1887
Volume 42, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0378-4177
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9978
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

In Yoron Ryukyuan, passives are formed through the verbal suffix ‘-ari’. In this article, we observe that the suffix is used to form a construction distinguished from the standard passives in several respects: (i) attachment of ‘-ari’ to a wide range of predicates, (ii) ‘-ari’ obligatorily coexisting with the clause-linking suffix ‘-ti’, (iii) the case-marking pattern identical to that of active sentences, among other properties. Semantically, this construction expresses that the speaker is affected (typically, in an adversative fashion) by the situation denoted by the ‘-ari’-attached predicate. We call this linguistic unit "Affective Construction" (AC), revealing its unique syntactic and semantic properties. Furthermore, we suggest that the development of ‘-ari’ into ‘-ari-ti’ to constitute the AC may be viewed as an instance of grammaticalisation, with remarks on its generality in line with Unidirectionality and on the licensing conditions on the AC which seem to be uncommon cross-linguistically.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/sl.17002.ser
2018-06-06
2019-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Börjars, K. & N. Vincent
    2011 Grammaticalization and directionality. In B. Heine & H. Narrog (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization, 163–67. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Comrie, B.
    1977 In defense of spontaneous demotion. In P. Cole & J. Sadock (eds.), Grammatical Relations, 47–58. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 1989Language Universals and Linguistic Typology, 2nd edn.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 1998 Perspectives on grammaticalization. In T. Ohori (ed.), Studies in Japanese Grammaticalization, 7–24. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Estival, D. & J. Myhill
    1988 Formal and functional aspects of the development from passive to ergative systems. In M. Shibatani (ed.), Passive and Voice, 441–91. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.16.15est
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.16.15est [Google Scholar]
  6. Evans, N.
    2007 Insubordination and its use. In I. Nikolaeva (ed.), Finiteness, 366–431. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Giis, L.
    2016Ryukyu Okinoerabugo Masana-Hougen-no Kijutsu Bunpou Kenkyu. [A descriptive grammatical study on the Masana dialect of Okinoerabu Ryukyuan]. Nishihara, Japan: University of Ryukyus Ph.D. dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Givón, T.
    1981 Typology and functional domains. Studies in Language5(2). 163–93.10.1075/sl.5.2.03giv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.5.2.03giv [Google Scholar]
  9. Grice, P.
    1975 Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics, vol.3, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hanazono, S.
    2014 On “ti-form” of the modern Shuri dialect of Okinawan language. Tokyo Gaikokugo Daigaku Ryuugakusei Nihongo Kyouiku Sentaa Ronshuu40. 161–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Haspelmath, M.
    1990 The grammaticization of passive morphology. Studies in Language14(1). 25–72.10.1075/sl.14.1.03has
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.14.1.03has [Google Scholar]
  12. Heine, B. & T. Kuteva
    2002World Lexicon of Grammaticalizaion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511613463
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613463 [Google Scholar]
  13. Heinrich, P.
    2010 Ryukyu-go-wa “hougen”-de-wa-nai. [Ryukyuan languages are not “dialects”] In P. Heinrich & M. Shimoji (eds.), Ryukyu-shogo Kiroku Hozon-no Kiso. Tokyo: ILCAA.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Heinrich, P. , S. Miyara , & M. Shimoji
    2015The Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.10.1515/9781614511151
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511151 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hopper, P. & S. Thompson
    1980 Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language56 (2). 251–99.10.1353/lan.1980.0017
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1980.0017 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hopper, P. & E. Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization, 2nd edn.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  17. Horie, K. & P. Pardeshi
    2009Gengo-no Taiporojii. [Typology of languages] Tokyo: Kenkyusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ishizuka, T.
    2012The Passive in Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/la.192
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.192 [Google Scholar]
  19. Keenan, E. L.
    1976 Towards a universal definition of “subject.” In C. N. Li (ed.), Subject and Topic, 303–33. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Keenan, E. L. & M. Dryer
    2006 Passive in the world’s languages. In T. Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, vol.1, 2nd edn, 325–61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kemmer, S.
    1993The Middle Voice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.23 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kibe, Y.
    2014 Kagoshimaken Yoron hougen. [The dialect of Yoron in Kagoshima Prefecture] In Y. Kibe et al. (eds.), Kikitekina Joukyouniaru Gengo/Hougen-no Jittai-nikansuru Chousa Kenkyuu Houkokusho, 29–46. Tokyo: National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kiku, C. & T. Takahashi
    2005Yoron Hougen Jiten. [The dictionary of the Yoron dialect]. Tokyo: Musashino Shoin Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kiku, H.
