Volume 18, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1571-0718
  • E-ISSN: 1571-0726
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study analyzes the linguistic landscape (LL) of Azogues, Ecuador, by analyzing 171 photographs of business signs, taken during the summer of 2017. It analyzes cases of language mixing from a polylanguaging perspective (Jørgensen et al. 2011) and applies the concept of bivalency (Woolard 1999) to understand how linguistic features are used on signs in the LL to index membership in multiple groups and to construct multiple identities through the use of Spanish and English. It investigates the use of bivalency in lexical items, orthography and other linguistic features. This study analyzes the use of English as an outcome of globalization and examines the use of bivalency as a strategy to index global identity when access to English is limited.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alfonzetti, Giovanna
    2015 “Age-related Variation in Code-switching between Italian and the Sicilian Dialect.” Athens Journal of Philology, 2 (1): 21–34. 10.30958/ajp.2‑1‑2
    https://doi.org/10.30958/ajp.2-1-2 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alvarez-Cáccamo, Celso
    1990 “Rethinking Conversational Code-Switching: Codes, Speech Varieties, and Contextualization.” BLS 16: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, (February16–19 1990), 3–16. 10.3765/bls.v16i0.1716
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v16i0.1716 [Google Scholar]
  3. Backhaus, Peter
    2006 “Multilingualism in Tokyo: A Look into the Linguistic Landscape.” International Journal of Multilingualism3 (1): 52–66. 10.1080/14790710608668385
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710608668385 [Google Scholar]
  4. 2007Linguistic Landscapes: A Comparative Study of Urban Multilingualism in Tokyo. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barni, Monica, and Bagna, Carla
    2010 “Linguistic Landscape and Language Vitality.” InLinguistic Landscape in the City, ed. byElana Shohamy, Eliezer Ben-Rafael, and Monica Barni. Briston/ Buffalo/ Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692993‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692993-003 [Google Scholar]
  6. Baumgardner, Robert J.
    2011 “Mexico’s ’Commission for the Defense of the Spanish Language.” International Journal of Linguistics3 (1): 1981–2. 10.5296/ijl.v3i1.736
    https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v3i1.736 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beck, Ulrich
    2006 “Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: a research agenda.” The British Journal of Sociology57: 1–23. 10.1111/j.1468‑4446.2006.00091.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00091.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, Elana Shohamy, Muhammad Amara, and Nira Trumper-Hecht
    2006 “Linguistic Landscape as Symbolic Construction of the Public Space: The Case of Israel.” InLinguistic Landscape: A New Approach to Multilingualism, ed. byDurk Gorter, 7–30. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599170‑002
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599170-002 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, Elana Shohamy, and Monica Barni
    2010 “Introduction: An Approach to an ‘Ordered Disorder.’” InLinguistic Landscape in the City, ed. ByElana Shohamy, Eliezer Ben-Rafael and Monica Barni, xi–xxviii. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692993‑002
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692993-002 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhatia, Tej
    1992 “Discourse Functions and Pragmatics of Mixing: Advertising Across Cultures.” World Englishes11 (2/3): 195–215. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1992.tb00064.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1992.tb00064.x [Google Scholar]
  11. 2000Advertising in Rural India. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blackwood, Robert J., and Stefania Tufi
    2015The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. 10.1057/9781137314567
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137314567 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blommaert, Jan
    2008Grassroots Literacy. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203895481
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203895481 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2010The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511845307
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307 [Google Scholar]
  15. 2013Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes: Chronicles of Complexity. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783090419
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090419 [Google Scholar]
  16. Blommaert, Jan, James Collins, and Stef Slembrouck
    2005 “Spaces of multilingualism.” Language and Communication25: 197–216. 10.1016/j.langcom.2005.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2005.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  17. Blommaert, Jan, and Ad Backus
    2011 “Repertoires Revisited: ‘Knowing Language’ in Superdiversity.” Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies67.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. British Council – Education Intelligence
    British Council – Education Intelligence 2015 “English in Ecuador: An Examination of Policy, Perceptions, and Influencing Factors.” Published online: englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/english_in_ecuador.pdf
  19. Bruyél-Olmedo, Antonio, and Juan-Garau, María
    2009 “English as a Lingua Franca in the Linguistic Landscape of the Multilingual Resort of S’Arenal in Mallorca.” International Journal of Multilingualism6 (4): 38. 10.1080/14790710903125010
