1887
image of The role of the affective in interpreting in conflict zones
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores the role of the affective in interpreting in intractable conflicts. Drawing on the results of a participatory research project exploring the lived experiences of civilian interpreters and Spanish military personnel who worked in Afghanistan, the article argues that emotions shape the interpreter’s behaviour and have an impact on the interpreter’s positionality. There are differences, however, between national and local interpreters, which stem from their previous experiences and how these have shaped their understanding of the conflict. This has also led them to develop different attitudes that influence their perception and interpretation of reality. Accepting that emotions do exist and that they influence the interpreter’s decisions and behaviour should inform the design of tailored training programmes. The key aspects of a well-informed training programme are therefore not limited to language and culture, professionalism and ethics, and military competencies, but also include awareness about the role of emotions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/target.18165.rui
2020-10-29
2020-11-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anderson, Ben
    2014 “The Afghan Interpreters.” VICE News video, 35:14. AccessedJanuary 15, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7k1XJcDpV4
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baigorri Jalón, Jesús
    2019Lenguas entre dos fuegos. Intérpretes en la Guerra Civil española (1936–1939) [Languages in the Crossfire: Interpreters in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)]. Granada: Comares.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Catherine
    2010 “It’s Not Their Job to Soldier: Distinguishing Civilian and Military in Soldiers’ and Interpreters’ Accounts of Peacekeeping in 1990s Bosnia-Herzegovina.” Journal of War and Culture Studies3 (1): 137–150. 10.1386/jwcs.3.1.137_1
    https://doi.org/10.1386/jwcs.3.1.137_1 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Mona
    2010 “Interpreters and Translators in the War Zone: Narrated and Narrators.” The Translator16 (2): 197–222. 10.1080/13556509.2010.10799469
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2010.10799469 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bancroft, Marjory A.
    2017 “The Voice of Compassion: Exploring Trauma-Informed Interpreting.” InIdeology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation, edited byCarmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton, 195–215. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097531‑014
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097531-014 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bar-Tal, Daniel
    2007 “Sociopsychological Foundations of Intractable Conflicts.” American Behavioural Scientist50 (11): 1430–1453. 10.1177/0002764207302462
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764207302462 [Google Scholar]
  7. Berger, Roni
    2015 “Now I See It, Now I Don’t: Researcher’s Position and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Research15 (2): 219–234. 10.1177/1468794112468475
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112468475 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bhar-Paul, Kalpita
    2017 “Introducing Interpretive Approach of Phenomenological Research Methodology in Environmental Philosophy: A Mode of Engaged Philosophy in the Anthropocene.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods16 (1): 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bontempo, Karen, and Karen Malcolm
    2012 “An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure: Educating Interpreters about the Risk of Vicarious Trauma in Healthcare Settings.” InIn Our Hands: Educating Healthcare Interpreters, edited byLaurie Swabey and Karen Malcolm, 105–130. Washington: Gallaudet University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bontempo, Karen, and Jemina Napier
    2011 “Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of Interpreter Competence and Aptitude for Interpreting.” InAptitude for Interpreting, edited byMiriam Shlesinger and Franz Pöchhacker, special issue ofInterpreting13 (1): 85–105. 10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon [Google Scholar]
  11. Cairns
    Ed. 1996Children and Political Violence. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cho, Jeasik, and Allen Trent
    2006 “Validity in Qualitative Research Revisited.” Qualitative Research6 (3): 319–340. 10.1177/1468794106065006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794106065006 [Google Scholar]
  13. Costalli, Stefano, and Andrea Ruggeri
    2015 “Indignation, Ideologies and Armed Mobilisation: Civil War in Italy, 1943–45.” International Security40 (2): 119–157. 10.1162/ISEC_a_00218
    https://doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00218 [Google Scholar]
  14. Creswell, John W., and Dana L. Miller
    2000 “Determining Validity in Qualitative Enquiry.” Theory into Practice39 (3): 124–130. 10.1207/s15430421tip3903_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip3903_2 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cummings, Michael G.
