1887
Volume 35, Issue 4
  • ISSN 0924-1884
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9986
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Literary occasionalisms, new words coined by writers with a particular poetic aim in view, often pose a great challenge for translators. Given recent advances in machine translation (MT), could literary translators benefit from MT when it comes to the translation of occasionalisms? We address this question by considering the work of Austria’s most important nineteenth-century comedy writer, Johann Nestroy (1801–1862). We compare how human translators and two generic neural MT systems (Google Translate, DeepL) translated occasionalisms (compounds, derivations, and blends) in Nestroy’s play into English. While human translators largely refrained from creating new target expressions, the two MT systems generated a number of viable new coinages, most of them by literal translation procedures. In an interactive human-computer environment, using MT output as a repository from which to retrieve novel target solutions or derive inspiration might open up new avenues in the practice of literary translation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/target.21147.kol
2023-04-03
2024-02-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Albaladejo Martínez, Juan Antonio
    2019 “Die Nichtrezeption Johann Nestroys in Spanien [The non-reception of Johann Nestroy in Spain].” Moderne Sprachen63 (1): 57–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arndt-Lappe, Sabine, Angelika Braun, Claudine Moulin, and Esme Winter-Froemel
    eds. 2018Expanding the Lexicon: Linguistic Innovation, Morphological Productivity, and Ludicity. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110501933
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110501933 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bauer, Laurie, Rochelle Lieber, and Ingo Plag
    2013The Oxford Reference Guide to English Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ben-Ari, Nitsa
    2021 “The Translator’s Note Revisited.” InLiterary Translator Studies, edited byKlaus Kaindl, Waltraud Kolb, and Daniela Schlager, 157–181. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.156.08ben
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.156.08ben [Google Scholar]
  5. Bentivogli, Luisa, Arianna Bisazza, Mauro Cettolo, and Marcello Federico
    2016 “Neural versus Phrase-Based Machine Translation Quality: A Case Study.” InProceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1–5 November 2016, Austin, Texas, edited byJian Su, Kevin Duh, and Xavier Carreras, 257–267. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/D16-1025/
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Besacier, Laurent, and Lane Schwartz
    2015 “Automated Translation of a Literary Work: A Pilot Study.” InProceedings of NAACL-HLT Fourth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, 4 June 2015, Denver, Colorado, edited byAnna Feldman, Anna Kazantseva, Stan Szpakowicz, and Corina Koolen, 114–122. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/W15-0713/
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boase-Beier, Jean
    1987Poetic Compounds: The Principles of Poetic Language in Modern English Poetry. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111352626
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111352626 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2020Translation and Style. 2nd ed.Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chanpira, Erik Iossifovič
    1966 “Об окказиональном слове и окказиональном словообразовании русского языка [On the occasional word and occasional word formation in Russian].” InРазвитие словообразования русского языка [The development of word formation in Russian], edited byE. A. Zemskaja and D. N. Šmelev, 153–166. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cherry, Colin, George Foster, Ankur Bapna, Orhan Firat, and Wolfgang Macherey
    2018 “Revisiting Character-Based Neural Machine Translation with Capacity and Compression.” InProceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 31 October – 4 November, Brussels, Belgium, edited byEllen Riloff, David Chiang, Julia Hockenmaier, and Jun’ichi Tsujii, 4295–4305. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/D18-1461/. 10.18653/v1/D18‑1461
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/D18-1461 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chesterman, Andrew
    2004 “Hypotheses about Translation Universals.” InClaims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies: Selected Contributions from the EST Congress, Copenhagen 2001, edited byGyde Hansen, Kirsten Malmkjær, and Daniel Gile, 1–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.50.02che
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.50.02che [Google Scholar]
