Volume 34, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0924-1884
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9986
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article scrutinises instances where translation corresponds to what I call ‘cultural repatriation’, through the examination of two Anglophone novels about the Greek civil war and their transfer into Greece. Translation as repatriation concentrates on works which are, effectively, repatriated into their original context and made vulnerable to its aesthetic and socio-ideological encounters. The translation of Gage’s (1983a) and de Bernières’s (1994) into Greek constitutes cultural repatriation as cultural representations in the works are constructed through a ‘foreign gaze’ and rendered problematic upon transfer. Within this context, I examine how specific strategies in the promotion, translation, and consumption of these works challenge or reinforce hegemonic versions and narrative modes of the historical narrative and lead to a renegotiation of the cultural categories constructed in them. Methodologically, the article combines Bourdieu’s sociology and narrative theory creating a robust framework for the study of cultural repatriation.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aidenaier, Niki
    1986 “Nick Gage, Eleni, Ούτε λογοτεχνία ούτε ντοκουμέντο [Nick Gage, Eleni, neither literature nor documentary].” ΑΝΤΙ313: 50.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Angelidou, Maria
    2008 Interview by author, Greece, April15 2008, my personal archive.
  3. Apostolidou, Venetia
    2010Τραύμα και μνήμη, η πεζογραφία των πολιτικών προσφύγων [Trauma and memory, the prose of political refugees]. Athens: Polis.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Axelos, Loukas
    2008Εκδοτική δραστηριότητα και κίνηση των ιδεών στην Ελλάδα [Publishing activities and the circulation of ideas in Greece]. Athens: Stochastes.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker, Mona
    2006Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203099919
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203099919 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bakolas, Nikos
    1997 “Τα ξαναγυρίσματα της ιστορίας στην πεζογραφία [History’s comebacks in fiction].” InΙστορική πραγματικότητα και νεοελληνική πεζογραφία (1945–1995): επιστημονικό συμπόσιο [Historical reality and Modern Greek fiction (1945–1995): Scientific symposium], edited by Theofanos Kalogiannis , 27–34. Athens: Schole Moraites.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boukalas, Pantelis
    1994 “Η λογοτεχνία των αρνητικών ηρώων [The literature of negative heroes].” InΑφιέρωμα στον Αλέξανδρο Κοτζιά [Dedication to Alexandros Kotzias], edited by Spyros Tsaknias and Ekaterini Makrynikola , 66–70. Athens: Kedros.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bourdieu, Pierre
    1991Language and Symbolic Power [orig.Langage et pouvoir symbolique], edited by John B. Thompson . Translated by Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson . Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 1993The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Edited by Randal Johnson . Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 1996The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field [orig.Les règles de l’art]. Translated by Susan Emanuel . Cambridge: Polity. 10.1515/9781503615861
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781503615861 [Google Scholar]
  11. 1999 “The Social Conditions of the International Circulation of Ideas.” InBourdieu: A Critical Reader, edited by Richard Shusterman , 220–228. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bruner, Jerome
    1991 “The Narrative Construction of Reality.” Critical Inquiry18 (1): 1–21. 10.1086/448619
    https://doi.org/10.1086/448619 [Google Scholar]
  13. Carretero, Mario
    2018 “Imagining the Nation throughout School History Master Narratives.” InPublic History and School: International Perspectives, edited by Marko Demantowsky , 97–108. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110466133‑006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110466133-006 [Google Scholar]
  14. Casanova, Pascale
    2010 “Consecration and Accumulation of Literary Capital: Translation as Unequal Exchange.” Translated by Siobhan Brownlie . InCritical Readings in Translation Studies, edited by Mona Baker , 285–303. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Clarke, Robert
    2018 “History, Memory, and Trauma in Postcolonial Travel Writing.” InThe Cambridge Companion to Postcolonial Travel Writing, edited by Robert Clarke , 49–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. De Bernières, Louis
    1994Captain Corelli’s Mandolin. London: Secker & Warburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1995To Μαντολίνο του Λοχαγού Κορέλι [orig.Captain Corelli’s Mandolin]. Translated by Maria Angelidou . Athens: Psichogios.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dempsey, Lorcan
    2000 “Scientific, Industrial, and Cultural Heritage: A Shared Approach: A Research Framework for Digital Libraries, Museums and Archives.” Ariadne22. www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue22/dempseyAccessedMay 23, 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Elefantis, Aggelos
