1887
Volume 10, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4372
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4380
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, we used latent variable analysis to distinguish two components of reader reactions to narrative fiction: Evaluative reaction is the extent to which a character is seen as reasonable and rational, and experiential reaction is the extent to which the reader feels similar to and identifies with the character. We found that evaluative reaction was more negative when mental access to the character was provided, while experiential reaction was decreased by the use of a first-person (as opposed to third-person) narrator. These results were explained in terms of the additional cognitive processing engendered by the these narrative techniques. In particular, we hypothesized that a paucity of mental access leads readers to make their own inferences about the character’s mental state, while the use of third-person narration leads readers to draw on their personal experience in order to appreciate the circumstances of the character.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.20005.dix
2021-03-19
2021-05-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akaike, H.
    (1973) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In B. N. Petrov & F. Csaki (pp.267–281). Budapest, Hungary: Akademia Kiado.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brunyé, T. T. , Ditman, T. , Mahoney, C. R. , Augustyn, J. S. , & Taylor, H. A.
    (2009) When you and I share perspectives pronouns modulate perspective taking during narrative comprehension. Psychological Science, 20(1), 27–32. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2008.02249.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02249.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Busselle, R. , & Bilandzic, H.
    (2009) Measuring narrative engagement. Media Psychology, 12(4), 321–347. 10.1080/15213260903287259
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260903287259 [Google Scholar]
  4. Caracciolo, M.
    (2014) The experientiality of narrative: An enactivist approach. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. 10.1515/9783110365658
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110365658 [Google Scholar]
  5. Child, S. , Oakhill, J. , & Garnham, A.
    (2018) You’re the emotional one: The role of perspective for emotion processing in reading comprehension. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 33(7), 1–12. 10.1080/23273798.2018.1431397
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2018.1431397 [Google Scholar]
  6. Cohn, D.
    (1978) Transparent minds: Narrative modes for presenting consciousness in fiction. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9780691213125
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691213125 [Google Scholar]
  7. Creer, S. D. , Cook, A. E. , & O’Brien, E. J.
    (2019) Can readers fully adopt the perspective of the protagonist?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73(5), 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. De Graaf, A. , Hoeken, H. , Sanders, J. , & Beentjes, J. W. J.
    (2012) Identification as a mechanism of narrative persuasion. Communication Research, 39(6), 802–823. 10.1177/0093650211408594
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650211408594 [Google Scholar]
  9. de Vega, M.
    (1994) Characters and their perspectives in narratives describing spatial environments. Psychological Research, 56(2), 116–126. 10.1007/BF00419719
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00419719 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dixon, P. , & Bortolussi, M.
    (2019) Readers’ processing of perceptual perspective and stance. Discourse Processes, 56(7), 513–529. 10.1080/0163853X.2018.1512829
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2018.1512829 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fletcher, A. , & Monterosso, J.
    (2016) The science of free-indirect discourse: An alternate cognitive effect. Narrative, 24(1), 82–103. 10.1353/nar.2016.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1353/nar.2016.0004 [Google Scholar]
  12. Franklin, N. , & Tversky, B.
    (1990) Searching imagined environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119(1), 63–76. 10.1037/0096‑3445.119.1.63
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.119.1.63 [Google Scholar]
  13. Franklin, N. , Tversky, B. , & Coon, V.
    (1992) Switching points-of-view in spatial mental models. Memory & Cognition, 20(5), 507–518. 10.3758/BF03199583
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03199583 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gerrig, R. J.
    (1993) Experiencing narrative worlds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Glover, S. , & Dixon, P.
    (2004) Likelihood ratios: A simple and flexible statistic for empirical psychologists. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 791–806. 10.3758/BF03196706
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196706 [Google Scholar]
  16. Graesser, A. C. , Singer, M. , & Trabasso, T.
    (1994) Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension. Psychological Review, 101(3), 371–395. 10.1037/0033‑295X.101.3.371
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.101.3.371 [Google Scholar]
  17. Green, M. C. , & Brock, T. C.
    (2000) The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 701–721. 10.1037/0022‑3514.79.5.701
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.701 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hakala, C. M.
    (1999) Accessibility of spatial information in a situation model. Discourse Processes, 27(3), 261–279. 10.1080/01638539909545063
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01638539909545063 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hartung, F. , Burke, M. , Hagoort, P. , & Willems, R. M.
