1887
Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4372
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4380
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

In the current study, we explored the hypothesis that the level of language concreteness influences readers’ emotional involvement and, thus, fosters the evocation of suspense. To this end, 141 suspenseful texts with comparable content were assessed altogether by 1226 participants on items referring to emotional involvement and suspense. A concreteness score per text was calculated from the ratio between concrete and abstract verbs. Additionally, participants were asked to provide personal data, such as sex, age, or reading habits, and to answer items referring to their ability to feel empathy (trait empathy). Applying a stepwise multiple regression analysis we found that language concreteness is one significant predictor for emotional involvement and suspense (next to and ). These results are discussed with respect to their implications on the nature of suspense and on the so-called .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.6.2.03aur
2017-03-20
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Andringa, E.
    (1996) Effects of narrative distance on readers emotional involvement and response. Poetics, 23, 431–452. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(95)00009‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(95)00009-9 [Google Scholar]
  2. Appel, M. , Koch, E. , Schreier, M. , & Groeben, N.
    (2002) Aspekte des Leseerlebens: Skalenentwicklung. [Assessing experiential states during reading: Scale development]. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 14, 149–154. doi: 10.1026//1617‑6383.14.4.149
    https://doi.org/10.1026//1617-6383.14.4.149 [Google Scholar]
  3. Auracher, J.
    (2007) Psychophysiologische Messungen zur Textwirkung [Psychophysiological measurments of text elicited affect]. Baden Baden: DWV.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aziz-Zadeh, L. , Wilson, S. M. , Rizzolatti, G. , & Iacoboni, M.
    (2006) Congruent embodied representations for visually presented actions and linguistic phrases describing actions. Current Biology, 16, 1818–1823. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.07.060
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.07.060 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bal, P. M. , & Veltkamp, M.
    (2013) How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation. PLoS One, 8, e55341. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055341
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055341 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barber, H. A. , Kousta, S. T. , Otten, L. J. , & Vigliocco, G.
    (2010) Event-related potentials to event-related words: Grammatical class and semantic attributes in the representation of knowledge. Brain Research, 1332, 65–74. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.014 [Google Scholar]
  7. Barsalou, L. W.
    (2008) Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617–645. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093639
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093639 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bigazzi, S. , & Nencini, A.
    (2008) How evolutions construct identities: the psycholinguistic model of evolution. In O. Vincze & S. Bigazzi (Eds.), Élmény, történet: A történetek élménye [engl.: Experience, story – Experience of stories] (pp.91–105). Budapest, Hungary: Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Binder, J. R. , Desai, R. H. , Graves, W. W. , & Conant, L. L.
    (2009) Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2767–2796. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp055
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhp055 [Google Scholar]
  10. Borghi, A. M. , & Binkofski, F.
    (2014) Words as social tools: An embodied view on abstract concepts. New York, NY: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bortolussi, M. , & Dixon, P.
    (2003) Psychonarratology: Foundations for the empirical study of literary response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bortolussi, M. , Dixon, P. , & Sopcak, P.
    (2010) Gender and reading. Poetics, 38, 299–318. doi: 10.1016/j.poetic.2010.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2010.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boulenger, V. , Hauk, O. , & Pulvermüller, F.
    (2009) Grasping ideas with the motor system: Semantic somatotopy in idiom comprehension. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1905–1914. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhn217
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn217 [Google Scholar]
  14. Boulenger, V. , Roy, A. C. , Paulignan, Y. , Deprez, V. , Jeannerod, M. , & Nazir, T. A.
    (2006) Cross-talk between language processes and overt motor behavior in the first 200 msec of processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1607–1615. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.10.1607
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2006.18.10.1607 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brewer, W. F. , & Lichtenstein, E. H.
    (1982) Stories are to entertain: A structural-affect theory of stories. Journal of Pragmatics, 6, 473–486. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(82)90021‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(82)90021-2 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bruner, J.
    (1986) Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Busselle, R. , & Bilandzic, H.
    (2009) Measuring narrative engagement. Media Psychology, 12, 321–347. doi: 10.1080/15213260903287259
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260903287259 [Google Scholar]
  18. Carr, L. , Iacoboni, M. , Dubeau, M. C. , Mazziotta, J. C. , & Lenzi, G. L.
    (2005) Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: A relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. In J. T. Cacioppo & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Social Neuroscience (pp.143–152). New York, NY: Psychology Press. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0935845100
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0935845100 [Google Scholar]
  19. Carroll, N.
    (1996) The paradox of suspense. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.71–92). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Chatman, S.