    1984 “Ελένη, Πέραν των Αντιλόγων Υπάρχει και η Ιστορία [Eleni, beyond disputations there is a history].” O Polites [unknown issue]: 41–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2003Μας Πήραν την Αθήνα: Ξαναδιαβάζοντας την ιστορία 1941–1950 [They took Athens from us: Rereading history 1941–1950]. Athens: Vivliorama.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Erll, Astrid , and Ansgar Nünning
    2008Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110207262
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110207262 [Google Scholar]
  22. Farakos, Grigoris
    2000Ο Ελάς και η Εξουσία, Τόμος Πρώτος: Το αντάρτικο- Στρατός για «τώρα» και για «μετά» [ELAS and power, volume one: Guerrilla warfare – army for ‘now’ and for ‘later’]. Athens: Hellenika Grammata.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Freadman, Richard
    2009 “Once Tortured, Forever Tortured: Testimony and Autobiography in Jacob Rosenberg’s East of Time and Sunrise West .” Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas7 (2): 279–297.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Friedman, Jonathan
    1994Cultural Identity and Global Processes. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gage, Nicholas
    1983aEleni. New York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 1983bEleni. Translated by Alexandros Kotzias . Athens: Helleniki Euroekdotike.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gazi, Efi
    2002 “Ο Μεταμοντερνισμός Λέει… [Postmodernism says…].” To Vima, December22, A63.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Genette, Gérard
    1997Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation [orig.Seuils]. Translated by Jane E. Lewin . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511549373
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511549373 [Google Scholar]
  29. Goffman, Erving
    1986Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Gouanvic, Jean-Marc
    2005 “A Bourdieusian Theory of Translation, or the Coincidence of Practical Instances: Field, ‘Habitus’, Capital and ‘Illusio’.” The Translator11 (2): 147–166. 10.1080/13556509.2005.10799196
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2005.10799196 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hanna, Sameh F.
    2016Bourdieu in Translation Studies: The Socio-cultural Dynamics of Shakespeare Translation in Egypt. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315753591
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315753591 [Google Scholar]
  32. Harth, Dietrich
    2008 “The Invention of Cultural Memory.” In Erll and Ansgar (2008, 85–96).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Heilbron, Johan , and Gisèle Sapiro
    2016 “Translation: Economic and Sociological Perspectives.” InThe Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language, edited by Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber , 373–402. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑32505‑1_14
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-32505-1_14 [Google Scholar]
  34. Hesmondhalgh, David
    2006 “Bourdieu, the Media and Cultural Production.” Media, Culture & Society28 (2): 211–231. 10.1177/0163443706061682
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443706061682 [Google Scholar]
  35. Jusdanis, Gregory
    1987 “Is Postmodernism Possible Outside the ‘West’? The Case of Greece.” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies11 (1): 69–92. 10.1179/030701387790203109
    https://doi.org/10.1179/030701387790203109 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kalogeras, Yiorgos D.
    1993 “ Eleni: Hellenizing the Subject, Westernizing the Discourse.” MELUS18 (2): 77–89. 10.2307/467935
    https://doi.org/10.2307/467935 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kalyvas, Stathis
    2003 “Aθώος ή ένοχος. O εμφύλιος πόλεμος και η ιδεολογική χρήση της ιστορίας [Innocent or guilty: The Civil War and the ideological use of history].” To Vima, March9, 11.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kalyvas, Stathis , and Marantzidis Nikos
    2004 “Νέες τάσεις στη μελέτη του εμφυλίου πολέμου [New trends in the study of the Civil War].” Ta Nea, March20–21, 10–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kavvathas, Vassilis
    1985Η Άλλη Ελένη [The other Eleni]. Athens: Alkyon.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kotzias, Alexandros
    1984a Transcribed interview, Kotzias’s private archive.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 1984b “Ο Συγγραφέας δικαιούται να έχει πολιτική θέση’ [Al. Kotzias: ‘The author has the right to his political position’].” To Vima tes Kyriakis, March18, 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1973 In Alexandros Argyriou , Alexandros Kotzias , Kostas Kouloufakos , Spyros Plaskovitis and Stratis Tsirkas “Η Νεοελληνική Πραγματικότητα και η Πεζογραφία μας [Modern Greek reality and our prose].” He Synecheia4: 172–179.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Krmpotich, Cara
    2011 “Repatriation and the Generation of Material Culture.” InArchaeologists on Contemporary Death, edited by Howard Willians , special issue ofMortality16 (2): 145–160. 10.1080/13576275.2011.560446
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13576275.2011.560446 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lachmann, Renate
    2008 “Mnemonic and Intertextual Aspects of Literature.” In Erll and Nünning (2008, 301–310).
