Volume 31, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0924-1884
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9986
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



An experimental study was conducted to examine whether simultaneous interpreters are affected by the speaker’s emotions. To this end, two measures of emotion were used: galvanic skin response (GSR) as a marker of emotional arousal, and SUPIN – the Polish adaptation of PANAS (). A group of interpreters with Polish as their A language and English as their B language ( = 20) took part in the experiment. They were asked to simultaneously interpret two speeches (recordings accompanied by video) from Polish into English: a neutral speech and an emotional speech. The results show that the interpreters are indeed affected by the speaker’s emotions, which is reflected in both a greater galvanic skin response and higher SUPIN scores for the emotional speech, when compared to the neutral speech and baseline values. The results may shed new light on the importance of emotion processing in simultaneous interpreting.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. AIIC (International Association of Conference Interpreters)
    AIIC (International Association of Conference Interpreters) 2002 “Workload Study – Full Report.” aiic.net/page/657/interpreter-workload-study-full-report/lang/1
  2. Barsade, Sigal G.
    2002 “The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion and Its Influence on Group Behavior.” Administrative Science Quarterly47 (4): 644–675. 10.2307/3094912
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3094912 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bidoli, Cynthia
    2002 “Spoken-Language and Signed-Language Interpretation: Are They Really So Different?” InInterpreting in the 21st Century, edited byGiuliana Garzone and Maurizio Viezzi, 171–180. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.43.17kel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.43.17kel [Google Scholar]
  4. Bontempo, Karen, and Jemina Napier
    2011 “Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of Interpreter Competence and Aptitude for Interpreting.” Interpreting13 (1): 85–105. 10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon [Google Scholar]
  5. Bradley, Margaret M., Bruce N. Cuthbert, and Peter J. Lang
    1990 “Startle Reflex Modification: Emotion or Attention?” Psychophysiology27 (5): 513–522. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.1990.tb01966.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1990.tb01966.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Braun, Sabine
    2007 “Interpreting in Small-Group Bilingual Videoconferences: Challenges and Adaptation Processes.” Interpreting9 (1): 21–46. 10.1075/intp.9.1.03bra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.9.1.03bra [Google Scholar]
  7. 2013 “Keep Your Distance? Remote Interpreting in Legal Proceedings: A Critical Assessment of a Growing Practice.” Interpreting15 (2): 200–228. 10.1075/intp.15.2.03bra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.15.2.03bra [Google Scholar]
  8. Braun, Sabine, and Judith L. Taylor
    eds. 2012Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedings. Antwerp: Intersentia.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brisau, André, Rita Godijns, and Chris Meuleman
    1994 “Towards a Psycholinguistic Profile of the Interpreter.” Meta39 (1): 87–94. 10.7202/002147ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/002147ar [Google Scholar]
  10. Brzozowski, Piotr
    2010Skala Uczuć Pozytywnych i Negatywnych (SUPIN). Polska adaptacja skali PANAS Davida Watsona i Lee Anny Clark. Podręcznik [SUPIN – Polish adaptation of PANAS – Positive and Negative Affect Schedule by David Watson and Lee Anna Clark. A manual]. Warsaw: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Christoffels, Ingrid, and Annette de Groot
    2005 “Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Perspective.” InHandbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches, edited byJudith F. Kroll and Annette de Groot, 454–479. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cook, Edwin W., Larry H. Hawk, Tammy L. Davis, and Victor E. Stevenson
    1991 “Affective Individual Differences and Startle Reflex Modulation.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology100: 5–13. 10.1037/0021‑843X.100.1.5
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.1.5 [Google Scholar]
  13. Crawford, John R., and Julie D. Henry
    2004 “The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct Validity, Measurement Properties and Normative Data in a Large Non-clinical Sample.” British Journal of Clinical Psychology43: 245–265. 10.1348/0144665031752934
    https://doi.org/10.1348/0144665031752934 [Google Scholar]