    (1978) Story and discourse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Christov-Moore, L. , Simpson, E.A. , Coudé, G. , Grigaityte, K. , Iacoboni, M. , & Ferrari, P.F.
    (2014) Empathy: gender effects in brain and behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 46, 604–627. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Comisky, P. , & Bryant, J.
    (1982) Factors involved in generating suspense. Human Communication Research, 9, 49–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1982.tb00682.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1982.tb00682.x [Google Scholar]
  23. Cupchik, G. C.
    (1996) Suspense and disorientation: Two poles of emotionally charged literary uncertainty. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.189–198). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cupchik, G. C. , & László, J.
    (1994) The landscape of time in literary reception: Character experience and narrative action. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 297–312. doi: 10.1080/02699939408408943
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699939408408943 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dalla Volta, R , Fabbri-Destro, M. , Gentilucci, M. , & Avanzini, P.
    (2014) Spatiotemporal dynamics during processing of abstract and concrete verbs: An ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 61, 163–174. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.06.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.06.019 [Google Scholar]
  26. de Vignemont, F. , & Singer, T.
    (2006) The emphatic brain: how, when, and why?Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 435–441. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.008 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dimberg, U. , & Thunberg, M.
    (2012) Empathy, emotional contagion, and rapid facial reactions to angry and happy facial expressions. PsyCh Journal, 1, 118–127. doi: 10.1002/pchj.4
    https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.4 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dixon, P. , & Bortolussi, M.
    (1996) Literary communication: Effects of reader-narrator cooperation. Poetics, 23, 405–430. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(95)00007‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(95)00007-7 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dixon, P. , Bortolussi, M. , Twilley, L. C. , & Leung, A.
    (1993) Literary processing and interpretation: Towards empirical foundations. Poetics, 22, 5–33. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(93)90018‑C
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(93)90018-C [Google Scholar]
  30. Ferrari, G. R. F.
    (1999) Aristotle’s literary aesthetics. Phronesis, 44, 181–198. doi: 10.1163/15685289960500024
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15685289960500024 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fliessbach, K. , Weis, S. , Klaver, P. , Elger, C. E. , & Weber, B.
    (2006) The effect of word concreteness on recognition memory. Neuro-Image, 32, 1413–1421. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.007 [Google Scholar]
  32. Fogassi, L. , & Ferrari, P. F.
    (2007) Mirror neurons and the evolution of embodied language. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 136–141. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑8721.2007.00491.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00491.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Fogassi, L. , Ferrari, P. F. , Gesierich, B. , Rozzi, S. , Chersi, F. , & Rizzolatti, G.
    (2005) Parietal lobe: From action organization to intention understanding. Science, 308, 662–667. doi: 10.1126/science.1106138
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106138 [Google Scholar]
  34. Forster, E. M.
    (2002 / 1927) Aspects of the Novel. New York, NY: RosettaBooks.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gallese, G. , & Goldmann, A.
    (1998) Mirror-neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 493–501. doi: 10.1016/S1364‑6613(98)01262‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01262-5 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gallese, V.
    (2003) The roots of empathy: The shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity. Psychopathology, 36, 171–180. doi: 10.1159/000072786
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000072786 [Google Scholar]
  37. (2008) Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: The neural exploitation hypothesis. Social Neuroscience, 3, 317–333. doi: 10.1080/17470910701563608
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470910701563608 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gallese, V. , Keysers, C. , & Rizzolatti, G.
    (2004) A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 396–403. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.002.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.002 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gallese, V. , & Lakoff, G.
    (2005) The brain’s concepts: the role of the sensory-motor system in conceptual knowledge. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 455–479. doi: 10.1080/02643290442000310
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02643290442000310 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gerrig, R. J.
    (1989) Suspense in the absence of uncertainty. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 633–649. doi: 10.1016/0749‑596X(89)90001‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(89)90001-6 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gerrig, R. J. , & Bernardo, A. B. I.
