Volume 31, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0924-1884
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9986
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This paper analyses a possible gendered manifestation of norms in interpreting. It focuses on the use of self-repair, a textual expression of the norm, by male and female interpreters. Two research questions are examined: (1) whether the extent to which self-repairs occur in interpreting is gendered and (2) whether gender influences the way in which the output is repaired using editing terms. Considering the literature on gender and norm-compliance, female interpreters are expected to produce more self-repairs and editing terms than male interpreters. The research is based on the 2008 subcorpus of EPICG with French source speeches and their English and Dutch interpretations. The interpreters’ self-repairs were manually identified and statistically compared. Regarding the first question, it appears that gender influences the use of self-repairs in interpreting. As for the second one, statistical analysis reveals language-based patterns: in the English booth, women use significantly more editing terms than men. The French/Dutch subcorpus yields no significant difference. However, women seem to also use apologies as editing terms.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bachy, Sylviane, Anne Dister, Michel Francard, Geneviève Geron, Vincent Giroul, Philippe Hambye, Anne-Catherine Simon, and Régine Wilmet
    2007Conventions de transcription régissant les corpus de la banque de données VALIBEL [Conventions to transcribe corpora in the VALIBEL database]. AccessedOctober 15, 2013https://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/valibel/documents/conventions_valibel_2004.PDF
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakti, Mária, and Judit Bóna
    2016 “Self-Monitoring Processes in Simultaneous Interpreting.” InFORUM. Revue internationale d’interprétation et de traduction / International Journal of Interpretation and Translation14 (2): 194–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barik, Henri
    1971 “A Description of Various Types of Omissions, Additions and Errors of Translation Encountered in Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta16 (4): 199–210. 10.7202/001972ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/001972ar [Google Scholar]
  4. Bendazzoli, Claudio, Annalisa Sandrelli, and Mariachiara Russo
    2011 “Disfluencies in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Corpus-Based Analysis.” InCorpus-Based Translation Studies: Research and Applications, edited byAlet Kruger, Kim Wallmach, and Jeremy Munday, 282–306. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergvall, Victoria, Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed
    1996Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2011 “Rethinking Language and Gender Research. Theory and Practice.” InThe Sage Handbook of Sociolinguistics, edited byWodak Ruth, Barbara Johnstone, and Paul E. Kerswill, 411–423. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bernardini, Silvia, Adriano Ferraresi, Mariachiara Russo, Camille Collard, and Bart Defrancq
    2018 “Building Interpreting and Intermodal Corpora: A How-To for a Formidable Task.” InMaking Way in Corpus-Based Interpreting Studies, edited byClaudio Bendazzoli, Mariachiara Russo, and Bart Defrancq, 21–42. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑6199‑8_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6199-8_2 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bühler, Hildegund
    1986 “Linguistic (Semantic) and Extra-linguistic (Pragmatic) Criteria for the Evaluation of Conference Interpretation and Interpreters.” Multilingua5 (4): 231–235.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Butler, Judith
    1988 “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory.” Theatre Journal40 (4): 519–531. 10.2307/3207893
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3207893 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cecot, Michela
    2001 “Pauses in Simultaneous Interpretation: A Contrastive Analysis of Professional Interpreters’ Performances.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter11: 63–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chambers, J. K., and Peter Trudgill
    1998Dialectology. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511805103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805103 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chiaro, Delia, and Giuseppe Nocella
    2004 “Interpreters’ Perception of Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Factors Affecting Quality: A Survey through the World Wide Web.” Meta49 (2): 278–293. 10.7202/009351ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/009351ar [Google Scholar]
  13. Coates, Jennifer
    1993Women, Men and Language. 2nd ed.London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dailidėnaitė, Alina
    2009 “Directionality: Types and Frequency of Repairs in Simultaneous Interpretation.” Vertimo Studijos2 (2): 9–25. 10.15388/VertStud.2009.2.10600
    https://doi.org/10.15388/VertStud.2009.2.10600 [Google Scholar]
  15. Diriker, Ebru
    2004De-/Re-contextualizing Conference Interpreting: Interpreters in the Ivory Tower?Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.53
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.53 [Google Scholar]
  16. Duflou, Veerle
    2016Be(com)ing a Conference Interpreter: An Ethnography of EU Interpreters as a Professional Community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.124
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.124 [Google Scholar]
  17. Eagly, Alice H., Wendy Wood, and Amanda B. Diekman