  12. 2011 “Reflections on the Literal Translation Hypothesis.” InMethods and Strategies of Process Research: Integrative Approaches to Translation Studies, edited byCecilia Alvstad, Adelina Hild, and Elisabet Tiselius, 23–35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.94.05che
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.94.05che [Google Scholar]
  13. Christofidou, Anastasia
    1994Okkasionalismen in poetischen Texten: Eine Fallstudie am Werk von O. Elytis [Occasionalisms in poetic texts: A case study of the work of O. Elytis]. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Colman, Toon, Margot Fonteyne, Joke Daems, and Lieve Macken
    2021 “It’s All in the Eyes: Using Eye-Tracking to Assess the Readability of Machine Translated Literature.” Paper presented at theconference Literary Translation Studies Today and Tomorrow, 4–6 November 2021, Dublin, Ireland.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Constantine, Peter
    2019 “Google Translate Gets Voltaire: Literary Translation and the Age of Artificial Intelligence.” InThe Google Era, edited byRoger Célestin, special issue ofContemporary French and Francophone Studies23 (4): 471–479. 10.1080/17409292.2019.1694798
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17409292.2019.1694798 [Google Scholar]
  16. DeepL
    DeepL. n.d.AccessedAugust 26, 2021. https://www.deepl.com/en/press.html
  17. Delabastita, Dirk
    2004 “Literary Style in Translation: Archaisms and Neologisms.” InTranslation: An International Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, edited byHarald Kittel, Armin Paul Frank, Norbert Greiner, Theo Hermans, Werner Koller, José Lambert, and Fritz Paul, vol.11, 883–888. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dupeuty, Charles Désiré, and Fédéric de Courcy
    1840Bonaventure. Brussels: J.-A. Lelong.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dhar, Prajit, and Lonneke van der Plas
    2019 “Learning to Predict Novel Noun-Noun Compounds.” InProceedings of the Joint Workshop on Multiword Expressions and WordNet (MWE-WN 2019), 2 August 2019, Florence, Italy, edited byAgata Savary, Carla Parra Escartín, Francis Bond, Jelena Mitrović, and Verginica Barbu Mititelu, 30–39. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-5105.pdf. 10.18653/v1/W19‑5105
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W19-5105 [Google Scholar]
  20. Dressler, Wolfgang U.
    1993 “Word-Formation: Poetic Licence.” InThe Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, edited byRonald E. Asher and James M. Y. Simpson, vol.91, 5028–5029. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2006 “Compound Types.” InThe Representation and Processing of Compound Words, edited byGary Libben and Gonia Jarema, 23–44. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dressler, Wolfgang U., and Oswald Panagl
    2007Poetische Lizenzen [Poetic licences]. Vienna: Praesens.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dressler, Wolfgang U., and Barbara Tumfart
    2017a “New Corpus-Linguistic Approaches to the Investigation of Poetic Occasionalisms: The Case of Johann Nepomuk Nestroy.” Yearbook of the Poznan Linguistic Meeting3 (1): 155–166. 10.1515/yplm‑2017‑0008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/yplm-2017-0008 [Google Scholar]
  24. 2017b “Johann Nepomuk Nestroy (1801–1862) als großer Wortbildner: Neue korpuslinguistische Ansätze für die Auswertung okkasionalistischer Neubildungen [New corpus-linguistic approaches to the evaluation of occasionalistic new formations: The case of Johann Nepomuk Nestroy (1801–1862)].” Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik471: 563–594. 10.1007/s41244‑017‑0078‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s41244-017-0078-y [Google Scholar]
  25. Dressler, Wolfgang U., Vanessa Hannesschläger, and Barbara Tumfart
    2018 “Poetische Okkasionalismen bei Nestroy und Handke: Ein literarisch-linguistischer und korpuslinguistischer Kontrast [Poetic occasionalisms in Nestroy and Handke: A literary-linguistic and corpus-linguistic contrast].” InCorpus Linguistics and Literature: Workshop Proceedings of the 43rd Austrian Linguistics Conference at the University of Klagenfurt, Austria, 8–10 December 2017, edited byHanno Biber, Christina Katsikadeli, and Manfred Sellner. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. https://epub.oeaw.ac.at/8424-9inhalt?frames=yes10.1553/Poetische_Okkasionalismen
    https://doi.org/10.1553/Poetische_Okkasionalismen [Google Scholar]
  26. Dressler, Wolfgang U., Barbara Tumfart, and Elisa Mattiello
    2021 “Nestroy als Übersetzer und Übersetzter am Beispiel seiner Wortneubildungen (aus dem Französischen und ins Italienische und Englische) [Nestroy as translator and translated (from the French and into Italian and English) exemplified by his newly created words].” InDeutsch Übersetzen und Dolmetschen: Sprachvergleichende Perspektiven mit Blick auf die Didaktik [German translation and interpreting: Comparative perspectives in didactics], edited byClaudio Di Meola, Joachim Gerdes, and Livia Tonelli, 231–247. Berlin: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. DWDS