    (1994) Readers as problem-solvers in the experience of suspense. Poetics, 22, 459–472. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(94)90021‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(94)90021-3 [Google Scholar]
  42. Glenberg, A. , Sato, M. , Cattaneo, L. , Riggio, L. , Palumbo, D. , & Buccino, G.
    (2008) Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 905–919. doi: 10.1080/17470210701625550
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210701625550 [Google Scholar]
  43. Green, M. C.
    (2004) Transportation into narrative worlds: The role of prior knowledge and perceived realism. Discourse Processes, 38, 247–266. doi: 10.1207/s15326950dp3802_5
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326950dp3802_5 [Google Scholar]
  44. Green, M. C. , & Brock, T. C.
    (2000) The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 701–721. doi: 10.1037/0022‑3514.79.5.701
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.701 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hakemulder, J. , & Koopman, E.
    (2010) Readers closing in on immoral characters’ consciousness. Effects of free indirect discourse on response to literary narratives. Journal of Literary Theory, 4, 41–62. doi: 10.1515/jlt.2010.004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jlt.2010.004 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hauk, O. , & Pulvermüller, F.
    (2004) Neurophysiological distinction of action words in the fronto-central cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 21, 191–201. doi: 10.1002/hbm.10157
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.10157 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hauk, O. , Shtyrov, Y. , & Pulvermüller, F.
    (2008) The time course of action and action-word comprehension in the human brain as revealed by neurophysiology. Journal of Physiology – Paris, 102, 50–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jphysparis.2008.03.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphysparis.2008.03.013 [Google Scholar]
  48. Holcomb, P.J. , Kounios, J. , Anderson, J.E. , & West, W.C.
    (1999) Dual-coding, context-availability, and concreteness effects in sentence comprehension: an electrophysiological investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 721–742. doi: 10.1037/0278‑7393.25.3.721
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.25.3.721 [Google Scholar]
  49. Iacoboni, M.
    (2009) Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 653–670. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163604
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163604 [Google Scholar]
  50. Iacoboni, M. , Molnar-Szakacs, I. , Gallese, V. , Buccino, G. , Mazziotta, J. , & Rizzolatti, G.
    (2005) Grasping the intentions of others with one’s owns mirror neuron system. PLOS Biology, 3, 529–535. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030079
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030079 [Google Scholar]
  51. Jacobs, A. M.
    (2015) Towards a neurocognitive poetics model of literary reading. In Roel M. Willems (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of natural language use. (pp.135–159). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107323667.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107323667.007 [Google Scholar]
  52. James, C. T.
    (1975) The role of semantic information in lexical decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 130–136. doi: 10.1037/0096‑1523.1.2.130
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.1.2.130 [Google Scholar]
  53. Jennett, C. , Cox, A. L. , Cairns, P. , Dhoparee, S. , Epps, A. , Tijs, T. , & Walton, A.
    (2008) Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66, 641–661. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.04.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.04.004 [Google Scholar]
  54. Jessen, F. , Heun, R. , Erb, M. , Granath, D. O. , Klose, U. , Papassotiropoulos, A. , & Grodd, W.
    (2000) The concreteness effect: Evidence for dual coding and context availability. Brain and Language, 74, 103–112. doi: 10.1006/brln.2000.2340
    https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2000.2340 [Google Scholar]
  55. Johnson, B. K. , & Rosenbaum, J. E.
    (2014) Spoiler alert: Consequences of narrative spoilers for dimensions of enjoyment, appreciation, and transportation. Communication Research, 41, 1–21. doi: 10.1177/0093650214564051
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650214564051 [Google Scholar]
  56. Jose, P. E.
    (1989) The role of gender and gender role similarity in readers’ identification with story characters. Sex roles, 21, 697–713. doi: 10.1007/BF00289178
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289178 [Google Scholar]
  57. Jose, P. E. , & Brewer, W. F.
    (1984) Development of story liking: Character identification, suspense, and outcome resolution. Developmental Psychology, 20, 911–924. doi: 10.1037/0012‑1649.20.5.911
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.5.911 [Google Scholar]
  58. Keen, S.
    (2006): A theory of narrative empathy. Narrative, 14, 207–236. doi: 10.1353/nar.2006.0015
    https://doi.org/10.1353/nar.2006.0015 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kidd, D. C. , & Castano, E.