    2012 “Influencing the Population: Using Interpreters, Conducting KLEs, and Executing IO in Afghanistan.” CALL Newsletter, September 2012:12–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Delgado Luchner, Carmen
    2015Setting up a Master’s Programme in Conference Interpreting at the University of Nairobi: An Interdisciplinary Case Study of a Development Project Involving Universities and International Organisations. PhD diss.University of Geneva.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dey, Ian
    1993Qualitative Data Analysis: A User-Friendly Guide for Social Scientists. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 1999Grounding Grounded Theory: Guidelines for Qualitative Inquiry. London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dragovic-Drouet, Mila
    2007 “The Practice of Translation and Interpreting during the Conflicts in the Former Yugoslavia (1991–1999).” InTranslating and Interpreting Conflict, edited byMyriam Salama Carr, 29–40. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401204385_004
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401204385_004 [Google Scholar]
  20. Engstrom, David W., Tova Roth, and Jennie Hollis
    2010 “The Use of Interpreters by Torture Treatment Providers.” Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work19 (1): 54–72. 10.1080/15313200903547749
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15313200903547749 [Google Scholar]
  21. Footitt, Hilary
    2010 “Languages at War: Cultural Preparations for the Liberation of Western Europe.” Journal of War & Culture Studies3 (1): 109–121. 10.1386/jwcs.3.1.109_1
    https://doi.org/10.1386/jwcs.3.1.109_1 [Google Scholar]
  22. Footitt, Hilary, and Michael Kelly
    eds. 2012Palgrave Studies in Languages at War. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137010278
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137010278 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2018 “Translation and War.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Politics, edited byJonathan Evans and Fruela Fernández, 162–176. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315621289‑11
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315621289-11 [Google Scholar]
  24. Frijda, Nico H.
    2004 “Emotions and Action.” InFeelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, edited byAnthony S. R. Manstead, Nico H. Frijda, and Agneta Fischer, 158–173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511806582.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511806582.010 [Google Scholar]
  25. Goldblatt, Hadass, Orit Karnieli-Miller, and Melanie Neumann
    2011 “Sharing Qualitative Research Findings with Participants: Study Experiences of Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas.” Patient Education and Counseling82 (3): 389–395. 10.1016/j.pec.2010.12.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.12.016 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gómez Amich, María
    2013 “The Vital Role of Conflict Interpreters.” Nawa: Journal of Language and Communication7 (2): 15–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 2017Estudio descriptivo de la autopercepción de los intérpretes en zonas de conflicto: Estudio de caso en Afganistán [Descriptive Study of Interpreters’ Self-Perception in Conflict Zones: A Case Study in Afghanistan]. PhD diss.Universidad de Granada.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Griffith, James
    1988 “Measurement of Group Cohesion in U.S. Army Units.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology9 (2): 149–171. 10.1207/s15324834basp0902_6
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0902_6 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco, and Elisabeth Jean Wood
    2014 “Ideology in Civil War: Instrumental Adoption and Beyond.” Journal of Peace Research51 (2): 213–226. 10.1177/0022343313514073
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343313514073 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hajjar, Remi M.
    2017 “Effectively Working with Military Linguists: Vital Intercultural Intermediaries.” Armed Forces & Society43 (1): 92–114. 10.1177/0095327X16632333
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X16632333 [Google Scholar]
  31. Halperin, Eran
    2011 “Emotional Barriers to Peace: Emotions and Public Opinion of Jewish Israelis About the Peace Process in the Middle East.” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology17 (1): 22–45. 10.1080/10781919.2010.487862
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10781919.2010.487862 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2014 “Emotion, Emotion Regulation, and Conflict Resolution.” Emotion Review6 (1): 68–76. 10.1177/1754073913491844
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073913491844 [Google Scholar]
  33. Halperin, Eran, Alexandra G. Russell, Carol S. Dweck, and James J. Gross
    2011 “Anger, Hatred and the Quest for Peace: Anger Can Be Constructive in the Absence of Hatred.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution55 (2): 274–291. 10.1177/0022002710383670
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002710383670 [Google Scholar]
