image of The ventive and the deictic shift
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The Old Assyrian language is a branch of East Semitic. East Semitic has been extinct since around 400 BCE. The Old Assyrian texts used in this study were produced by Assyrian merchants between 1890 and 1860 BCE in Northern Mesopotamia and Central Anatolia. Old Assyrian, as well as most other East Semitic varieties, had a ventive (or cislocative) marker hosted on motion verbs. This marker obligatorily encoded motion either toward the speaker or the interlocutor (the addressee of a written message). By way of a deictic shift, the ventive sometimes also came to point to a future location of the speaker and even to the whereabouts of non-speech act participants. The ventive marker had three allomorphs which are also allomorphs of the 1st person singular indirect object pronoun ‘to/for me’. The cislocative and personal pronoun meanings of the marker evolved in the course of a complex interaction which we trace in the etymological part of the study.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Albayrak, İrfan & Hakan Erol
    2016Kültepe tabletleri IX-a [Tablets from Kültepe IX-a]. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arkadiev, Peter
    2020 Non-canonical inverse in Circassian. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung(). –. 10.1515/stuf‑2019‑0028
    https://doi.org/10.1515/stuf-2019-0028 [Google Scholar]
  3. Barjamovic, Goiko
    2011A historical geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian colony period. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baumgartner, Walter K. L. & Johann J. Stamm
    2000The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bonvillain, Nancy
    1973A grammar of Akwesasne Mohawk. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bourdin, Philippe
    2005 The marking of directional deixis in Somali: How typologically idiosyncratic is it?InVoeltz, Erhard & Karl Friedrich (eds.), Studies in African linguistic typology (Typological Studies in Language 64), –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bühler, Karl
    1965 [1934]Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache [Theory of Language. The representational function of language]. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clay, Albert T.
    1927Letters and transactions from Cappadocia. Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies 4. New Haven: Yale University Press; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. DeLancey, Scott
    2013 The history of postverbal agreement in Kuki-Chin. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dombrowsky-Hahn, Klaudia
    2012 Grammaticalization of the deictic verbs ‘come’ and ‘go’ in Syer (Senufo, Gur). InMietzner, Angelika & Ulrike Claudi (eds.), Directionality in grammar and discourse: Case studies from Africa, –. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Donbaz, Veysel
    1989Keilschrifttexte in den Antiken-Museen zu Istanbul 2 [Cuneiform texts in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums]. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ferris, Stephens J.
    1944Old Assyrian letters and business documents. Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies 6. New Haven: Yale University Press; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fillmore, Charles J.
    1997Lectures on deixis. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
    2012A grammar of Wandala. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110218411
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218411 [Google Scholar]
  15. Guillaume, Antoine & Harold Koch
    (eds.) 2021Associated motion. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110692099
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110692099 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gwaltney, Walter C.
    1983The Pennsylvania Old Assyrian texts. Hebrew Union College Annual Supplements. 3. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
    2002World lexicon of grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511613463
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613463 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hoad, Terry F.
    (ed.) 2003The concise Oxford dictionary of English etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hrozny, Bedrich
    1952Inscriptions cunéiformes de Kültepe 1 [Cuneiform inscriptions from Kültepe 1]. Prague: Státní Pedagogické Nakladatelství.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kienast, Burkhart
    1960Die altassyrischen Texte des Orientalischen Seminars der Universität Heidelberg und der Sammlung Erlenmayer-Basel [The Old Assyrian texts of the Oriental seminar of the University of Heidelberg and the Erlenmayer-Basel collection]. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Koga, Hiroaki & Toshio Ohori
    2008 Reintroducing inverse constructions in Japanese: The deictic verb kuru ‘to come’ in the paradigms of argument encoding. InRobert D. Van Valin Jr. (ed.), Investigations of the syntax-semantics-pragmatics interface, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.105.07kog
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.105.07kog [Google Scholar]
  22. Kogan, Leonid
    2015Genealogical classification of Semitic. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614515494
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515494 [Google Scholar]
  23. Konnerth, Linda
    2015 A new type of convergence at the deictic center: Second person and cislocative in Karbi (Tibeto-Burman). Studies in language (). –. 10.1075/sl.39.1.02kon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.1.02kon [Google Scholar]