    (2013) Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science, 342, 377–380. doi: 10.1126/science.1239918
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239918 [Google Scholar]
  60. Knobloch-Westerwick, S. , & Keplinger, C.
    (2007) Thrilling news: Factors generating suspense during news exposure. Media Psychology, 9, 193–210. doi: 10.1080/15213260709336809
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260709336809 [Google Scholar]
  61. Knobloch-Westerwick, S. , Patzig, G. , Mende, A. M. , & Hastall, M.
    (2004) Affective news: Effects of discourse structure in narratives on suspense, curiosity, and enjoyment while reading news and novels. Communication Research, 31, 259–287. doi: 10.1177/0093650203261517
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650203261517 [Google Scholar]
  62. Koopman, E. M.
    (2015) Empathic reactions after reading: The role of genre, personal factors and affective responses. Poetics, 50, 62–79. doi: 10.1016/j.poetic.2015.02.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2015.02.008 [Google Scholar]
  63. (2016) Effects of “literariness” on emotions and on empathy and reflection after reading. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10, 82–98. doi: 10.1037/aca0000041
    https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000041 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kotovych, M. , Dixon, P. , Bortolussi, M. , & Holden, M.
    (2011) Textual determinants of a component of literary identification. Scientific Study of Literature, 1, 260–291. doi: 10.1075/ssol.1.2.05kot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.1.2.05kot [Google Scholar]
  65. Kreibich, H. , & Schäfer, C.
    (2008) Lesen in Deutschland 2008: Hintergründe, Zielsetzungen, zentrale Ergebnisse [Reading in Germany 2008: Background, objektives, primary results]. In Stiftung Lesen (Ed.), Lesen in Deutschland 2008 [Reading in Germany 2008]. Mainz: Stiftung Lesen.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kroll, J. F. , & Merves, J. S.
    (1986) Lexical access for concrete and abstract words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 92–107. doi: 10.1037/0278‑7393.12.1.92
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.12.1.92 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kuijpers, M. M. , & Miall, D. S.
    (2011) Bodily involvement in literary reading: An experimental study of readers’ bodily experiences during reading. In F. Hakemulder (Ed.), De Stralende Lezer. Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek naar de Invloed van het Lezen [The radiant reader; scientific studies of the influence of reading]. (pp.160–174). Delft: Eburon.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kuijpers, M. M. , Hakemulder, F. , Tan, E. S. , & Doicaru, M. M.
    (2014) Exploring absorbing reading experiences. Scientific Study of Literature, 4, 89–122. doi: 10.1075/ssol.4.1.05kui
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.4.1.05kui [Google Scholar]
  69. Lehne, M. , & Koelsch, S.
    (2015) Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Art.79. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00079
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00079 [Google Scholar]
  70. Lehne, M. , Engel, P. , Rohrmeier, M. , Menninghaus, W. , Jacobs, A. M. , & Koelsch, S.
    (2015) Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference. PlosOne, 10, e0124550. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124550
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124550 [Google Scholar]
  71. Leibetseder, M. , Laireiter, A. R. , Riepler, A. , & Köller, T.
    (2001) E-Skala: Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Empathie – Beschreibung und psychometrische Eigenschaften [E-Scale: Questionnaire for the assessment of empathy: Description and psychometric properties]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 70–85. doi: 10.1024//0170‑1789.22.1.70
    https://doi.org/10.1024//0170-1789.22.1.70 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lodge, D.
    (1992) The Art of Fiction: Illustrated from Classic and Modern Texts. London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Mahon, B. Z. , & Caramazza, A.
    (2008) A critical look at the embodied cognition hypothesis and a new proposal for grounding conceptual content. Journal of Physiology – Paris, 102, 59–70. doi: 10.1016/j.jphysparis.2008.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphysparis.2008.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  74. Mar, R. A. , Oatley, K. , Hirsh, J. , dela Paz, J. , & Peterson, J. B.
    (2006) Bookworms versus nerds: Exposure to fiction versus non-fiction, divergent associations with social ability, and the simulation of fictional social worlds. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 694–712. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  75. Mar, R. A. , Oatley, K. , & Peterson, J. B.