  34. Harvey, Michael A.
    2003 “Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education8 (2): 207–213. 10.1093/deafed/eng004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eng004 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hennink, Monique M., Bonnie N. Kaiser, and Vincent C. Marconi
    2017 “Code Saturation versus Meaning Saturation: How Many Interviews Are Enough?” Qualitative Health Research27 (4): 591–608. 10.1177/1049732316665344
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316665344 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hetherington, Ali
    2011 “A Magical Profession? Causes and Management of Occupational Stress in the Signed Language Interpreting Profession.” InSigned Language Interpreting: Preparation, Practice and Performance, edited byLorraine Leeson, Svenja Wurm, and Myriam Vermeerbergen, 138–159. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Inghilleri, Moira
    2008 “The Ethical Task of the Translator in the Geo-Political Arena: From Iraq to Guantanamo Bay.” Translation Studies1 (2): 212–223. 10.1080/14781700802113556
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700802113556 [Google Scholar]
  38. 2009 “Translators in War Zones: Ethics under Fire in Iraq.” InGlobalisation, Political Violence and Translation, edited byEsperança Bielsa and Christopher W. Hughes, 207–221. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230235410_11
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230235410_11 [Google Scholar]
  39. Shils, Edward A., and Morris Janowitz
    1948 “Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II.” The Public Opinion Quarterly12 (2): 280–315. 10.1086/265951
    https://doi.org/10.1086/265951 [Google Scholar]
  40. Juvinall, Ben
    2013 “Heaven or Hell? The Plight of Former Wartime Interpreters of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Living in the U.S.” Michigan State International Law Review21. AccessedApril 21, 2020. https://digitalcommons.law.msu.edu/ilr/vol21/iss1/12
    [Google Scholar]
  41. King, Anthony
    2006 “The Word of Command: Communication and Cohesion in the Military.” Armed Forces & Society32 (4): 493–512. 10.1177/0095327X05283041
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X05283041 [Google Scholar]
  42. Knodel, Rebekah K.
    2018 “Coping with Vicarious Trauma in Mental Health Interpreting.” Journal of Interpretation26 (1). AccessedNovember 28, 2019. https://digitalcommons.unf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1078&context=joi
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lincoln, Yvonna S., and Egon G. Guba
    1985Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park: Sage. 10.1016/0147‑1767(85)90062‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8 [Google Scholar]
  44. Mero-Jaffe, Irit
    2011 “Is That What I Said? Interview Transcript Approval by Participants: An Aspect of Ethics in Qualitative Research.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods10 (3): 231–247. 10.1177/160940691101000304
    https://doi.org/10.1177/160940691101000304 [Google Scholar]
  45. Mullings, Beverley
    1999 “Insider or Outsider, Both or Neither: Some Dilemmas of Interviewing in a Cross-cultural Setting.” Geoforum30 (4): 337–350. 10.1016/S0016‑7185(99)00025‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185(99)00025-1 [Google Scholar]
  46. Nelson, James
    2017 “Using Conceptual Depth Criteria: Addressing the Challenge of Reaching Saturation in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Research17 (5): 554–570. 10.1177/1468794116679873
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794116679873 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ndongo-Keller, Justine
    2015 “Vicarious Trauma (VT) and Stress Management.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Interpreting, edited byHolly Mikkelson and Renée Jourdenais, 337–351. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Palmer, Jerry
    2007 “Interpreting and Translation for Western Media in Iraq.” InTranslating and Interpreting Conflict, edited byMyriam Salama Carr, 11–28. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401204385_003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401204385_003 [Google Scholar]
  49. Pearlman, Wendy
    2013 “Emotions and the Microfoundations of the Arab Uprisings.” Perspectives on Politics11 (2): 387–409. 10.1017/S1537592713001072
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592713001072 [Google Scholar]
  50. Rosler, Nimrod, Smadar Cohen-Chen, and Eran Halperin
    2017 “The Distinctive Effects of Empathy and Hope in Intractable Conflicts.” Journal of Conflict Resolution61 (1): 114–139. 10.1177/0022002715569772