    2000 “Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: A Current Appraisal.” InThe Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, edited byThomas Eckes and Hanns M. Trautner, 123–174. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eckert, Penelope, and Sally McConnell-Ginet
    2003Language and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791147
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791147 [Google Scholar]
  19. Garzone, Giuliana
    2002 “Quality and Norms in Interpretation.” InInterpreting in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities, edited byGiuliana Garzone and Maurizio Viezzi, 121–130. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.43.11gar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.43.11gar [Google Scholar]
  20. Gerver, David
    1969 “The Effects of Source Language Presentation Rate on the Performance of Simultaneous Conference Interpreters.” InProceedings of the Second Louisville Conference on Rate and/or Frequency Controlled Speech, edited byEmerson Foulke, 162–184. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gile, Daniel
    1995Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.8(1st)
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.8(1st) [Google Scholar]
  22. 1998 “Norms in Research on Conference Interpreting: A Response to Theo Hermans and Gideon Toury.” Language and Society5 (1–2): 99–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Harris, Brian
    1990 “Norms in Interpretation.” Target2 (1): 115–119. 10.1075/target.2.1.08har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.2.1.08har [Google Scholar]
  24. Holmes, Janet
    1995Women, Men and Politeness. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hyde, Janeth, and Marica Linn
    1988 “Gender Differences in Verbal Ability: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin104 (1): 53–69. 10.1037/0033‑2909.104.1.53
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.104.1.53 [Google Scholar]
  26. Jansen, Peter
    1992 “The Role of the Interpreter in Dutch Courtroom Interaction: The Impact of the Situation on Translational Norms.” InSelected Papers of the CERA Research Seminars in Translation Studies 1992–1993, edited byPeter Jansen, 133–155. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kalina, Sylvia
    1998Strategische Prozesse beim Dolmetschen: theoretische Grundlagen, empirische Fallstudien, didaktische Konsequenzen. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Katan, David, and Francesco Straniero Sergio
    2001 “Look Who’s Talking. The Ethics of Entertainment and Talkshow Interpreting.” The Translator7 (2): 213–237. 10.1080/13556509.2001.10799102
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2001.10799102 [Google Scholar]
  29. 2003 “Submerged Ideologies in Media Interpreting.” InApropos of Ideology, edited byMaria Calzada Pérez, 131–144. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kopczynski, Andrzej
    1994 “Quality in Conference Interpreting: Some Pragmatic Problems.” InTranslation Studies. An Interdiscipline, edited byMary Snell-Hornby, Franz Pöchhacker, and Klaus Kaindl, 189–198. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.2.24kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.2.24kop [Google Scholar]
  31. Kurz, Ingrid
    2000 “Conference Interpreting: Quality in the Ears of the User.” Meta46 (2): 394–409. 10.7202/003364ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/003364ar [Google Scholar]
  32. Kurz, Ingrid, and Pöchhacker, Franz
    1995 “Quality in TV Interpreting.” Translatio. Nouvelles de la FIT – FIT Newsletter15 (3/4): 350–358.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Labov, William
    1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 1990 “The Intersection of Sex and Social Class in The Course of Linguistic Change.” Language Variation and Change2 (2): 205–254. 10.1017/S0954394500000338
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000338 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2001Principles of Linguistic Change. 2: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lakoff, Robin
    1975Language and Woman’s Place. New York: Harper Colophon.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lederer, Marianne
    1981La traduction simultanée – Fondements théoriques. Paris: Minard Lettres Modernes.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Levelt, Willem J. M.
    1983 “Monitoring and Self-Repair in Speech.” Cognition14 (1): 41–104. 10.1016/0010‑0277(83)90026‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(83)90026-4 [Google Scholar]
  39. Magnifico, Cédric, and Bart Defrancq
    2016 “Impoliteness in Interpreting: A Question of Gender?” Translation and Interpreting8 (2): 26–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2017 “Hedges in Conference Interpreting: The Role of Gender.” Interpreting19 (1): 21–46. 10.1075/intp.19.1.02mag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.19.1.02mag [Google Scholar]
  41. Marzocchi, Carlo
    2005 “On Norms and Ethics in the Discourse on Interpreting.” The Interpreter’s Newsletter13: 87–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Mason, Marianne
    2008Courtroom Interpreting. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Mills, Sara
    2003Gender and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615238
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615238 [Google Scholar]
  44. Monacelli, Claudia
    2009Self-Preservation in Simultaneous Interpreting. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.84
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.84 [Google Scholar]
  45. Moser, Peter
    1995Simultanes Konferenzdolmetschen. Anforderungen und Erwartungen der Benutzer. Endbericht im Auftrag von AIIC. Vienna: SRZ Stadt und Regionalforschung GmbH.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1996 “Expectations of Users of Conference Interpretation.” Interpreting1/2: 145–178. 10.1075/intp.1.2.01mos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.1.2.01mos [Google Scholar]