  14. Davis, Mark H.
    1983 “Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology44 (1): 113–126. 10.1037/0022‑3514.44.1.113
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113 [Google Scholar]
  15. 1994Empathy: A Social Psychological Approach. Boulder: Westview Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Davitti, Elena, Eloisa Monteoliva, Demi Krystallidou, and Sabine Braun
    2016 “Multimodal Analysis of a Multimodal Activity: Methodological Explorations of Interpreter-Mediated Interaction.” Paper presented at theCritical Link 8 Conference, Edinburgh, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Doherty, R. William
    1998 “Emotional Contagion and Social Judgment.” Motivation and Emotion22 (3): 187–209. 10.1023/A:1022368805803
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022368805803 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ekman, Paul, and Walter Friesen
    1978The Facial Action Coding System (FACS): A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Action. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Eysenck, Hans J., and Sybil B. G. Eysenck
    1975Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R Adult). San Diego, CA: EdITS.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gerver, David
    1969 “The Effects of Source Language Presentation Rate on the Performance of Simultaneous Conference Interpreters.” InProceedings of the 2nd Louisville Conference on Rate and/or Frequency Controlled Speech, edited byEmerson Foulke, 162–184. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gile, Daniel
    1995Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.8(1st)
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.8(1st) [Google Scholar]
  22. Goldstein, Arnold P., and Gérald Y. Michaels
    1985Empathy: Development, Training, and Consequences. Hove: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Grant, David A., and Esta A. Berg
    1948 “A Behavioural Analysis of Degree of Reinforcement and Ease of Shifting to New Responses in a Weigl-Type Card Sorting Problem.” Journal of Experimental Psychology38: 404–411. 10.1037/h0059831
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0059831 [Google Scholar]
  24. Gross, James J., and Lisa Feldman Barrett
    2011 “Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: One or Two Depends on Your Point of View.” Emotion Review3 (1): 8–16. 10.1177/1754073910380974
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073910380974 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gruszczyński, Włodzimierz, and Maciej Ogrodniczuk
    2016Jasnopis czyli mierzenie zrozumiałości polskich tekstów użytkowych [Jasnopis – measuring comprehensibility of Polish non-literary texts]. Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hale, Sandra B.
    2007Community Interpreting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230593442
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230593442 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hatfield, Elaine, John T. Cacioppo, and Richard L. Rapson
    1994Emotional Contagion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hatfield, Elaine, Richard L. Rapson, and Yen-Chi L. Le
    2009 “Emotional Contagion and Empathy.” InThe Social Neuroscience of Empathy, edited byJean Decety and William Ickes, 19–30, Boston, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hermans, Hubert
    2004Prestatie Motivatie Test [Achievement motivation test]. Lisse: Harcourt Test Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Howard, Daniel J., and Charles Gengler
    2001 “Emotional Contagion Effect on Product Attitudes.” Journal of Consumer Research28 (2): 189–201. 10.1086/322897
    https://doi.org/10.1086/322897 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hsee, Christopher K., Elaine Hatfield, and Claude Chemtob
    1992 “Assessments of Emotional States of Others: Conscious Judgments versus Emotional Contagion.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology11 (2): 119–128. 10.1521/jscp.1992.11.2.119
    https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1992.11.2.119 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kade, Otto
    1967 “Zu einigen Besonderheiten des Simultandolmetschens.” Fremdsprachen11 (1): 8–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 1968Zufall und Gesetzmäßigkeit in der Übersetzung. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopädie.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kappas, Arvid, Ursula Hess, and Klaus R. Scherer
    1991 “Voice and Emotion.” InFundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior: Studies in Emotion and Interaction, edited byRobert S. Feldman and Bernard Rime, 200–238. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Klonowicz, Tatiana
    1994 “Putting One’s Heart into Simultaneous Interpretation.” InBridging the Gap: Empirical Research in Simultaneous Interpretation, edited bySylvie Lambert and Barbara Moser-Mercer, 213–224. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.3.16klo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.3.16klo [Google Scholar]