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Leech, Andrew
    2001 “‘Let him be called Hellene!’ The last interview with Professor C.M. Woodhouse.” Athens News, February25. AccessedMay 23, 2021. www.helleniccomserve.com/woodhouse.html
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Liakos, Antonis
    2001 “Η Νεοελληνική Ιστοριογραφία το Τελευταίο Τέταρτο του Εικοστού Αιώνα [Modern Greek historiography in the last quarter of the twentieth century].” Sychrona Themata76–77: 72–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Mackridge, Peter
    1988 “Testimony and Fiction in Greek Narrative Prose 1944–1967.” InThe Greek Novel AD1–1985, edited by Roderick Beaton , 90–102. London: Croom Helm.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Marantzidis, Nikos , and Giorgos Antoniou
    2004 “The Axis Occupation and Civil War: Changing Trends in Greek Historiography, 1941–2002.” Journal of Peace Research41 (2): 223–231. 10.1177/0022343304041779
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343304041779 [Google Scholar]
  49. Mazower, Mark
    2000 “Introduction.” InAfter the War was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation, and State in Greece, 1943–1960, edited by Mark Mazower , 3–23. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Meylaerts, Reine
    2005 “Sociology and Interculturality: Creating the Conditions for Inter-national Dialogue across Intellectual Fields.” The Translator11 (2): 276–283. 10.1080/13556509.2005.10799202
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2005.10799202 [Google Scholar]
  51. Moro-Abadía, Oscar
    2006 “The History of Archaeology as a ‘Colonial Discourse’.” Bulletin of the History of Archaeology16 (2): 4–17. 10.5334/bha.16202
    https://doi.org/10.5334/bha.16202 [Google Scholar]
  52. Neumann, Birgit
    2008 “The Literary Representation of Memory.” In Erll and Nünning (2008, 333–344).
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Nilsson Stutz, Liv
    2013 “Claims to the Past: A Critical View of the Arguments Driving Repatriation of Cultural Heritage and Their Role in Contemporary Identity Politics.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding7 (2): 170–195. 10.1080/17502977.2012.714243
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2012.714243 [Google Scholar]
  54. Paivanas, Dimitris
    2010 “Cold Wars after 1989: Thanasis Valtinos’ Orthokosta and its Reception.” Hellenic Studies18 (1): 21–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Papagianidou, Mary
    1998 “Το βάρος της Ιστορίας [The weight of history].” To Vima tes Kyriakis, February15, ΣΤ12, 24.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Pasmatzi, Kalliopi
    2012 “Translating the Greek Civil War: Alexandros Kotzias and the Translator’s Multiple Habitus.” New Voices in Translation Studies8 (1): 115–131.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 2014 “Translatorial Hexis and Cultural Honour: Translating Captain Corelli’s Mandolin into Greek.” InRemapping Habitus in Translation Studies, edited by Gisella Maria Vorderobermeier , 73–92. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Plato
    2002Phaedrus. Translated by Robin Waterfield . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Rori, Labrini
    2008 “Από το «δωσίλογο» Μητσοτάκη στη «Νέα Βάρκιζα του ‘89»: η Μνήμη της δεκαετίας του ’40 στον πολιτικό λόγο του ΠΑΣΟΚ [From ‘collaborationist’ Mitsotakis to ‘the new Barkiza of ’89’: Memory of the 1940s in the political rhetoric of PASOK].” InΜνήμες και Λήθη του Ελληνικού Εμφύλιου Πολέμου [Memories and forgetting of the Greek Civil War], edited by Riki Van Boeschoten , Tasoula Vervinioti , Eftyhia Voutira , Vasilis Daldavoukis , and Konstantina Mbada , 293–309. Thessaloniki: Epikentro.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Said, Edward W.