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002715569772 [Google Scholar]
  51. Ruiz Rosendo, Lucía
    2019 “Rethinking the Interpreter’s Agency in Wartime: A Portrait of Gottlieb Fuchs.” Translation & Interpreting11 (2): 58–68. 10.12807/ti.111202.2019.a06
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.111202.2019.a06 [Google Scholar]
  52. 2020 “Interpreting for the Afghanistan Spanish Force.” War & Society39 (1): 42–57. 10.1080/07292473.2019.1701620
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07292473.2019.1701620 [Google Scholar]
  53. Ruiz Rosendo, Lucía, and Clementina Persaud
    2019 “On the Front Line: Mediating across Languages and Cultures in Peacekeeping Operations.” Armed Forces & Society45 (3): 472–490. 10.1177/0095327X18755108
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X18755108 [Google Scholar]
  54. Sabucedo, José M., Mar Durán, Mónica Alzate, and Idaly Barreto
    2011 “Emotions, Ideology and Collective Political Action.” Universitas Psychologica10 (1): 27–34. 10.11144/Javeriana.upsy10‑1.eicp
    https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy10-1.eicp [Google Scholar]
  55. Salama-Carr, Myriam
    2007Translating and Interpreting Conflict. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401204385
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401204385 [Google Scholar]
  56. Saunders, Benjamin, Julius Sim, Tom Kingstone, Shula Baker, Jackie Waterfield, Bernadette Bartlam, Heather Burroughs, and Clare Jinks
    2018 “Saturation in Qualitative Research: Exploring its Conceptualization and Operationalization.” Quality & Quantity52 (4): 1893–1907. 10.1007/s11135‑017‑0574‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8 [Google Scholar]
  57. Siebold, Guy L.
    2007 “The Essence of Military Group Cohesion.” Armed Forces & Society33 (2): 286–295. 10.1177/0095327X06294173
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X06294173 [Google Scholar]
  58. Snellman, Pekka
    2016 “Constraints on and Dimensions of Military Interpreter Neutrality.” Linguistica Antverpiensia15: 260–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Strauss, Anselm, and Juliet Corbin
    1998Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 2nd ed.Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Takeda, Kayoko
    2009 “Wars and Interpreters.” Across Languages and Cultures10 (1): 49–62. 10.1556/Acr.10.2009.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.10.2009.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tălpaș, Mihaela
    2016 “Words Cut Two Ways: An Overview of the Situation of Afghan Interpreters at the Beginning of the 21st Century.” Linguistica Antverpiensia15: 241–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Thomas, David R.
    2017 “Feedback from Research Participants: Are Member Checks Useful in Qualitative Research?” Qualitative Research in Psychology14 (1): 23–41. 10.1080/14780887.2016.1219435
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2016.1219435 [Google Scholar]
  63. Todorova, Marija
    2016 “Interpreting Conflict in Kosovo and Macedonia.” Linguistica Antverpiensia15: 227–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Tracy, Sarah J.
    2010 “Qualitative Quality: Eight ‘Big-Tent’ Criteria for Excellent Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Inquiry16 (10): 837–851. 10.1177/1077800410383121
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800410383121 [Google Scholar]
  65. Ugarriza, Juan E., and Matthew J. Craig
    2013 “The Relevance of Ideology to Contemporary Armed Conflicts: A Quantitative Analysis of Former Combatants in Colombia.” Journal of Conflict Resolution57 (3): 445–477. 10.1177/0022002712446131
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002712446131 [Google Scholar]
  66. Valero-Garcés, Carmen
    2017 “Ethical Codes and their Impact on Prison Communication.” InIdeology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation, edited byCarmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton, 105–130. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783097531‑010
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097531-010 [Google Scholar]
  67. Wang-Chi Wong, Lawrence
    2007 “Translators and Interpreters during the Opium War between Britain and China (1839–1843).” InTranslating and Interpreting Conflict, edited byMyriam Salama Carr, 41–57. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789401204385_005
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401204385_005 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/target.18165.rui
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/target.18165.rui
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error