    (2009) Exploring the link between reading fiction and empathy: Ruling out individual differences and examining outcomes. Communications, 34, 407–428. doi: 10.1515/COMM.2009.025
    https://doi.org/10.1515/COMM.2009.025 [Google Scholar]
  76. Mazzocco, P. J. , Green, M. C. , Sasota, J. A. , & Jones, N. W.
    (2010) This story is not for everyone: Transportability and narrative persuasion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 361–368. doi: 10.1177/1948550610376600
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550610376600 [Google Scholar]
  77. Miall, D. S.
    (2009a) Neuroaesthetics of literary reading. In M. Skov & O. Vartanian (Eds.), Neuroaesthetics (pp.233–247). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. (2009b) Enacting the other: Towards an aesthetics of feeling in literary reading’. In A. Lang (Ed.), Reading the Readers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691517.003.0017
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691517.003.0017 [Google Scholar]
  79. Miall, D. S. , & Kuiken, D.
    (1994) Foregrounding, defamiliarization, and affect: Response to literary stories. Poetics, 22, 389–407. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(94)00011‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(94)00011-5 [Google Scholar]
  80. Moseley, R. L. , Carota, F. , Hauk, O. , Mohr, B. , & Pulvermüller, F.
    (2011) A role for the motor system in binding abstract emotional meaning. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 1634–1647. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr238
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhr238 [Google Scholar]
  81. Oatley, K.
    (1994) A taxonomy of the emotions of literary response and the theory of identification in fictional narrative. Poetics, 23, 53–74. doi: 10.1016/0304‑422X(94)P4296‑S
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-422X(94)P4296-S [Google Scholar]
  82. (1999) Why fiction may be twice as true as fact: Fiction as cognitive and emotional simulation. Review of General Psychology, 3, 101–117. doi: 10.1037/1089‑2680.3.2.101
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.3.2.101 [Google Scholar]
  83. Odağ, Ö.
    (2011) Reading engagement. A matter of biological sex alone?Scientific Study of Literature, 2, 292–325. doi: 10.1075/ssol.1.2.06oda
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.1.2.06oda [Google Scholar]
  84. Paivio, A.
    (1986) Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. (1991) Dual coding theory: Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45, 255–287. doi: 10.1037/h0084295
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0084295 [Google Scholar]
  86. Palagi, E. , Nicotra, V. , & Cordoni, G.
    (2015) Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 150505. doi: 10.1098/rsos.150505
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150505 [Google Scholar]
  87. Panksepp, J.
    (1998) Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Preston, S. , & de Waal, F. B. M.
    (2002) Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 1–72. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X02000018.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X02000018 [Google Scholar]
  89. Prieto-Pablos, J. A.
    (1998) The paradox of suspense. Poetics, 26, 99–113. doi: 10.1016/S0304‑422X(98)00014‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-422X(98)00014-X [Google Scholar]
  90. Pulvermüller, F.
    (2005) Opinion: Brain mechanisms linking language and action. Nature, 6, 576–582. doi: 10.1038/nrn1706
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1706 [Google Scholar]
  91. Pulvermüller, F. , Fadiga, L.
    (2010) Active perception: Sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Review Neuroscience, 11, 351–360. doi: 10.1038/nrn2811
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2811 [Google Scholar]
  92. Pulvermüller, F. , & Shtyrov, Y.
    (2006) Language outside the focus of attention: The mismatch negativity as a tool for studying higher cognitive processes. Progress in Neurobiology, 79, 49–71. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2006.04.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2006.04.004 [Google Scholar]
  93. Radford, C.
    (1975) How can we be moved by the fate of Anna Karenina?Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 49, 67–80. doi: 10.1093/aristoteliansupp/49.1.67
    https://doi.org/10.1093/aristoteliansupp/49.1.67 [Google Scholar]
  94. Rizzolatti, G. , & Craighero, L.
    (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169–192. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230 [Google Scholar]
  95. Rizzolatti, G. , & Sinigaglia, C.
    (2008) Mirrors in the brain: How our minds share actions, emotions, and experience. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Rodríguez-Ferreiro, J. , Gennari, S. P. , Davies, R. , & Cuetos, F.
    (2010) Neural correlates of abstract verb processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 106–118. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21414
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2010.21414 [Google Scholar]
  97. Sakreida, K. , Scorolli, C. , Menz, M. M. , Heim, S. , Borghi, A. M. , & Binkofski, F.
    (2013) Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, Art.125. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00125
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00125 [Google Scholar]
  98. Schneider, S.
    (2002) The paradox of fiction. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (Eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. URL: www.iep.utm.edu/fict-par/ (25.08.2015)
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Schwanenflugel, P. J. , Akin, C. , & Luh, W. M.