    DWDS. n.d.AccessedFebruary 15, 2022. https://www.dwds.de/
  28. Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    2005Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation Process. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.64
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.64 [Google Scholar]
  29. enTenTen13
    enTenTen13. n.d.AccessedAugust 26, 2021. https://www.sketchengine.eu/ententen-english-corpus/
  30. Fonteyne, Margot, Arda Tezcan, and Lieve Macken
    2020 “Machine Translation under the Magnifying Glass: Assessing the Quality of an NMT-Translated Detective Novel on Document Level.” InProceedings of the 12th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2020), 11–16 May 2020, Marseille, France, edited byNicoletta Calzolari , 3790–3798. European Language Resources Association. www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2020/pdf/2020.lrec-1.468.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Genzel, Dmitriy, Jakob Uszkoreit, and Franz Och
    2010 “‘Poetic’ Statistical Machine Translation: Rhyme and Meter.” InProceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 9–11 October 2010, MIT, Massachusetts, edited byHang Li and Lluís Màrquez, 158–166. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/D10-1016.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Google Translate
    Google Translate. n.d.AccessedAugust 26, 2021. https://translate.google.com/
  33. Greene, Erica, Tugba Bodrumlu, and Kevin Knight
    2010 “Automatic Analysis of Rhythmic Poetry with Applications to Generation and Translation.” InProceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 9–11 October 2010, MIT, Massachusetts, edited byHang Li and Lluís Màrquez, 524–533. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/D10-1051/
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Guerberof-Arenas, Ana, and Antonio Toral
    2020 “The Impact of Post-Editing and Machine Translation on Creativity and Reading Experience.” Translation Spaces9 (2): 255–282. 10.1075/ts.20035.gue
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.20035.gue [Google Scholar]
  35. Gupta, Rohit, Patrik Lambert, Raj Patel, and John Tinsley
    2019 “Improving Robustness in Real-World Neural Machine Translation Engines.” InProceedings of MT Summit XVII: Vol. 2: Translator, Project and User Tracks, 19–23 August 2019, Dublin, Ireland, edited byMikel Forcada, Andy Way, John Tinsley, Dimitar Shterionov, Celia Rico, and Federico Gaspari, 142–148. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-67.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hadley, James, Maja Popović, Haithem Afli, and Andy Way
    eds. 2019Proceedings of the Qualities of Literary Machine Translation, 19 August 2019, Dublin, Ireland. European Association for Machine Translation. https://aclanthology.org/volumes/W19-73/
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Halverson, Sandra L.
    2017 “Gravitational Pull in Translation: Testing a Revised Model.” InEmpirical Translation Studies: New Methodological and Theoretical Traditions, edited byGert De Sutter, Marie-Aude Lefer, and Isabelle Delaere, 9–45. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110459586‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110459586-002 [Google Scholar]
  38. Havránek, Bohuslav
    1964 “The Functional Differentiation of the Standard Language.” InA Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style, edited byPaul L. Garvin, 3–16. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hein, Jürgen
    1970Spiel und Satire in der Komödie Johann Nestroys [Play and satire in Johann Nestroy’s comedy]. Bad Homburg: Gehlen.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Herman, Jerry, and Michael Stewart
    1963Hello Dolly! Music and lyrics by Jerry Herman, book by Michael Stewart. Fisher Theatre, Detroit, MI, November 16, 1963.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Huck, Matthias, Simon Riess, and Alexander Fraser
    2017 “Target-Side Word Segmentation Strategies for Neural Machine Translation.” InProceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation, Copenhagen, Denmark, 7–8 September 2017, vol.11, edited byOndrej Bojar, Christian Buck, Rajen Chatterjee, Christian Federmann, Yvette Graham, Barry Haddow, Matthias Huck, Antonio Jimeno-Yepes, Philipp Koehn, and Julia Kreutzer, 56–67. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=https%3A%2F%2Faclanthology.org%2FW17-4700.pdf&clen=133118&chunk=true10.18653/v1/W17‑4706
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W17-4706 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hunger, Herbert
    1999Das Denken am Leitseil der Sprache: Johann Nestroys geniale wie auch banale Verfremdungen durch Neologismen [Thinking tethered to language: Johann Nestroy’s ingenious and banal defamiliarizations by means of neologisms]. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jiménez-Crespo, Miguel A.