  47. Moser-Mercer, Barbara
    1996 “Quality in Interpreting: Some Methodological Issues.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter7: 43–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ng, Bee Chin
    1992 “End Users’ Subjective Reaction to the Performance of Student Interpreters.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter, special issue1: 35–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Petite, Christelle
    2005 “Evidence of Repair Mechanisms in Simultaneous Interpreting. A Corpus-Based Analysis.” Interpreting7 (1): 27–49. 10.1075/intp.7.1.03pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.7.1.03pet [Google Scholar]
  50. Pöchhacker, Franz
    1995 “Simultaneous Interpreting: A Functionalist Perspective.” Hermes. Journal of Linguistics14: 31–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Pöchhacker, Franz, and Cornelia Zwischenberger
    2010 “Survey on Quality and Role: Conference Interpreters’ Expectations and Self-Perceptions.” AccessedOctober 14, 2017. aiic.net/p/3405
  52. Pool, G. J., A. F. Schwegler, B. R. Theodore, and P. N. Fuchs
    2007 “Role of Gender Norms and Group Identification on Hypothetical and Experimental Pain Tolerance.” Pain129 (1–2): 122–129. 10.1016/j.pain.2006.10.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.10.008 [Google Scholar]
  53. Postma, Albert
    2000 “Detection of Errors during Speech Production: A Review of Speech Monitoring Models.” Cognition77 (2): 97–132. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(00)00090‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00090-1 [Google Scholar]
  54. Postma, Albert, and Herman H. J. Kolk
    1993 “The Covert Repair Hypothesis: Prearticulatory Repair Processes in Normal and Stuttered Disfluencies.” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research36 (3): 472–487. 10.1044/jshr.3603.472
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3603.472 [Google Scholar]
  55. Reiss, Katharina, and Hans J. Vermeer
    1984Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111351919
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111351919 [Google Scholar]
  56. Ruel, Allred
    1990 “Gender Differences in Spelling Achievement in Grades 1 through 6.” The Journal of Educational Research83 (4): 187–193. 10.1080/00220671.1990.10885955
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1990.10885955 [Google Scholar]
  57. Russo, Mariachiara
    2016 “Orality and Gender: A Corpus-Based Study on Lexical Patterns in Simultaneous Interpreting.” InTranslating Orality / La traducción de la oralidad, edited byCesáreo Calvo and Nicoletta Spinolo, special issue ofMonTI3: 307–322.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 2018 “Speaking Patterns and Gender in the European Parliament Interpreting Corpus. A Quantitative Study as a Premise for Qualitative Investigations.” InMaking Way in Corpus-Based Interpreting Studies, edited byClaudio Bendazzoli, Mariachiara Russo, and Bart Defrancq, 115–131. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑6199‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6199-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  59. Schjoldager, Anne
    1995 “An Exploratory Study of Translational Norms in Simultaneous Interpreting: Methodological Reflections.” Hermes. Journal of Linguistics14: 65–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Seleskovitch, Daniela
    1975Langage, langues et mémoire: Étude de la prise de notes en interprétation consécutive. Paris: Minard Lettres Modernes.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Shlesinger, Miriam
    1989 “Extending the Theory of Translation to Interpretation: Norms as a Case in Point.” Target1 (1): 111–115. 10.1075/target.1.1.09shl
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.1.1.09shl [Google Scholar]
  62. Straniero Sergio, Francesco
    2003 “Norms and Quality in Media Interpreting: The Case of Formula One Press-Conferences.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter12: 135–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2007Talkshow Interpreting. La mediazione linguistica nella comunicazione spettacolare. Trieste: EUT.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Tannen, Deborah
    1990You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Morrow.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Tissi, Beneditta
    2000 “Silent Pauses and Disfluencies in Simultaneous Interpretation: A Descriptive Analysis.” The Interpreters’ Newsletter10: 103–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Toury, Gideon
    1980In Search of a Theory of Translation. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 1995Descriptive Translation Studies and beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.4 [Google Scholar]
  68. Trudgill, Peter
    1972 “Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich.” Language in Society1: 179–195. 10.1017/S0047404500000488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000488 [Google Scholar]
  69. Van Besien, Fred, and Chris Meuleman
    2004 “Dealing with Speakers’ Errors and Speakers’ Repairs in Simultaneous Interpretation.” The Translator10 (1): 59–81. 10.1080/13556509.2004.10799168
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2004.10799168 [Google Scholar]
  70. Wadensjö, Cecilia
    1992Interpreting as Interaction: On Dialogue Interpreting in Immigration Hearings and Medical Encounters. PhD thesisUniversity of Linköping.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wenger, Etienne
    1998Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511803932
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): gender studies; interpreting studies; norms; self-repairs; simultaneous interpreting
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error