    (1991) Context availability and the recall of abstract and concrete words. Memory and Cognition, 20, 96–104. doi: 10.3758/BF03208259
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03208259 [Google Scholar]
  100. Scorolli, C. , Binkofski, F. , Buccino, G. , Nicoletti, R. , Riggio, L. , & Borghi, A. M.
    (2011) Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, Art.227. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00227
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00227 [Google Scholar]
  101. Semin, G. R. , & Fiedler, K.
    (1991) The linguistic category model, its bases, applications and range. European Review of Social Psychology, 2, 1–30. doi: 10.1080/14792779143000006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779143000006 [Google Scholar]
  102. Singer, T. , & Lamm, C.
    (2009) The social neuroscience of empathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1156, 81–96. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.2009.04418.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04418.x [Google Scholar]
  103. Smuts, A.
    (2009) The paradox of suspense. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. RetrievedDec. 7, 2015, fromplato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/paradox-suspense/
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Stanovich, K. E. , & West, R. F.
    (1989) Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402–433. doi: 10.2307/747605
    https://doi.org/10.2307/747605 [Google Scholar]
  105. Sternberg, M.
    (1978) Expositional modes and temporal ordering in fiction. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Tettamanti, M. , Buccino, G. , Saccuman, M. C. , Gallese, V. , Danna, M. , Scifo, P. , Fazio, F. , Rizzolatti, G. , Cappa, S. F. , & Perani, D.
    (2005) Listening to action related sentences activates fronto-parietal motor circuits. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 273–281. doi: 10.1162/0898929053124965
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0898929053124965 [Google Scholar]
  107. Toolan, M.
    (2001) Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction (2nd ed). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Tsai, P. S. , Yu, B. H. Y. , Lee, C. Y. , Tzeng, O. J. L. , Hung, D. L. , & Wu, D. H.
    (2009) An event-related potential study of the concreteness effect between Chinese nouns and verbs. Brain Research, 1253, 149–160. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.10.080
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.10.080 [Google Scholar]
  109. van Peer, W.
    (2007) Introduction to foregrounding: A state of the art. Language and Literature, 16, 99–104. doi: 10.1177/0963947007075978
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947007075978 [Google Scholar]
  110. Vorderer, P.
    (1996) Toward a psychological theory of suspense. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.233–254). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Vorderer, P. , & Knobloch, S.
    (2000) Conflict and suspense in drama. In D. Zillmann & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal (pp.59–72). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Vorderer, P. , Wulff, H. J. , & Friedrichsen, M.
    (1996) Preface. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.vii–ix). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Wang, J. , Conder, J. A. , Blitzer, D. N. , & Shinkareva, S. V.
    (2010) Neural representations of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of imaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1459–1468. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20950
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20950 [Google Scholar]
  114. Wulff, H. J.
    (1996) Suspense and the influence of cataphora on viewers’ expectations. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.1–18). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Yanal, R. J.
    (1996) The paradox of suspense. British Journal of Aesthetics, 36, 146–158. doi: 10.1093/bjaesthetics/36.2.146
    https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaesthetics/36.2.146 [Google Scholar]
  116. Zillmann, D.
    (1980) Anatomy of suspense. In P.H. Tannenbaum (Ed.), The entertainment functions of television (pp.133–163). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. (1996) The psychology of suspense in dramatic exposition. In P. Vorderer , H. J. Wulff & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations (pp.199–231). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Zillmann, D. , & Cantor, J.R.
    (1977) Affective responses to the emotions of a protagonist. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 8, 155–165. doi: 10.1016/S0022‑1031(77)80008‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(77)80008-5 [Google Scholar]
  119. Zillmann, D. , Hay, A. , & Bryant, J.
    (1975) The effect of suspense and its resolution on the appreciation of dramatic presentations. Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 307–323. doi: 10.1016/0092‑6566(75)90005‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(75)90005-7 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.6.2.03aur
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ssol.6.2.03aur
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): absorption , concrete language , embodiment , emotional involvement and suspense
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error