    2006Yoron-no Kotoba-de Hanasou, vol.1, 2nd edn. [Let’s speak in the language of Yoron]. Yoron: Yoron Minzoku-mura.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2007Yoron-no Kotoba-de Hanasou, vol.2. [Let’s speak in the language of Yoron]. Yoron: Yoron Minzoku-mura.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2009Yoron-no Kotoba-de Hanasou, vol.3. [Let’s speak in the language of Yoron]. Yoron: Yoron Minzoku-mura.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 2014Yoron-no Kotoba-de Hanasou, vol.4. [Let’s speak in the language of Yoron]. Yoron: Yoron Minzoku-mura.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kinsui, S.
    1991 Judoubun-no rekishi-ni tsuite-no ichikousatsu. [A study on the history of passive sentences]. Kokugogaku164. 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kishimoto, H.
    2004 Transitivity of ergative-marking predicates in Japanese. Studies in Language28(1). 105–36.10.1075/sl.28.1.05kis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.28.1.05kis [Google Scholar]
  30. Koizumi, M.
    2008 Nominative object. In S. Miyagawa & M. Saito (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Linguistics, 141–64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kudo, M.
    1990 Gendai nihongo-no judoubun. [Passive sentences in contemporary Japanese]. In Gengogaku-kenkyukai (ed.), Kotoba-no Kagaku, vol.4, 47–102. Tokyo: Mugi Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2014Gendai Nihongo Muudo Tensu Asupekuto-Ron. [A study on mood, tense, and aspect in contemporary Japanese]. Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kudo, M. , K. Nakama , & H. Yakame
    2007 Yoron hougen doushi-no asupekuto, tensu, ebidensharitii. [Aspect-tense-evidentiality of verbs in the Yoron dialect]. Kokugo-to Kokubungaku84(3). 53–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kulikov, L.
    2011 Voice typology. In J. -J. Song (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Typology, 368–98. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kuno, M.
    2005Nihon Hougen Kiso Goi-no Kenkyu. [A study on the basic vocabulary of dialects in Japan]. Tokyo: Oufu.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kuno, S.
    1978Danwa-no Bunpo. [The grammar of discourse]. Tokyo: Taishukan Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 1987Functional Syntax. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kuroda, S. -Y.
    1979 On Japanese passives. In G. Bedell et al. (eds.), Explorations in Linguistics, 305–47. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Masuoka, T.
    1991 Judou hyougen-to shukansei. [Passive expressions and subjectivity]. In Y. Nitta (ed.), Nihongo-no Boisu-to Tadousei, 105–21. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Miyara, S.
    2015 Shuri Okinawan grammar. In P. Heinrich et al. (eds.), The Handbook of Ryukyuan Languages, 379–404. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Narrog, H.
    2012Modality, Subjectivity and Semantic Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694372.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694372.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Narrog, H. & T. Ohori
    2011 Grammaticalization in Japanese. In B. Heine & H. Narrog (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization, 775–85. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Niinaga, Y. , M. Ishihara , & S. Nishioka
    2014 Kitaryuukyuu shogo-no sonzokuryoku-to kikido. [Survival and the degree of endangerment of North Ryukyuan languages]. In M. Shimoji & P. Heinrich (eds.), Ryuukyuu Shogo-no Hoji-o mezashite. Tokyo: Koko.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Nitta, Y.
    1995 ‑Shi-te-setsuzoku-o megutte. [On the clause-linking ‑shi-te ]. In Y. Nitta (ed.), Fukubun-no Kenkyu, vol.1, 87–126. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ohori, T.
    1995 Remarks on suspended clauses. In M. Shibatani & S. Thompson (eds.), Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics, 201–18. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2005 Nihongo-no bunpouka kenkyuu-niatatte. [Perspectives on grammaticalization in Japanese]. Kokugogaku222. 1–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pellard, T.
    2010 Ōgami (Miyako Ryukyuan). In M. Shimoji & T. Pellard (eds.), An Introduction to Ryukyuan Languages, 113–66. Tokyo: ILCAA.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2012 Converbs and their desubordination in Ōgami Ryukyuan. Gengo Kenkyu142. 95–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sasaki, K.