    2020 “The ‘Technological Turn’ in Translation Studies: Are We There Yet? A Transversal Cross-Disciplinary Approach.” Translation Spaces9 (2): 314–341. 10.1075/ts.19012.jim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.19012.jim [Google Scholar]
  44. Jones, Ruth, and Ann Irvine
    2013 “The (Un)faithful Machine Translator.” InProceedings of the 7th Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities, 9 August 2012, Sofia, Bulgaria, edited byPiroska Lendvai and Kalliopi Zervanou, 96–101. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/W13-2713/
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kaufman, James C., and Robert J. Sternberg
    2019The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316979839
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316979839 [Google Scholar]
  46. Kenny, Dorothy
    2001Lexis and Creativity in Translation: A Corpus-Based Study. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Kenny, Dorothy, and Marion Winters
    2020 “Machine Translation, Ethics and the Literary Translator’s Voice.” InFair MT: Towards Ethical, Sustainable Machine Translation, edited byJoss Moorkens, Dorothy Kenny, and Félix do Carmo, special issue ofTranslation Spaces9 (1): 123–149. 10.1075/ts.00024.ken
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.00024.ken [Google Scholar]
  48. Koehn, Philipp, and Rebecca Knowles
    2017 “Six Challenges for Neural Machine Translation.” InProceedings of the First Workshop on Neural Machine Translation, 4 August 2017, Vancouver, Canada, edited byThang Luong, Alexandra Birch, Graham Neubig, Andrew Finch, 28–39. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W17-3204.pdf10.18653/v1/W17‑3204
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W17-3204 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kolb, Waltraud
    2021 “Literary Translation and Post-Editing: Priming Effects and Engagement with the Text.” Paper presented at theComputer-Assisted Literary Translation Conference, 11–13 May 2021, Swansea, Wales.
  50. Kolb, Waltraud, and Tristan Miller
    2022 “Human–Computer Interaction in Pun Translation.” InUsing Technologies for Creative-Text Translation, edited byJames Luke Hadley, Kristiina Taivalkoski-Shilov, Carlos S. C. Teixeira, and Antonio Toral, 66–88. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781003094159‑4
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003094159-4 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kraus, Karl
    1912 “Nestroy und die Nachwelt. Zum 50. Todestage [Nestroy and posterity: The 50th anniversary of Nestroy’s death]. Die Fackel349/3501: 12.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Krings, Hans P.
    2001 Repairing Texts: Empirical Investigations of Machine Translation Post-Editing Processes [orig.Texte Reparieren: Empirische Untersuchungen zum Prozeß der Nachredaktion von Maschinenübersetzungen]. Edited byGeoffrey S. Koby, translated byGeoffrey S. Koby, Gregory M. Shreve, Katja Mischerikow, and Sarah Litzer. Kent: Kent State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kudo, Taku, and John Richardson
    2018 “SentencePiece: A Simple and Language Independent Subword Tokenizer and Detokenizer for Neural Text Processing.” InProceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations, 31 October – 4 November 2018, Brussels, Belgium, edited byEduardo Blanco and Wei Lu, 66–71. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/D18-2012/
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kuzman, Taja, Špela Vintar, and Mihael Arčan
    2019 “Neural Machine Translation of Literary Texts from English to Slovene.” InHadley (2019, 1–9). https://aclanthology.org/W19-7301/
  55. Lacheny, Marc
    2019 “‘Übersetzen s’ aus Frankreich a Stuk…’: Johann Nestroy ins Französische übersetzen und neu übersetzen [‘Translate a piece from France’: Translating and retranslating Johann Nestroy into French].” Moderne Sprachen63 (1): 87–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Macken, Lieve, Laura van Brussel, and Joke Daems
    2019 “NMT’s Wonderland Where People Turn into Rabbits: A Study on the Comprehensibility of Newly Invented Words in NMT Output.” Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands Journal91: 67–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Malmkjær, Kirsten
    2011 “Translation Universals.” InThe Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, edited byKirsten Malmkjær and Kevin Windle, 83–93. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199239306.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199239306.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  58. Mattiello, Elisa
    2017Analogy in Word-formation: A Study of English Neologisms and Occasionalisms. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110551419
