Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2666-1748
  • E-ISSN: 2666-1756
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigates whether participation in classroom interaction and a specific type of affective priming using parents’ pictures had positive effects on ethnic minority children’s L2 vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experimental study was set up in which preschoolers-at-risk were engaged in a task-based intervention with different types of affective priming while they were participating in, or overhearing, classroom interaction in the L2. The results of the study indicated significant main effects of (1) the children’s prior proficiency in the second language and (2) their participation in productive classroom interaction on their vocabulary acquisition. A significant interaction effect was found for overhearing and school disliking. For affective priming, no significant effects were found. This present study provides evidence that both participating in, and overhearing, productive classroom talk are powerful ways to boost young children’s L2 vocabulary acquisition.

This work is currently available as a sample.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Agirdag, O., Yazici, Z., & Sierens, S.
    (2015) Trends in pre-school enrolment in Turkey: Unequal access and differential consequences. Comparative Education, 51(4), 537–554. doi:  10.1080/03050068.2015.1081796
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2015.1081796 [Google Scholar]
  2. Akhtar, N.
    (2005) The robustness of learning through overhearing. Developmental Science, 8(2), 199–209. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2005.00406.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00406.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Akhtar, N., Jipson, J., & Callanan, M.
    (2001) Learning words through overhearing. Child Development, 72(2), 416–430. doi:  10.1111/1467‑8624.00287
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00287 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amador, L., & Adams, G. F.
    (2013) Affiliative behaviors that increase language learning opportunities in infant and adult classrooms: An integrated perspective. InA. D. Joaquin, & J. H. Schumann (Eds.), Exploring the interactional instinct (pp.133–167). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ausubel, D. P.
    (1968) Educational psychology: A cognitive view. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Banse, R.
    (2001) Affective priming with liked and disliked persons: Prime visibility determines congruency and incongruency effects. Cognition and Emotion, 15(4), 501–520. doi:  10.1080/0269993004200213
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0269993004200213 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bargh, J. A., & Williams, E. L.
    (2006) The automaticity of social life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(1), 1–4. 10.1111/j.0963‑7214.2006.00395.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00395.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Barnes, D.
    (2008) Exploratory talk for learning. InN. Mercer, & S. Hodgkinson (Eds.), Exploring talk in school: Inspired by the work of Douglas Barnes (pp.1–15). Sage. 10.4135/9781446279526.n1
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446279526.n1 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergin, C., & Bergin, D.
    (2009) Attachment in the classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 21(2), 141–170. doi:  10.1007/s10648‑009‑9104‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-009-9104-0 [Google Scholar]
  10. Biemiller, A.
    (2006) Vocabulary development and instruction: A prerequisite for school learning. InS. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol2, pp.41–51). Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Black, L.
    (2002) The guided construction of educational inequality: How socially disadvantaged children are marginalized in classroom interactions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Lancaster University.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2004) Differential participation in whole-class discussions and the construction of marginalised identities. Journal of Educational Enquiry, 5(1), 34–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Boderé, A., & Jaspaert, K.
    (2016) Six-year-olds’ learning of novel words through addressed and overheard speech. Journal of Child Language, 1–29. doi:  10.1017/S0305000916000465
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000916000465 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bransford, J., Vye, N., Stevens, R., Kuhl, P., Schwartz, D., Bell, P., … Sabelli, N.
    (2006) Learning theories and education: Toward a decade of synergy. InP. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2 ed., pp.209–244). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cohen, J.
    (1969) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Çivik, S. P., Ünüvar, P., & Soylu, B.
    (2015) Pre-school education teacher’s opinion about the implementation of 2013 pre-school education program. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 693–698. doi:  10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.603
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.603 [Google Scholar]
  17. Clark, H. H.
    (1996) Using language. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  18. Coussée, F.
    (2006) De pedagogiek van het jeugdwerk [The pedagogy of the youth work]. Academia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Djalal, F. M., Ameel, E., & Storms, G.
    (2016) The typicality ranking task: A new method to derive typicality judgments from children. Plos One, 11(6), 1–17. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0157936
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157936 [Google Scholar]
  20. Dudal, P.
    (2003) Genormeerde kleutertests [Standardized tests for preschoolers]. VCLB Service.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Duyck, W., Desmet, T., Verbeke, L. P., & Brysbaert, M.
    (2004) WordGen: A tool for word selection and non word generation in Dutch, English, German, and French. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36(3), 488–499. doi:  10.3758/BF03195595
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195595 [Google Scholar]
  22. Edwards, D., & Mercer, N.
    (1987) Common knowledge. Methuen.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ellis, R.
    (2009) Task-based language teaching: sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221–246. doi:  10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2009.00231.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00231.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J.
    (1995) Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027. doi:  10.1037/0022‑3514.69.6.1013
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.6.1013 [Google Scholar]
  25. Firth, A., & Wagner, J.
    (2007) Second/foreign language learning as a social accomplishment: Elaborations on a reconceptualized SLA. Modern Language Journal, 91(1), 800–819. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00670.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00670.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Fitzsimons, G. M., & Bargh, J. A.