  36. Kopczyński, Andrzej
    1981 “Deviance in Conference Interpreting.” InThe Mission of the Translator Today, edited byAndrzej Kopczyński, Anatol Hanftwurcel, Ewa Karska and Lew Riwin, 399–404. Warsaw: Polska Agencja Interpress.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Korpal, Paweł
    2017Linguistic and Psychological Indicators of Stress in Simultaneous Interpreting. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kurz, Ingrid
    2002 “Physiological Stress Responses during Media and Conference Interpreting.” InInterpreting in the 21st Century, edited byGiuliana Garzone and Maurizio Viezzi, 195–202. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.43.19kur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.43.19kur [Google Scholar]
  39. 2003 “Physiological Stress during Simultaneous Interpreting: A Comparison of Experts and Novices.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter12: 51–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lambert, Sylvie
    2004 “Shared Attention during Sight Translation, Sight Interpretation and Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta49 (2): 294–306. 10.7202/009352ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/009352ar [Google Scholar]
  41. Mauss, Iris B., and Michael D. Robinson
    2009 “Measures of Emotion: A Review.” Cognition and Emotion23 (2): 209–237. 10.1080/02699930802204677
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930802204677 [Google Scholar]
  42. Monfort, Samuel S., Łukasz D. Kaczmarek, Todd B. Kashdan, Dariusz Drążkowski, Michał Kosakowski, Przemysław Guzik, Tomasz Krauze, and Asmir Gracanin
    2014 “Capitalizing on the Success of Romantic Partners: A Laboratory Investigation on Subjective, Facial, and Physiological Emotional Processing.” Personality and Individual Differences68: 149–153. 10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.028
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.028 [Google Scholar]
  43. Moser-Mercer, Barbara
    2005 “Remote Interpreting: The Crucial Role of Presence.” Bulletin VALS-ASLA (Swiss Association of Applied Linguistics)81: 73–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Moser-Mercer, Barbara, Alexander Künzli, and Marina Korac
    1998 “Prolonged Turns in Interpreting: Effects on Quality, Physiological and Psychological Stress (Pilot Study).” Interpreting3 (1): 47–64. 10.1075/intp.3.1.03mos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.3.1.03mos [Google Scholar]
  45. Myers-Briggs, Isabel
    1962Manual: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. 10.1037/14404‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/14404-000 [Google Scholar]
  46. Napier, Jemina, and Marcel Leneham
    2011 “‘It Was Difficult to Manage the Communication’: Testing the Feasibility of Video Remote Signed Language Interpreting in Court.” Journal of Interpretation21 (1): 52–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Neumann, Roland, and Fritz Strack
    2000 “Mood Contagion: The Automatic Transfer of Mood between Persons.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology79 (2): 211–223. 10.1037/0022‑3514.79.2.211
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.2.211 [Google Scholar]
  48. Northouse, Peter G.
    1979 “Interpersonal Trust and Empathy in Nurse-Nurse Relationships.” Nursing Research28 (6): 365–368. 10.1097/00006199‑197911000‑00022
    https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-197911000-00022 [Google Scholar]
  49. Oléron, Pierre, and Hubert Nanpon
    1965 “Recherches sur la traduction simultanée.” Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique62 (2): 73–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Pöchhacker, Franz
    2011 “Assessing Aptitude for Interpreting: The SynCloze Test.” Interpreting13 (1): 106–120. 10.1075/intp.13.1.07poc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.07poc [Google Scholar]
  51. Ramos Caro, Marina, and Ana Rojo
    2014 “‘Feeling’ Audio Description: Exploring the Impact of AD on Emotional Response.” Translation Spaces3: 133–150. 10.1075/ts.3.06ram
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.3.06ram [Google Scholar]
  52. Riegel, Monika, Małgorzata Wierzba, Marek Wypych, Łukasz Żurawski, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Anna Grabowska, and Artur Marchewka
    2015 “Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL): The Cultural Adaptation of the Berlin Affective Word List-Reloaded (BAWL-R) for Polish.” Behavior Research Methods47 (4): 1222–1236. 10.3758/s13428‑014‑0552‑1
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0552-1 [Google Scholar]
  53. Rojo, Ana, Marina Ramos Caro, and Javier Valenzuela
    2014 “The Emotional Impact of Translation: A Heart Rate Study.” Journal of Pragmatics71: 31–44. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.07.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.07.006 [Google Scholar]
  54. Rosiers, Alexandra, June Eyckmans, and Daniel Bauwens
    2011 “A Story of Attitudes and Aptitudes? Investigating Individual Difference Variables within the Context of Interpreting.” Interpreting13 (1): 53–69. 10.1075/intp.13.1.04ros