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110551419 [Google Scholar]
  59. Matusov, Evgeny
    2019 “The Challenges of Using Neural Machine Translation for Literature.” InHadley (2019, 10–19). https://aclanthology.org/W19-7302.pdf
  60. Mauranen, Anna, and Pekka Kujamäki
    eds. 2004Translation Universals: Do They Exist?Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.48
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.48 [Google Scholar]
  61. Merriam Webster
    Merriam Webster. n.d.AccessedAugust 26, 2021. https://www.merriam-webster.com/
  62. Mohar, Tjaša, Sara Orthaber, and Tomaž Onič
    2020 “Machine Translated Atwood: Utopia or Dystopia?” Elope: English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries17 (1): 125–141. 10.4312/elope.17.1.125‑141
    https://doi.org/10.4312/elope.17.1.125-141 [Google Scholar]
  63. Moorkens, Joss, Sheila Castilho, Federico Gaspari, and Stephen Doherty
    2018Translation Quality Assessment: From Principles to Practice. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑91241‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91241-7 [Google Scholar]
  64. Nestroy, Johann Nepomuk
    1840Der Talisman. Posse mit Gesang in 3 Aufzügen [The Talisman: Farce with songs in 3 acts]. Electronic corpus of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 1844Einen Jux will er sich machen [He will go on a spree]. Vienna: Wallishauser.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 1967 “The Talisman [orig.Der Talisman].” InThree Comedies by Johann Nestroy. Translated byMax Knight and Joseph Fabry, 95–174. New York: Frederick Ungar.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 1986 “The Talisman [orig.Der Talisman].” InThree Viennese Comedies. Translated byRobert Harrison and Katharina Wilson, 15–92. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 1997Johann Nestroy’s Der Talisman: An English Performance Translation [orig. Der Talisman]. Translated byBrigitte Simone Gerdes. MA thesis. University of Alberta.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Newmark, Peter
    1988A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Nitzberg, Alexander
    2020 “Übersetzer Alexander Nitzberg: ‘Sprache hat viele Schatzkammern’ [Translator Alexander Nitzberg: ‘Language has many treasure vaults’].” Interview with Michael Wurmitzer. Der Standard, August 6, 2020. https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000119187957/alexander-xenia-nitzberg?ref=article
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Nord, Christiane
    2010 “Functionalist Approaches.” InHandbook of Translation Studies, vol.11, edited byYves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer, 120–128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hts.1.fun1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hts.1.fun1 [Google Scholar]
  72. Oxenford, John
    1836A Day Well Spent. London: J. Miller.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Oxford English Dictionary
    Oxford English Dictionary. n.d.AccessedAugust 26, 2021. https://www.oed.com/
  74. Piok, Maria
    2019 “Italienische Nestroy-Übersetzungen [Italian translations of Nestroy].” Moderne Sprachen63 (2): 113–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Prinzl, Marlies Gabriele
    2016 “Death to Neologisms: Domestication in the English Retranslations of Thomas Mann’s Der Tod in Venedig.” InCurrent Issues in the Linguistic Analysis of Literary Translation, edited byLeena Kolehmainen, Esa Penttilä, and Piet van Poucke, special issue ofInternational Journal of Literary Linguistics5 (3): 1–30. 10.15462/ijll.v5i3.73
    https://doi.org/10.15462/ijll.v5i3.73 [Google Scholar]
  76. Prunč, Erich
    1997 “Translationskultur [Translation culture].” TextConText111: 99–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Pym, Anthony
    2008 “On Toury’s Laws of How Translators Translate.” InBeyond Descriptive Translation Studies: Investigations in Homage to Gideon Toury, edited byAnthony Pym, Miriam Schlesinger, and Daniel Simeoni, 311–328. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.75.24pym
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.75.24pym [Google Scholar]
  78. Reiß, Katharina, and Hans J. Vermeer
    2014 Towards a General Theory of Translational Action: Skopos Theory Explained [orig. Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie]. Translated byChristiane Nord. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Schmidt, Bradley
    2021 “Ghosts in the Machine: Case Studies of DeepL’s Proficiency and Why Machines Still Need Help.” Paper presented at theComputer-Assisted Literary Translation Conference, 11–13 May 2012, Swansea, Wales.