    (2003) Thinking of you: Nonconscious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 148–164. doi:  10.1037/0022‑3514.84.1.148
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.148 [Google Scholar]
  27. Franck, E., & Nicaise, I.
    (2018) Iets gelijker, maar helaas niet beter. Trends in ongelijkheden in het Vlaamse onderwijs, 2003–2015 [A little more equal, but unfortunately no better. Trends in inequalities in Flemish education, 2003–2015]. HIVA / Steunpunt Onderwijsonderzoek.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Frensch, P. A., & Rünger, D.
    (2003) Implicit learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(1), 13–18. doi:  10.1111/1467‑8721.01213
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01213 [Google Scholar]
  29. Frijns, C.
    (2017) Als we ‘t de kinderen vragen. Het potentieel van productieve interactie voor tweedetaalverwerving vanaf het prille begin [If we would ask the children. The potential of productive interaction for second language acquisition from the early beginning]. KU Leuven.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Frijns, C., & Jaspaert, K.
    (2016) Kleuters aan het woord. Een taakgericht neologismenverhaal voor taalonderzoek bij niet-Nederlandstalige kleuters [Toddlers have their say. A task-based neologism story for language research with non-Dutch-speaking preschoolers]. Centre for Language and Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gregg, K. R.
    (2006) Taken a social turn for the worse: The language socialization paradigm for second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 22(4), 413–442. doi:  10.1111/1467‑8721.01213
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01213 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hassler, U., Friese, U., Martens, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., & Gruber, T.
    (2013) Repetition priming effects dissociate between miniature eye movements and induced gamma-band responses in the human electroencephalogram. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 2425–2433. doi:  10.1111/ejn.12244
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.12244 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hattie, J. A.
    (2009) Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Henson, R. N., Shallice, T., Gorno-Tempini, M. L., & Dolan, R. J.
    (2002) Face repetition effects in implicit and explicit memory tests as measured by fMRI. Cerebral Cortex, 12(2), 178–186. doi:  10.1093/cercor/12.2.178
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/12.2.178 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hulstijn, J. H.
    (2002) Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge. Second Language Research, 18(3), 193–223. doi:  10.1191/0267658302sr207oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658302sr207oa [Google Scholar]
  36. Issa, T.
    (2005) Talking Turkey: The language, culture and identity of Turkish speaking children in Britain. Trentham Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Jaspaert, K.
    (2015) Creating quarter for doing things with language. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 21–45. doi:  10.1515/eujal‑2015‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2015-0004 [Google Scholar]
  38. Joaquin, A. D., & Schumann, J. H.
    (2013) Exploring the interactional instinct. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199927005.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199927005.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kagitcibasi, C.
    (2005) Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 403–422. doi:  10.1177/0022022105275959
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022105275959 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kahneman, D.
    (2011) Thinking, fast and slow. Allen Lane.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kinzler, K., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E. S.
    (2007) The native language of social cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 104(30), 12577–12580. doi:  10.1073/pnas.0705345104
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705345104 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kuhl, P. K.
    (2010) Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713–727. doi:  10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2011) Social mechanisms in early language acquisition: Understanding integrated brain systems supporting language. InJ. Decety & J. Cacioppo (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of social neuroscience (pp.649–667). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ladd, G. W.
    (2000) Children’s initial sentiments about kindergarten: Is school liking an antecedent of early classroom participation and achievement?Journal of Developmental Psychology, 46, 255–279.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K.
    (2001) Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment?Child Development, 72(5), 1579–1601. doi:  10.1111/1467‑8624.00366
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00366 [Google Scholar]
  46. Ladd, G. W., & Price, J. M.
    (1987) Predicting children’s social and school adjustment following the transition from preschool to kindergarten. Child Development, 58, 1168–1189. doi:  10.2307/1130613
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1130613 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ladd, G. W., Buhs, E. S., & Seid, M.
    (2000) Children’s initial sentiments about kindergarten: Is school liking an antecedent of early classroom participation and achievement?Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46(2), 255–279.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lantolf, J. P.
    (Ed.) (2000) Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lee, N., Mikesell, L., Joaquin, A. D., Mates, A. W., & Schumann, J. H.
    (2009) The interactional instinct. The evolution and acquisition of language. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Long, M. H.
    (2014) Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Murphy, J., & Miller, R. T.
    (2018) Impact of prior L2 vocabulary knowledge and declarative memory on incidental vocabulary learning through reading. Second Language Research Forum.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Nation, P.