  24. Kouwenberg, Norbert J. C.
    2002 Ventive, dative and allative in Old Babylonian. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie. –. 10.1515/zava.2002.92.2.200
    https://doi.org/10.1515/zava.2002.92.2.200 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2017A grammar of Old Assyrian. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004472846
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004472846 [Google Scholar]
  26. Landsberger, Benno
    1924 Der “Ventiv” des Akkadischen [The “ventive” of Akkadian]. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Larsen, Mogens Trolle
    2010Kültepe tabletleri VI-a. The archive of the Šalim-Aššur family. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 2013Kültepe tabletleri VI-b. The archive of the Šalim-Aššur family. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2014Kültepe tabletleri VI-c. The archive of the Šalim-Aššur family. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lewy, Julius
    1929Die Kultepetexte der Sammlung Rudolf Blanckertz, Berlin [Kültepe texts of the collection of Rudolf Blanckertz]. Berlin: Heintze und Blanckertz.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lichtenberk, Frantisek
    1991 Semantic change and heterosemy in grammaticalization. Language. –. 10.1353/lan.1991.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1991.0009 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lyons, John
    1977Semantics. Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Margetts, Anna, Katharina Haude, Nikolaus Himmelmann, Dagmar Jung, Sonja Riesberg, Stefan Schnell, Frank Seifart, Harriet Sheppard & Claudia Wegener
    2022 Cross-linguistic patterns in the lexicalisation of BRING and TAKE. Studies in Language. –. 10.1075/sl.19088.mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.19088.mar [Google Scholar]
  34. Michel, Cécile & Paul Garelli
    1997Tablettes paléo-assyriennes de Kültepe [Old Assyrian tablets of Kültepe]. Paris: De Boccard.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mithun, Marianne
    1996 New directions in referentiality. InFox, Barbara (ed.), Studies in anaphora (Typological studies in language 33), –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.33.13mit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.33.13mit [Google Scholar]
  36. Næss, Åshild & Even Hovdhaugen
    2011A grammar of Vaeakau-Taumako. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110238273
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238273 [Google Scholar]
  37. Nöldeke, Theodor
    2001Compendious Syriac grammar. Oregon: Wipf & Stock Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Oshima, David Y.
    2006Perspectives in reported discourse. Stanford: Stanford University.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rind, Lindsey W. & Kate L. Lindsey
    2021 “Now the story’s turning around”: Associated motion and directionality in Ende, a language of Papua New Guinea. InGuillaume, Antoine & Harold Koch (eds.), Associated motion, –. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rosenthal, Franz
    1995Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. de Ridder, Jacob J.
    2018Descriptive grammar of Middle Assyrian. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rude, Noel
    1997 Dative shifting and double objects in Sahaptin. InGivón, Talmy (ed.), Grammatical relations: a functionalist perspective, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.35.09rud
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.35.09rud [Google Scholar]
  43. Sokoloff, Michael
    2009A Syriac lexicon. Winona Lake, Piscataway: Eisenbrauns, Gorgias.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Veenhof, Klaas R.
    2017Kültepe tabletleri 8: the archive of Elamma, son of Iddin-Suen, and his family. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Watkins, Laurel & Gathercole, Ginny
    1977 A study of the comings and goings of the speakers of four languages: Spanish, Japanese, English, and Turkish. Kansas Working Paper in Lingustics. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wehr, Hans
    1961A dictionary of modern written Arabic. New York: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wilkins, David P. & Hill, Deborah
    1995 When ˝go˝ means ˝come˝: Questioning the basicness of basic motion verbs. Cognitive Linguistics. –. 10.1515/cogl.1995.6.2‑3.209
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1995.6.2-3.209 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error