    (2016) Taking perspective: Personal pronouns affect experiential aspects of literary reading. PLoS One, 11(5), e0154732. 10.1371/journal.pone.0154732
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154732 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoeken, H. , Kolthoff, M. , & Sanders, J.
    (2016) Story perspective and character similarity as drivers of identification and narrative persuasion. Human Communication Research, 42(2), 292–311. 10.1111/hcre.12076
    https://doi.org/10.1111/hcre.12076 [Google Scholar]
  21. Horton, W. S. , & Rapp, D. N.
    (2003) Out of sight, out of mind: Occlusion and the accessibility of information in narrative comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(1), 104–110. 10.3758/BF03196473
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196473 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kaufman, G. F. , & Libby, L. K.
    (2012) Changing beliefs and behavior through experience-taking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(1), 1–19. 10.1037/a0027525
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027525 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kotovych, M. , Dixon, P. , Bortolussi, M. , & Holden, M.
    (2011) Textual determinants of a component of literary identification. Scientific Study of Literature, 1(2), 260–291. 10.1075/ssol.1.2.05kot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.1.2.05kot [Google Scholar]
  24. Kuzmičová, A. , & Bálint, K.
    (2019) Personal relevance in story reading: A research review. Poetics Today, 40(3), 429–451. 10.1215/03335372‑7558066
    https://doi.org/10.1215/03335372-7558066 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lanser, S.
    (1981) The narrative act. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Leech, G. N. , & Short, M.
    (2007) Style in fiction: A linguistic introduction to english fictional prose. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Matute, A. M.
    (1989) Sin of omission ( M. S. Doyle , Trans.). InThe Heliotrope Wall and Other Stories (pp.68–71). New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Morrow, D. G. , Greenspan, S. L. , & Bower, G. H.
    (1987) Accessibility and situation models in narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26(2), 165–187. 10.1016/0749‑596X(87)90122‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(87)90122-7 [Google Scholar]
  29. Oatley, K.
    (1999) Meeting of minds: Dialogue, sympathy, and identification in reading fiction. Poetics, 26, 439–454. 10.1016/S0304‑422X(99)00011‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-422X(99)00011-X [Google Scholar]
  30. Peskin, J. , & Astington, J. W.
    (2004) The effects of adding metacognitive language to story texts. Cognitive Development, 19(2), 253–273. 10.1016/j.cogdev.2004.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2004.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  31. Prince, G.
    (1987) Dictionary of narratology. Lincoln, NE and London, UK: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Raney, A. A.
    (2004) Expanding disposition theory: Reconsidering character likeing, moral evaluations, and enjoyment. Communication Theory, 14(4), 348–369. 10.1111/j.1468‑2885.2004.tb00319.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00319.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Rimmon-Kenan, S.
    (1983) Narrative fiction: Contemporary poetics. London, UK: Methuen. 10.4324/9780203130650
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203130650 [Google Scholar]
  34. Salem, S. , Weskott, T. , & Holler, A.
    (2017) Does narrative perspective influence readers’ perspective-taking? An empirical study on free indirect discourse, psycho-narration and first-person narration. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 2(1), 61. 10.5334/gjgl.225
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.225 [Google Scholar]
  35. Stanzel, F. K.
    (1984) A theory of narrative ( C. Goedsche , Trans.). Bloomington: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tal-Or, N. , & Cohen, J.
    (2010) Understanding audience involvement: Conceptualizing and manipulating identification and transportation. Poetics, 38(4), 402–418. 10.1016/j.poetic.2010.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2010.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  37. van Krieken, K. , Hoeken, H. , & Sanders, J.
    (2017) Evoking and measuring identification with narrative characters – a linguistic cues framework. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1190. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01190
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01190 [Google Scholar]
  38. Van Lissa, C. J. , & Duuren, T. V.
    (2016) Difficult empathy: The effect of narrative perspective on readers’ engagement with a first-person narrator. Diegesis, 5(1), 42–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. van Peer, W. , & Vander Maat, H.
    (1996) Perspectivation and sympathy: Effects of narrative point of view. In R. J. Kreuz & M. S. MacNealy (Eds.), Empirical Approaches to Literature and Aesthetics (pp.143–154). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.20005.dix
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.20005.dix
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): identification , narrative , narratorial technique , perspective and reader response
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error