Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2542-5277
  • E-ISSN: 2542-5285
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Translatology adopts psychological and cognitive approaches to study the complex processes underlying translational phenomena. As such, it deals with both translations and the translators who produce them. The present study uses think-aloud protocols and keystroke logging to explore the impact of affective factors such as self-efficacy beliefs on the selection and application of translation problem-solving strategies by a group of trainee translators completing a translation task. Four translation trainees completed a Translation Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Participants with both high and low self-efficacy rankings were asked to translate a text using the Translog keylogger while simultaneously verbalizing their mental processes. Analysis of the verbal protocols indicated considerable differences within the group regarding the cognitive and metacognitive strategies that they chose to employ. The results suggested that low self-efficacy leads subjects to spend too much time translating, due to repeated attempts at production and extensive revision. Implications of the findings for translator training are discussed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alves, Fabio
    ed. 2003Triangulating Translation: Perspectives in Process Oriented Research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.45
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.45 [Google Scholar]
  2. Angelone, Erik
    2010 “Uncertainty, Uncertainty Management and Metacognitive Problem Solving in the Translation Task.” InTranslation and Cognition. Edited by G. M. Shreve , and E. Angelone , 17–40. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/ata.xv.03ang
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.03ang [Google Scholar]
  3. 2015 “A Corpus-based Comparison of Self-reflection Modalities in Process-oriented Translator Training.” InHandbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation. Edited by Y. Cui and W. Zhao , 346–361. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978‑1‑4666‑66153
    https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-66153 [Google Scholar]
  4. Araghian, Roya , Behzad Ghonsooly , and Afsaneh Ghanizadeh
    . 2018. “Construction and Validation of a Translation Self-efficacy Questionnaire and its Relation to Translation Problem-solving Strategies.” Journal of Language and Translation Studies50 (2). ISSN2228–5202.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ashton, Patricia , and Webb Rodman
    1986Making a Difference: Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy and Student Achievement. New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bandura, Albert
    1992 “Exercise of Personal Agency through the Self-efficacy Mechanism.” InSelf-efficacy. Thought Control of Action. Edited by R. Schwarzer , 3–38. Washington: Hemisphere.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 1993 “Self-efficacy Determinants of Anticipated Fears and Calamities.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology45: 464–469. doi:10.1037/0022‑3514.45.2.464
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.2.464 [Google Scholar]
  8. 1994 “Self-efficacy.” InEncyclopedia of Human Behavior. Edited by V. Ramachaudran , 71–81. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 1995Self-efficacy in Changing Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511527692
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527692 [Google Scholar]
  10. 1997Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 1999 “Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective.” Asian Journal of Social Psychology2: 21–41. doi:10.1111/1467‑839X.00024
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00024 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bernhardt, Sarah
    1997 Self-efficacy and Second Language Learning. The NCLRC Language Resource1 (5).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bolaños Medina, Alicia
    2014 “Self-efficacy in Translation.” Translation and Interpreting Studies9 (2): 197–218. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/tis.9.2.03bol
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.9.2.03bol [Google Scholar]
  14. Bontempo, Karen , and Jemina Napier
    2011 “Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of Interpreter Competence and Aptitude in Interpreting.” Interpreting13 (1): 85–105. doi:10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.1.06bon [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, H. Douglas
    2000Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Butterworth, Brian
    1980 “Evidence from Pauses in Speech.” InLanguage Production: Speech and Talk. Edited by B. Butterworth , 155–176. London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Carl, Michael
    2012 “Translog—II: a Program for Recording User Activity Data for Empirical Reading and Writing Research.” InProceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Available atwww.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2012/summaries/614.html
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cartledge, Horace A.