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903125010 [Google Scholar]
  20. Calhoun, Craig
    2002 “The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travelers: Toward a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism.” South Atlantic Quarterly101 (4): 869–897. 10.1215/00382876‑101‑4‑869
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-101-4-869 [Google Scholar]
  21. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2013Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203120293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203120293 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2017 “Translingual Practice as Spatial Repertoires: Expanding the Paradigm Beyond Structuralist Orientations.” Applied Linguistics 2017: 1–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cenoz, Jasoe, and Durk Gorter
    2006 “Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages.” InLinguistic Landscape: A New Approach to Multilingualis, ed. byDurk Gorter, 67–80. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599170‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599170-005 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cheshire, Jenny, and Lise-Marie Moser
    1994 “English as a Cultural Symbol: The Case of Advertisements in French-Speaking Switzerland.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development15 (6): 451–469. 10.1080/01434632.1994.9994584
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1994.9994584 [Google Scholar]
  25. Clyne, Michael
    1967Transference and Triggering. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Comajoan Colomé, Llorenc, and Ethan Long
    2012 “The Linguistic Landscape of Three Streets in Barcelona: Patterns of Language Visibility in Public Space.” InMinority Languages in the Linguistic Landscape, ed. byDurk Gorter, Heiko Marten, and Luk Van Mensel, 183–203. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230360235_11
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230360235_11 [Google Scholar]
  27. Eastman, Carol, and Roberta Stein
    1993 “Language Display: Authenticating Claims to social Identity.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development14 (3): 187–202. 10.1080/01434632.1993.9994528
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1993.9994528 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ethnologue
  29. Franco-Rodríguez, José
    2011 “Linguistic Landscape and Language Maintenance: The Case of Los Angeles and Miami Dade Counties.” InCulture and Language: Multidisciplinary Case Studies, ed. byMichael Morris. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2013 “An Alternative Reading of the Linguistic Landscape: The Case of Almería.” Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana11 (1): 109–134.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gorter, Durk, and Jasone Cenoz
    2015 “Translanguaging and Linguistic Landscapes.” Linguistic Landscape1 (1/2): 54–74. 10.1075/ll.1.1‑2.04gor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.1.1-2.04gor [Google Scholar]
  32. Gorter, Durk, Jokin Aiestaran, and Jasone Cenoz
    2012 “The Revitalization of Basque and the Linguistic Landscape of Donostia-San Sebastián.” InMinority Languages in the Linguistic Landscape, ed. byDurk Gorter, Heiko Marten, and Luk Van Mensel, 148–163. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230360235_9
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230360235_9 [Google Scholar]
  33. Griffin, Jeffrey
    2004 “The Presence of Written English on the Streets of Rome.” English Today78, 20 (2): 3–8. 10.1017/S0266078404002020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078404002020 [Google Scholar]
  34. Grosjean, François
    1982Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Haboud, Marleen
    2009 “Teaching Foreign Languages: A Challenge to Ecuadorian Bilingual Intercultural Education.” LJES9 (1): 63–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hannerz, Ulf
    2006 Two Faces of Cosmopolitanism: Culture and Politics. Barcelona: Cidob.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Heller, Monica
    (ed.) 1988Codeswitching: Anthroplogical and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110849615
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110849615 [Google Scholar]
  38. Higgins, Christina
    2003 “‘Ownership’ in the Outer Circle: An Alternative to the NS-NNS Dichotomy.” TESOL Quarterly37 (4): 615–644. 10.2307/3588215
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588215 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2009English as a Local Language: Post-colonial Identities and Multilingual Practices. Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691828
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691828 [Google Scholar]
  40. Huebner, Thom
    2006 “Bangkok’s Linguistic Landscapes: Environmental Print, Codemixing, and Language Change.” InLinguistic Landscape: A New Approach to Multilingualism in the City, ed. byDurk Gorter, 31–51. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599170‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599170-003 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2009 “A Framework for the Linguistic Analysis of Linguistic Landscapes.” InLinguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery, ed. byElanna Shohamy, and Durk Gorter, 70–87. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Jaworski, Adam, and Crispin Thurlow
    (eds) 2010Semiotic Landscapes: Language, Image, Space. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jørgensen, J. Normann
    2008Languaging: Nine Years of Poly-lingual Development of Young Turkish-Danish Grade School Students. Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, The Køge Series Vol. K15.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Jørgensen, J. Normann, Martha Karrebæk, Lian Madsen, and Janus Møller