  80. Schüler, Anja
    2016Neologismen in der Science Fiction: Eine Untersuchung ihrer Übersetzung vom Englischen ins Deutsche [Neologisms in science fiction: A study of their translation from English into German]. Frankfurt: Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑653‑06748‑4
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-06748-4 [Google Scholar]
  81. Semino, Elena, and Jonathan Culpeper
    2002Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lal.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lal.1 [Google Scholar]
  82. Sennrich, Rico, Barry Haddow, and Alexandra Birch
    2016 “Neural Machine Translation of Rare Words with Subword Units.” InProceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 7–12 August 2016, Berlin, Germany, vol.11, edited byKatrin Erk and Noah A. Smith, 1715–1725. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/P16-1162/
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Stoppard, Tom
    1981On the Razzle. London: Faber and Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Taivalkoski-Shilov, Kristiina
    2019a “Free Indirect Discourse: An Insurmountable Challenge for Literary MT Systems?” InHadley (2019, 35–39). https://aclanthology.org/W19-7305/
  85. 2019b “Ethical Issues Regarding Machine(-Assisted) Translation of Literary Texts.” InVoice, Ethics and Translation, edited byAnnjo K. Greenall, Cecilia Alvstad, Hanne Jansen, and Kristiina Taivalkoski-Shilov, special issue ofPerspectives27 (5): 689–703. 10.1080/0907676X.2018.1520907
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2018.1520907 [Google Scholar]
  86. Tezcan, Arda, Joke Daems, and Lieve Macken
    2019 “When a ‘Sport’ Is a Person and Other Issues for NMT of Novels.” InHadley (2019, 40–49). https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/volumes/W19-73/
  87. Tirkkonen-Condit, Sonja
    2005 “The Monitor Model Revisited: Evidence from Process Research.” InProcesses and Pathways in Translation and Interpreting, edited byHannelore Lee-Jahnke, special issue ofMeta50 (2): 405–414.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Toral, Antonio, and Andy Way
    2015a “Translating Literary Text Between Related Languages Using SMT.” InProceedings of the NAACL-HLT Fourth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, 4 June 2015, Denver, Colorado, edited byAnna Feldman, Anna Kazantseva, Stan Szpakowicz, and Corina Koolen, 123–132. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/W15-0714/
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 2015b “Machine-Assisted Translation of Literary Text: A Case Study.” Translation Spaces4 (2): 240–267. 10.1075/ts.4.2.04tor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.4.2.04tor [Google Scholar]
  90. Toral, Antonio, and Victor M. Sánchez-Cartagena
    2017 “A Multifaceted Evaluation of Neural Versus Phrase-Based Machine Translation for 9 Language Directions.” InProceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 3–7 April 2017, Valencia, Spain, vol.11, edited byMirella Lapata, Phil Blunsom, and Alexander Koller, 1063–1073. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/E17-1100.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Toral, Antonio, and Andy Way
    2018 “What Level of Quality Can Neural Machine Translation Attain on Literary Text?” InTranslation Quality Assessment: From Principles to Practice, edited byJoss Moorkens, Sheila Castilho, Federico Gaspari, and Stephen Doherty, 263–287. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑91241‑7_12
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91241-7_12 [Google Scholar]
  92. Toral, Antonio, Martijn Wieling, and Andy Way
    2018 “Post-Editing Effort of a Novel with Statistical and Neural Machine Translation.” Frontiers in Digital Humanities51: 1–11. 10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009 [Google Scholar]
  93. Venuti, Lawrence
    1995The Translator’s Invisibility. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Vilar, David, and Marcello Federico
    2021 “A Statistical Extension of Byte-Pair Encoding.” InProceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation, 5–6 August 2021, Bangkok, Thailand, edited byMarcello Federico, Alex Waibel, Marta R. Costa-jussà, Jan Niehues, Sebastian Stuker, and Elizabeth Salesky, 263–275. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/2021.iwslt-1.31/
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Voigt, Rob, and Dan Jurafsky
    2012 “Towards a Literary Machine Translation: The Role of Referential Cohesion.” InProceedings of the NAACL-HLT 2012 Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, 8 June 2012, Montréal, Canada, edited byDavid Elson, Anna Kazantseva, Rada Mihalcea, Stan Szpakowicz, 18–25. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/W12-2503/
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Wilder, Thornton
    1939The Merchant of Yonkers. New York: Harper and Brothers.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 1955Three Plays. Our Town. The Skin of Our Teeth. The Matchmaker. New York: Harper and Brothers.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Wu, Yonghui, Mike Schuster, Zhifeng Chen, Quoc Le, Mohammad Norouzi, Wolfgang Macherey, Maxim Krikun
    2016 “Google’s Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation.” Working Paper. Ithaca: Cornell University LibraryarXiv.org. https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.08144
  99. Yates, William Edgar
    1972Nestroy: Satire and Parody in Viennese Popular Comedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 2008 “Continuity and Discontinuity in Viennese Theatrical Life from the 1860s to the Turn of the Century.” Austrian Studies161: 51–68. 10.1353/aus.2008.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/aus.2008.0007 [Google Scholar]
  101. Youdale, Roy
    2020Using Computers in the Translation of Literary Style: Challenges and Opportunities. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/target.21147.kol
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/target.21147.kol
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error