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.04ros [Google Scholar]
  55. Roziner, Ilan, and Miriam Shlesinger
    2010 “Much Ado about Something Remote: Stress and Performance in Remote Interpreting.” Interpreting12 (2): 214–247. 10.1075/intp.12.2.05roz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.12.2.05roz [Google Scholar]
  56. Schachter, Stanley, and Jerome E. Singer
    1962 “Cognitive, Social and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State.” Psychological Review69 (5): 379–399. 10.1037/h0046234
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0046234 [Google Scholar]
  57. Schweda Nicholson, Nancy
    2005 “Personality Characteristics of Interpreter Trainees: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).” The Interpreters’ Newsletter13: 109–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Seeber, Kilian
    2012 “Multimodal Input in Simultaneous Interpreting: An Eye-Tracking Experiment.” InProceedings of the 1st International Conference TRANSLATA, Translation and Interpreting Research: Yesterday – Today – Tomorrow, edited byLew Zybatov, Alena Petrova and Michael Ustaszewski, 341–347. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 2017 “Multimodal Processing in Simultaneous Interpreting.” InThe Handbook of Translation and Cognition, edited byJohn W. Schwieter and Aline Ferreira, 461–475. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.10.1002/9781119241485.ch25
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119241485.ch25 [Google Scholar]
  60. Surakka, Veikko, and Jari K. Hietanen
    1998 “Facial and Emotional Reactions to Duchenne and non-Duchenne Smiles.” International Journal of Psychophysiology29: 23–33. 10.1016/S0167‑8760(97)00088‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(97)00088-3 [Google Scholar]
  61. Timarová, Šarka, and Harry Ungoed-Thomas
    2008 “Admission Testing for Interpreting Courses.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer2 (1): 29–46. 10.1080/1750399X.2008.10798765
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2008.10798765 [Google Scholar]
  62. Timarová, Šarka, and Heidi Salaets
    2011 “Learning Styles, Motivation and Cognitive Flexibility in Interpreter Training: Self-Selection and Aptitude.” Interpreting13 (1): 31–52. 10.1075/intp.13.1.03tim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.03tim [Google Scholar]
  63. Vermunt, Jan, and Frank van Rijswijk
    1987Inventaris Leerstijlen [Inventory of learning styles]. Tilburg: K.U. Brabant/Open Universiteit.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Vranjes, Jelena, Hanneke Bot, Kurt Feyaerts, and Geert Brône
    2015 “Multimodal Feedback Mechanisms in Interpreter-Mediated Interaction.” Paper presented at the14th International Pragmatics Conference (Antwerp).
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Vranjes, Jelena, Annelies Jehoul, Kurt Feyaerts, and Geert Brône
    2016 “Dual Feedback in Triadic Interactions: On the Interplay between Gesture and Gaze.” Paper presented at theISGS Conference 2016: Gesture, Creativity, Multimodality (Paris).
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Wadensjö, Cecilia
    1998Interpreting as Interaction. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Watson, David, Lee Anna Clark, and Auke Tellegen
    1988 “Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology54 (6): 1063–1070. 10.1037/0022‑3514.54.6.1063
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063 [Google Scholar]
  68. Waugh, Christian E., Renee J. Thompson, and Ian H. Gotlib
    2011 “Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience.” Emotion11 (5): 1059–1067. 10.1037/a0021786
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021786 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wróbel, Monika
    2008 “O transferze emocji i nastrojów między ludźmi – mechanizm i psychologiczne wyznaczniki zarażenia afektywnego” [On the transfer of emotions and moods between people – the mechanism and psychological determinants of affective contagion]. Psychologia Społeczna33 (8): 210–230.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 2016Zarażenie afektywne: O procesie transferu emocji i nastroju między ludźmi [Affective contagion: On the transfer of emotions and moods between people]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Zagar Galvão, Elena
    2009 “Speech and Gesture in the Booth – a Descriptive Approach to Multimodality in Simultaneous Interpreting.” InTranslation and the (Trans)formation of Identities. Selected Papers of the CETRA Research Seminar in Translation Studies 2008, edited byDries De Crom, 1–26. Leuven: CETRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Zhou, Qing, Carlos Valiente, and Nancy Eisenberg
    2003 “Empathy and Its Measurement.” InPositive Psychological Assessment: A Handbook of Models and Measures, edited byShane J. Lopez and C. Richard Snyder, 269–284. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 10.1037/10612‑017
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10612-017 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error