    2011 “Polylanguaging in Superdiversity.” Diversities13 (2): 23–38 [online]. www.unesco.org/shs/diversities/vol13/issue2/art2
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Jørgensen, J. Normann, and Janus Møller
    2014 “Polylingualism and Languaging.” InThe Routledge companion to English studies, ed. byC. Leung, and B. Street, 67–83. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Juffermans, Kasper
    2014 “Englishing, Imaging and Local Languaging in the Gambian Linguistic Landscape.” InAfrican Literacies: Ideologies, Scripts, Education, ed. byKasper Juffermans, Yonas Asfaha, and Ashraf Abdelhay, 206–236. Cambridge Scholars: Newcastle upon Tyne.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Kallen, Jeffrey, and Ní Dhonnacha
    2010 “Language and Inter-language in Urban Irish and Japanese Linguistic Landscapes.” InLinguistic Landscape in the City, ed. byElana Shohamy, Eliezer Ben-Rafael, and Monica Barni, 19–36. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692993‑004
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692993-004 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kelly-Holmes, Helen
    2005Advertising as multilingual communication. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230503014
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230503014 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kress, Gunther
    2010Multimodality: A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Kress, Gunther, and Theo van Leeuwen
    2001Multimodal discourse. Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lado, Beatriz
    2011 “Linguistic Landscape as a Reflection of the Linguistic and Ideological Conflict in the Valencian Community.” International Journal of Multilingualism8 (2): 135–150. 10.1080/14790718.2010.550296
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2010.550296 [Google Scholar]
  52. Lai, Mee Ling
    2013 “The linguistic landscape of Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty.” International Journal of Multilingualism10 (3): 251–272, 10.1080/14790718.2012.708036
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2012.708036 [Google Scholar]
  53. Landry, R. and R. Bourhis
    1997 “Linguistic Landscape and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: An Empirical Study.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology16 (1): 23–49. 10.1177/0261927X970161002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X970161002 [Google Scholar]
  54. López Docampo, Miguel
    2011 “A paisaxe lingüística: Unha análise dun espazo público galego.” Cademos de Lingua33: 5–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lyons, Kate, and Itxaso Rodríguez-Ordóñez
    2017 “Quantifying the Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Spanish-English Variation in Pilsen, Chicago.” Spanish in Context14 (3): 329–362. 10.1075/sic.14.3.01lyo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.14.3.01lyo [Google Scholar]
  56. Maersk Nielsen, Paul
    2003 “English in Argentina: A Sociolinguistic Profile.” World Englishes22 (2): 199–209. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00288
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00288 [Google Scholar]
  57. Mavers, Diane
    2011Children’s Drawing and Writing: The Remarkable in the Unremarkable. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203844366
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203844366 [Google Scholar]
  58. Mitchell, Thomas D.
    2010 “‘A Latino Community Takes Hold’: Reproducing Semiotic Landscapes in Media Discourse.” InSemiotic Landscapes: Language, Image, Space, ed. byAdam Jaworski and Crispin Thurlow, 168–186. London: Continuum International Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Møller, Janus
    2008 “Polylingual Performance among Turkish-Danes in Late-modern Copenhagen.” International Journal of Multilingualism5 (3): 217–236. 10.1080/14790710802390178
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710802390178 [Google Scholar]
  60. Niño-Murcia, Mercedes
    2003 “‘English is Like the Dollar’: Hard Currency Ideology and the Status of English in Peru.– World Englishes22 (2): 121–141. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00283
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00283 [Google Scholar]
  61. Ovesdotter, Cecilia
    2003 “English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.” World Englishes22 (2): 143–158. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00284
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00284 [Google Scholar]
  62. Pennycook, Alastair
    2007Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2010Language as a Local Practice. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203846223
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846223 [Google Scholar]
  64. Pew Research Center
  65. Piller, Ingrid
    2001 “Identity Construction in Multilingual Advertising.” Language in Society30: 153–186. 10.1017/S0047404501002019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404501002019 [Google Scholar]
  66. 2003 “Advertising as a Site of Language Contact.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics23: 170–183. 10.1017/S0267190503000254
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190503000254 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2011Intercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Pons Rodríguez, Lola
    2012El país lingüístico de Sevilla: Lenguas y variedades en el escenario urbano hispalense. Sevilla: Diputación de Sevilla.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Poplack, Shana
    2015 “Code switching: Linguistics.” InInternational Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed.vol.3, 918–925. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑097086‑8.53004‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.53004-9 [Google Scholar]