    (2001) Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524759 [Google Scholar]
  53. Newton, J.
    (2015) Incidental vocabulary learning in classroom communication talks. Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 164–187. doi:  10.1177/1362168812460814
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168812460814 [Google Scholar]
  54. Norouzian, R., & Plonsky, L.
    (2018) Eta- and partial eta-squared in L2 research: A cautionary review and guide to more appropriate usage. Second Language Research, 34(2), 257–271. doi:  10.1177/0267658316684904
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658316684904 [Google Scholar]
  55. Nusche, D.
    (2015) Funding of school education in the Flemish Community of Belgium. InOECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium 2015 (pp.49–93). OECD Publishing. 10.1787/9789264247598‑en
    https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264247598-en [Google Scholar]
  56. OECD
    OECD (2016) PISA 2015 results: Excellence and equity in education (Vol.1). OECD. doi:  10.1787/9789264266490‑5‑en
    https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264266490-5-en [Google Scholar]
  57. OECD
    OECD (2017) Where did equity in education improve over the past decade?PISA In Focus, 68, pp.1–6. doi:  10.1787/33602e45‑en
    https://doi.org/10.1787/33602e45-en [Google Scholar]
  58. Paradis, M.
    (2004) A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.18 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2009) Declarative and procedural determinants of second languages. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.40
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.40 [Google Scholar]
  60. Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L.
    (2014) How big Is ‘big’? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878–912. doi:  10.1111/lang.12079
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12079 [Google Scholar]
  61. Ramirez-Esparza, N., Garcia-Sierra, A., & Kuhl, P. K.
    (2014) Look who’s talking: Speech style and social context in language input are linked to concurrent and future speech development. Developmental Science, 17, 880–891. doi:  10.1111/desc.12172
    https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12172 [Google Scholar]
  62. Richardson, J. T.
    (2011) Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 135–147. doi:  10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  63. Sandra, D.
    (2009) Psycholinguistics. InD. Sandra, J.-O. Östman, & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Cognition and Pragmatics (pp.288–368). John Benjamins. 10.1075/hoph.3.15san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hoph.3.15san [Google Scholar]
  64. Schoonvaere, Q.
    (2013) Demografische studie over de populatie van Turkse herkomst in België [Demographic study of the Turkish population in Belgium]. Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism, Brussels.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Scribner, S.
    (1997) Knowledge at work. InE. Tobach, R. J. Falmagne, M. B. Parlee, L. M. Martin, & A. S. Kapelman (Eds.), Mind & social practice: Selected writings of Sylvia Scribner (pp.308–318). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Sevimli-Celik, S., Kirazci, S., & Ince, M. L.
    (2011) Preschool movement education in Turkey: Perceptions of preschool administrators and parents. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 323–333. doi:  10.1007/s10643‑011‑0473‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0473-x [Google Scholar]
  67. Shintani, N.
    (2016) Input-based tasks in foreign language instruction for young learners. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.9 [Google Scholar]
  68. Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M., & Harrison, L. J.
    (2015) Language development in the early school years: The importance of close relationships with teachers. Developmental Psychology, 51(2), 185–196. doi:  10.1037/a0038540
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038540 [Google Scholar]
  69. (2015) Language development in the early school years: The importance of close relationships with teachers. Developmental Psychology, 51(2), 185–196. doi:  10.1037/a0038540
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038540 [Google Scholar]
  70. Van Avermaet, P., Van den Branden, K., & Heylen, L.
    (Red.) (2010) Goed geGOKt? Reflecties op twintig jaar gelijke-onderwijskansenbeleid in Vlaanderen [Well guessed? Reflections on twenty year of equal education opportunities policy in Flanders]. Leuven, Belgium: Garant.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Van Craen, M., Ackaert, J., & Vancluysen, K.
    (2007) Voorbij wij en zij? De sociaal-culturele afstand tussen autochtonen en allochtonen tegen de meetlat [Beyond us and them? The socio-cultural distance between natives and immigrants against the yardstick]. Vanden Broele.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M., & Norris, J.
    (Eds.) (2009) Task-based language teaching: A reader. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.1 [Google Scholar]
  73. Verhoeven, L., & Vermeer, A.
    (2006) Sociale, cognitieve en talige factoren en de predictie van schoolsucces van Turkse kleuters [Social, cognitive and linguistic factors and the prediction of school success of Turkish children]. InT. Koole, J. Nortier, & B. Tahitu (Eds.), Artikelen van de Vijfde Sociolinguïstische Conferentie (pp.526–533). Eburon.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., & Colpin, H.
    (2009) Teacher-child conflict and aggressive behavior in first grade: The intervening role of children’s feelings about self and school [Conferense presentation]. Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO, United States. lirias.kuleuven.be/cv?Username=U0004708
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Vuletich, H. A., & Payne, B. K.
    (2019) Stability and change in implicit bias. Psychological Science, 30(6), 854–862. doi:  10.1177/0956797619844270
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797619844270 [Google Scholar]
  76. Zajonc, R. B., & Rajecki, D. W.
    (1969) Exposure and affect: A field experiment. Psychonomic Science, 17(4), 216–217. doi:  10.3758/BF03329178
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03329178 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error