Volume 43, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0378-4177
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9978
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This article argues that the logical paraphrases used to describe the meanings of , and obscure the natural-language semantic interaction between these verbs and negation. The purported non-negatability of is argued to be an illusion created by the indicative-mood paraphrase ‘is necessary’, which treats the necessity as a reality rather than a non-reality. It is proposed that negation coalesces with the modality that itself expresses to produce a negatively-charged version of ’s modality: the subject of is represented as being in a state of constraint in which the only possibility open to the subject is oriented in the opposite direction to the realization of the infinitive’s event. The study also constitutes an argument against a lexicalization analysis: in the combination and each contribute their own meaning to the resultant sense, but according to their conceptual status as inherently irrealis notions.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): logical semantics; modal auxiliary; negation; paraphrase; polarity
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