  70. Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz, and Nathalie Dion
    2012 “What counts as (contact-induced) change?” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15 (2). 247–254. 10.1017/S1366728911000502
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000502 [Google Scholar]
  71. Rajagopalan, Kanavillil
    2003 “The Ambivalent Role of English in Brazilian Politics.” World Englishes22 (2): 91–101. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00281
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00281 [Google Scholar]
  72. 2005 “Language politics in Latin America”. AILA Review18: 76–93. 10.1075/aila.18.07raj
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.18.07raj [Google Scholar]
  73. 2006 “South American Englishes.” InThe Handbook of World Englishes, ed byDaniel Davis, Zoya Proshina, and Cecil Nelson, 145–157. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470757598.ch9
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757598.ch9 [Google Scholar]
  74. 2009 “The Identity of ‘World English.’” InNew Challenges in Language and Literature, ed. byGlaucia Renate Gonçalves, Sandra Goulart Almeida, Vera Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva, and Adail Rodrigues-Júnior, 97–107. Belo Horizonte.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 2010 “The English Language, Globalization and Latin America: Possible Lessons from the ‘Outer Circle’”. Contending with Globalization in World Englishes, edited byMukul Saxena and Tope Omoniyi, Bristol, Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters, pp.175–195. 10.21832/9781847692764‑012
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692764-012 [Google Scholar]
  76. 2012 “Varieties of English in South America.” InThe Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, ed. byC. Chapelle, 6078–6080. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1257
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1257 [Google Scholar]
  77. Rasinger, Sebastian
    2014 “Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria).” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development35 (6): 580–602. 10.1080/01434632.2014.889142
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2014.889142 [Google Scholar]
  78. Sankoff, David, Poplack Shana, and Vanniarajan Swathi
    1990 “The case of the nonce loan in Tamil.” Language Variation and Change, 2 (1): 71–101. 10.1017/S0954394500000272
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000272 [Google Scholar]
  79. Scollon, Ron, and Suzie Wong Scollon
    2003Discourse in Place: Language in the Material World. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203422724
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203422724 [Google Scholar]
  80. Sebba, Mark
    2010 “Discourses in Transit.” InSemiotic Landscapes: Language, Image, Space, ed. byAdam Jaworski and Crispin Thurlow, 59–76. London: Continuum International Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 2013 “Multilingualism in Written Discourse: An Approach to the Analysis of Multilingual Texts.” International Journal of Bilingualism17 (1): 97–118. 10.1177/1367006912438301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912438301 [Google Scholar]
  82. Shell, Marc
    1993Children of the Earth: Literature, Politics and Nationhood. New York: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Shohamy, Elana, and Durk Gorter
    (eds.) 2009Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Shohamy, Elana and Shoshi Waksman
    2010 “Semiotic Landscapes.” InSemiotic Landscapes: Language, Image, Space, ed. byAdam Jaworski and Crispin Thurlow, 241–255. London: Continuum International Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Shweder, Richard
    2000 “Moral Maps, ‘First World’ Conceits, and the New Evangelists.” InCulture Matters, ed. byLawrence Harrison and Samuel Huntington, 158–176. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Thurlow, Crispin, and Adam Jaworski
    2011 “Tourism discourse: Languages and banal globalization.” Applied Linguistics Review2 (2011): 285–312. 10.1515/9783110239331.285
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.285 [Google Scholar]
  87. Tufi, Stefanie, and Robert Blackwood
    2010 “Trademarks in the Linguistic Landscape: Methodological and Theoretical Challenges in Qualifying Brand Names in the Public Space.” International Journal of Multilingualism7 (3): 197–210. 10.1080/14790710903568417
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903568417 [Google Scholar]
  88. van Leeuwen, Theo
    2005Introducing Social Semiotics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Vélez-Rendón, Gloria
    2003 “English in Colombia: A Sociolinguistic Profile.” World Englishes22 (2): 185–198. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00287
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00287 [Google Scholar]
  90. Woolard, Kathryn
    1987 “Codeswitching and Comedy in Catalonia.” IPRA Papers in Pragmatics1, 106–122. 10.1075/iprapip.1.1.04woo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/iprapip.1.1.04woo [Google Scholar]
  91. 1999 “Simultaneity and Bivalency as Strategies in Bilingualism.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology8 (1): 3–29. 10.1525/jlin.1998.8.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.1998.8.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  92. Yanguas, Inigo
    2009 “The Linguistic Landscape of Two Hispanic Neighborhoods in Washington D.C.” RaeL Revista Electronica de Linguistica Aplicada, 30.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): bivalency; linguistic landscape; polylanguaging
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error