    2006 Kaku. [Case]. In K. Sasaki et al. (eds.), Hougen-no Bunpou. 1–46. Tokyo: Iwanami Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Shibatani, M.
    1977 Grammatical relations and surface cases. Language53(4). 789–809.10.2307/412912
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412912 [Google Scholar]
  51. 1978Nihongo-no Bunseki. [The analysis of Japanese]. Tokyo: Taishukan Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 1985 Passive and related constructions. Language61(4). 821–48.10.2307/414491
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414491 [Google Scholar]
  53. 2000 Boisu. [Voice]. In N. Yoshio & T. Masuoka (eds.), Nihongo-no Bunpou, vol.1, 119–86. Tokyo: Iwanami Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Shigeno, H. & R. Shirata
    2016 Kitaryukyu Amami hougen-niokeru yuuseisei kaisou. [The animacy hierarchy in Amami daialects]. Hiroshima Keizai Daigaku Kenkyu Ronsou38(4). 111–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Shimoji, M.
    2015 Ryukyu shohougen-niokeru yuuhyou shukaku-to bunretsu jidousei. [Marked nominative case and split intransitivity in Ryukyuan dialects]. Hougen-no Kenkyu1. 1–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 2017A Grammar of Irabu, a Southern Ryukyuan Language. Fukuoka: Kyushu University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Shimoji, M. & T. Pellard
    (eds.) 2010An Introduction to Ryukyuan Languages. Tokyo: ILCAA.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Shinzato, R.
    2007 (Inter)subjectification, Japanese syntax and syntactic scope increase. Journal of Historical Pragmatics8(2). 171–206.10.1075/jhp.8.2.03shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.8.2.03shi [Google Scholar]
  59. Tabor, W. & E. Traugott
    1998 Structural scope expansion and grammaticalization. In A. Ramat & P. Hopper (eds.), The Limits of Grammaticalization, 229–72. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.37.11tab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.37.11tab [Google Scholar]
  60. Takami, K.
    1995Kinouteki Koubunron-niyoru Nichieigo Hikaku. [Comparisons between Japanese and English in functional syntax]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Tohyama, N.
    2013 Okinawaken shuri-hougen-niokeru shiekibun-no imikouzou. [Causative constructions in the Okinawa Shuri dialect]. Nihongo Bunpou13(2). 105–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2014 Shuri-hougen-niokeru judoubun-no imikouzou-to benefakutibu. [Benefactive and passive constructions in the Shuri dialect]. International Review of Ryukyuan and Okinawan Studies3. 11–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2015Okinawa Shuri-hougen-niokeru Boisu-to Riekisei-no Kijutsu Bunpou Kenkyuu. [A descriptive grammatical study of voice and beneficiency in the Shuri dialect of Okinawan]. Nishihara, Japan: University of the Ryukyus Ph.D. dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Tohyama, N. & T. Seraku
    2016 Towards a description of the case system of Yoron Ryukyuan. International Journal of Okinawan Studies7. 57–81.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Toyota, J.
    2011The Grammatical Voice in Japanese. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Trask, R. L.
    1979 On the origins of ergativity. In F. Plank (ed.), Ergativity, 385–404. London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tsujimura, N.
    2007An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics, 2nd edn.Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Tsunoda, T.
    2009Sekai-no Gengo-to Nihongo, 2nd edn. [The world’s languages and Japanese]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. UNESCO
    UNESCO 2009Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. www.unesco.org/languages-atlas/index.php accessed on14 Oct 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Wiemer, B.
    2011 The grammaticalization of passives. In B. Heine & H. Narrog (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization, 535–46. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Yamada, M.
    1979Ryukyugo Doushi-no Keitairon-teki Kouzou. [The morphological structures of verbs in Ryukyuan]. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankokai.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 1981Amami Yoron Hougen-no Taigen-no Gohou. [The usages of nominal expressions in the Yoron dialect]. Tokyo: Daiichi Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 1983Ryukyu-go Keiyoushi-no Keitaironteki Kouzou. [The morphological structure of adjectives in Ryukyuan languages]. Tokyo: Oufu.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Yamada, M. , T. Pellard , & M. Shimoji
    2015 Dunan grammar (Yonaguni Ryukyuan). In P. Heinrich et al. (eds.), The Handbook of Ryukyuan Languages, 449–78. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/sl.17002.ser
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/sl.17002.ser
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): affectedness , case , passive , voice and Yoron Ryukyuan
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error