    1989 “Representing the Colonized: Anthropology’s Interlocutors.” Critical Inquiry15 (2): 205–225. 10.1086/448481
    https://doi.org/10.1086/448481 [Google Scholar]
  61. Sakkatos, Vaggelis
    1995a “Ανακρίβειες σε μια Εκπομπή [Inaccuracies in a show].” ANTI, November24, 44.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 1995b “Το Μαντολίνο του Λοχαγού Κορέλι [Captain Corelli’s mandolin.]” Rizospastis, October26, 26.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2002Μεραρχία Ακούι, Η σφαγή των Ιταλών στην Κεφαλονιά. Η αντίσταση [Acqui division, the Italians’ slaughter on Cephalonia: The resistance.] Athens: Estia.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Scott, Rebecca
    1989 “The Dark Continent: Africa as Female Body in Haggard’s Adventure Fiction.” Feminist Review32 (1): 69–89. 10.1057/fr.1989.20
    https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.1989.20 [Google Scholar]
  65. Shih, Shu-Mei
    2004 “Global Literature and the Technologies of Recognition.” PMLA119 (1): 16–30. 10.1632/003081204X22828
    https://doi.org/10.1632/003081204X22828 [Google Scholar]
  66. Somers, Margaret R.
    1992 “Narrativity, Narrative Identity, and Social Action: Rethinking English Working-class Formation.” Social Science History16 (4): 591–630. 10.1017/S0145553200016679
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0145553200016679 [Google Scholar]
  67. Summers, Caroline
    2012 “Translating the Author-Function: The (Re)narration of Christa Wolf.” New Voices in Translation Studies8 (1): 170–187.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Tsaousis, I. Kostas
    1995 “Κριτική Βιβλίου [Book review].” Eleftherotypia, November30, page unknown.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tsirkas, Stratis
    1973 In Alexandros Argyriou , Alexandros Kotzias , Kostas Kouloufakos , Spyros Plaskovitis and Stratis Tsirkas “Η Νεοελληνική Πραγματικότητα και η Πεζογραφία μας [Modern Greek reality and our prose].” He Synecheia4: 172–179.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Valent, Paul
    2002Child Survivors of the Holocaust. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Vasilikos, Vasilis
    1995 Interview with Maria Angelidou, Mark Mazower, Apostolos Santas and Georgia Farinou. Axion Esti. October25. ERT Digital Archives.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Venuti, Lawrence
    1995The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Voukelatos, Yiorgos
    2011 Mail interview by author, Greece, February26 2011, my private archive.
  74. Wacquant, Loïc J. D.
    1992 “Part I: Toward a Social Praxeology: The Structure and Logic of Bourdieu’s Sociology.” InAn Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, authored by Pierre Bourdieu and Loïc J. D. Wacquant , 1–59. Cambridge: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 1993 “From Ruling Class to Field of Power: An Interview with Pierre Bourdieu on La Noblesse d’Etat.” Theory, Culture & Society10 (3): 19–44. 10.1177/026327693010003002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026327693010003002 [Google Scholar]
  76. Whitby-Last, Kathryn
    2010 “Legal Impediments to the Repatriation of Cultural Objects to Indigenous Peoples.” InThe Long Way Home: The Meaning and Values of Repatriation, edited by Paul Turnbull and Michael Pickering , 35–47. New York: Berghahn Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Whitebrook, Maureen
    2001Identity, Narrative and Politics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Woodhouse, C. M.
    1983 “The Tragedy in Lia.” New York Review of Books, August18, 25–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Ziras, Alexis
    1994 “Ρεαλισμός και Εξπρεσιονισμός: Η δαιμονική βίωση της ιστορίας στο έργο του Αλέξανδρου Κοτζιά [Realism and expressionism: The demonic experience of history in the work of Alexandros Kotzias].” InΑφιέρωμα στον Αλέξανδρο Κοτζιά [Dedication to Alexandros Kotzias], edited by Spyros Tsaknias and Ekaterini Makrynikola , 123–146. Athens: Kedros.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error