s-level. Nuevas evidencias experimentales.” Borealis6/21: 103–124. 10.7557/
    https://doi.org/10.7557/ [Google Scholar]
  26. Lasersohn, Peter
    2005 “Context dependence, disagreement, and predicates of personal taste.” Linguistics and Philosophy281: 643–686. 10.1007/s10988‑005‑0596‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-005-0596-x [Google Scholar]
  27. Leonetti, Manuel
    1994 “Ser y estar: estado de la cuestión.” Barataria11:182–205. hdl.handle.net/10017/6986
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (ed.) 2018 “Nuevas aportaciones sobre ser y estar.” (Special issue: Revista Española de Lingüísitica 48) 10.31810/RSEL.48
    https://doi.org/10.31810/RSEL.48 [Google Scholar]
  29. Leonetti, Manuel, and Gonzalo Escribano
    2018 “El papel del aspecto gramatical en las construcciones con estar y adjetivos de propiedades.” Revista Española de Lingüísitica481: 115–152: 10.31810/RSEL.48.4
    https://doi.org/10.31810/RSEL.48.4 [Google Scholar]
  30. Leonetti, Manuel
    2015 “On word order in Spanish copular sentences.” InNew perspectives on the study of ser and estar, ed. byIsabel Pérez-Jiménez, Manuel Leonetti, and Silvia Gumiel, 203–235. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ihll.5.08leo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ihll.5.08leo [Google Scholar]
  31. Leonetti-Escandell, Victoria, and Jacopo Torregrossa
    2023 “The interpretation of null and overt subject pronouns in Spanish compared to Greek and Italian: the role of VSO and DOM.” (under review)
    [Google Scholar]
  32. López, Luis
    1994 “The internal structure of absolute small clauses.” Catalan Working Papers in Linguistics41:45–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Maienborn, Claudia
    2005 “A discourse-based account on Spanish ser/estar.” Linguistics431: 155–180. 10.1515/ling.2005.43.1.155
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.1.155 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mangialavori, M. Eugenia
    2013 “Not always a stage. Atypical patterns in Spanish copular clauses.” Iberia5/21: 1–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Marín, Rafael
    1996 “Aspectual Properties of Spanish Absolute Small Clauses.” Catalan Working Papers in Linguistics51:183–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2010 “Spanish adjectives within bounds.” InFormal analyses in syntax and semantics, ed. byPatricia Cabredo Hofherr, and Ora Matushansky, 307–332. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.153.09mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.153.09mar [Google Scholar]
  37. 2015 “Ser y estar.” InEnciclopedia de lingüística hispánica, ed. byJavier Gutiérrez-Rexach, 13–24. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mazzarella, Diana
    2013 “Associative and inferential approaches to pragmatics: The state of the art of experimental investigation.” Methode – Analytic Perspectives2(2): 172–194.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. McNally, Louise
    1994 “Adjunct predicates and the individual/stage distinction.” Proceedings of WCCFL121: 561–576.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. McNally, Louise, and Isadora Stojanovic
    2017 “Aesthetic adjectives.” InSemantics of aesthetic judgments, ed. byJames O. Young, 17–37. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714590.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714590.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  41. Morimoto, Yuko, and María Victoria Pavón Lucero
    2007Los verbos pseudo-copulativos del español. Madrid: Arco.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nicolle, Steve, and Billy Clark
    1999 “Experimental pragmatics and what is said: A response to Gibbs and Moise.” Cognition691: 337–354.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Noveck, Ira A.
    2004 “Pragmatic inferences linked to logical terms.” InExperimental pragmatics, ed. byIra A. Noveck and Dan Sperber, 301–321. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230524125_14
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230524125_14 [Google Scholar]
  44. 2016 “On investigating intention in experimental pragmatics.” InPre-proceedings of Trends in Experimental Pragmatics Workshop at Center for General Linguistics. Berlin, Germany; January 18–20, 2016. www.xprag.de/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/TiXPrag-preproc.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Noveck, Ira A., and Anne Reboul
    2008 “Experimental pragmatics: A Gricean turn in the study of language.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences12 (11): 425–431. 10.1016/j.tics.2008.07.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.07.009 [Google Scholar]
  46. Noveck, Ira A., Maryse Bianco, and Alain Castry
    2001 “The costs and benefits of metaphor.” Metaphor and Symbol16 (1): 109–121. 10.1080/10926488.2001.9678889
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2001.9678889 [Google Scholar]
  47. Noveck, Ira, and Dan Sperber
    2007 “The why and how of experimental pragmatics: The case of ‘scalar inferences’.” InPragmatics, ed. byNoel Burton-Roberts, 184–212. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/978‑1‑349‑73908‑0_10
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-73908-0_10 [Google Scholar]
  48. Pearson, Hazel
    2013 “A judge-free semantics for predicates of personal taste.” Journal of Semantics30 (1): 103–154. 10.1093/jos/ffs001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffs001 [Google Scholar]
  49. Pérez-Jiménez, Isabel
    2008Las cláusulas absolutas. Madrid: Arco Libros.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Pérez Jiménez, Isabel, Manuel Leonetti, and Silvia Gumiel-Molina
    (eds.) 2015New perspectives on the study of ser and estar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ihll.5
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ihll.5 [Google Scholar]
  51. Roby, David B.
    2007Aspect and the categorisation of states. The case of ser and estar in Spanish (PhD). The University of Texas at Austin.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Sánchez-Alonso, Sara, Ashwini Deo, and María Mercedes Piñango
    2017 “Copula distinction and constrained variability of copula use in Iberian and Mexican Spanish,” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 23/11. repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol23/iss1/25
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Sánchez-Alonso, Sara [Google Scholar]
  54. Saussure, Louis de
    2013 “Background relevance.” Journal of Pragmatics591: 178–189. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.08.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.08.009 [Google Scholar]
  55. Silvagni, Federico
    2018 “Sobre la distinción entre Individuo/Estadio y su relación con ser y estar.” Revista Española de Lingüística481: 15–56. 10.31810/RSEL.48.2
    https://doi.org/10.31810/RSEL.48.2 [Google Scholar]
  56. Simons, Mandy
    2005 “Presuppositions and relevance.” InSemantics vs. pragmatics, ed. byGendler Szabo, 329–355. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199251520.003.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199251520.003.0009 [Google Scholar]
  57. Sperber, Dan, Francesco Cara, and Vittorio Girotto
    1995 “Relevance theory explains the selection task.” Cognition571: 31–95. 10.1016/0010‑0277(95)00666‑M
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(95)00666-M [Google Scholar]
  58. Stephenson, Tamina
    2007 “Judge dependence, epistemic modals, and predicates of personal taste.” Linguistics and Philosophy301: 487–525. 10.1007/s10988‑008‑9023‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-008-9023-4 [Google Scholar]
  59. Stump, Gregory T.
    1985The Semantic Variability of Absolute Constructions. Dordrecht: Reidel. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑5277‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5277-5 [Google Scholar]
  60. Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste, and Dan Sperber
    2004 “Testing the cognitive and the communicative principles of relevance.” InExperimental pragmatics; ed. byIra A. Noveck and Dan Sperber, 141–169. London: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230524125_7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230524125_7 [Google Scholar]
  61. von Fintel, Kai
    2000 “What is presupposition accommodation?” Ms MIT, Cambridge. web.mit.edu/fintel/fintel-2000-accomm.pdf

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error