    1974Translation from English for Advanced Students. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chen, Huei-Yu
    2007The Relationship between EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy Beliefs and English Performance. PhD dissertation, Florida State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohen, Yaier , and Marlene J. Norst
    1989 “Fear, Dependence and Loss of Self-esteem: Affective Barriers in Second Language Learning among Adults.” RELC Journal20 (2): 61–77. doi: 10.1177/003368828902000206
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828902000206 [Google Scholar]
  21. Darwish, Ali
    1999 “Towards a Theory of Constraints in Translation.” Draft Version 0.2. Melbourne, Australia. Availalbe atwww.at-turjuman.com/
  22. Dornyei, Zoltan
    2007Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dragsted, Barbara
    2010 “Coordination of Reading and Writing Process in Translation: An Eye on Uncharted Territory.” InTranslation and Cognition. Edited by G. M. Shreve , and E. Angelone , 41–62. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/ata.xv.04dra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.04dra [Google Scholar]
  24. 2005 “Segmentation in Translation—Differences across Levels of Expertise and Difficulty.” Target17 (1): 49–70 doi:10.1075/target.17.1.04dra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.17.1.04dra [Google Scholar]
  25. Flavell, John H.
    1971 “First Discussant’s Comments: What is Memory Development the Development of?” Human Development14 (4): 272–278. doi:10.1159/000271221
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000271221 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fonseca, Norma B de Lima
    2015 “Directionality in Translation: Investigating Prototypical Patterns in Editing Procedures.” Translation and Interpreting7 (1): 111–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gerloff, Pamela
    1986 “Second Language Learners’ Reports on the Interpretive Process: Think-aloud Protocols of Translation.” InInterlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation. Edited by S. Blum-Kulka , and J. House , 243–262. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ghonsooly, Behzad , Gholam Hassan Khajavy , and Fatemeh Mohaghegh Mahjoobi
    2014 “Self-efficacy and Metacognition as Predictors of Iranian Teacher Trainees’ Academic Performance: A Path Analysis Approach.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Trends in ELT. Edited by K. Sadeghi , S. Modirkhameneh , P. Alavinia , and Z. Abolfazli Khonbi , 590–598. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences98. Available athttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814025464
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ghonsooly, Behzad , and Majid Elahy
    2010 “Learners’ Self-efficacy in Reading and its Relation to Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Reading Achievement.” Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning53 (127): 45–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ghonsooly, Behzad , Majid Elahy , and Seyyed Ehsan Golparvar
    2012 “General English University Students’ Self-efficacy and their Achievement.” The Iranian EFL Journal8 (3): 153–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hansen, Gyde
    2003 “Controlling the Process. Theoretical and Methodological Reflections.” InTriangulating Translation. Edited by F. Alves , 25–42. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.45.05han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.45.05han [Google Scholar]
  32. 2010 “Integrative Description of Translation Processes.” InTranslation and Cognition. Edited by G. M. Shreve , and E. Angelone , 189–212. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/ata.xv.11han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.11han [Google Scholar]
  33. Heeb, Andrea
    2016 “Professional Translators’ Self-concepts and Directionality: Indications from Translation Process Research.” The Journal of Specialized Translation25: 74–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. House, Juliane
    2000 “Consciousness and the Strategic Use of Aids in Translation.” InTapping and mapping the processes of translation and interpreting. Edited by S. Tirkkonen-Condit and R. Jääskeläinen , 149–162. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.37.15hou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.37.15hou [Google Scholar]
  35. Hubscher-Davidson, Séverine
    2009 “Personal Diversity and Diverse Personalities in Translation: A Study of Individual Differences.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology17 (3): 175–192. doi:10.1080/09076760903249380
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09076760903249380 [Google Scholar]
  36. Jääskeläinen, Riitta
    1993 “Investigating Translation Strategies.” InRecent Trends in Empirical Translation Research. Edited by S. Tirkkonen-Condit , 99–120. Finland: University of Joensuu.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 2012 “Translation Psychology.” InHandbook of Translation Studies. Edited by Y. Gambier and L. van Doorslaer , 191–197. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/hts.3.tra14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hts.3.tra14 [Google Scholar]
  38. Jääskeläinen, Riitta , and Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit
    eds. 2000Tapping and Mapping the Processes of Translation and Interpreting. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke
    2003 “Effects of Think Aloud on Translation Speed, Revision and Segmentation.” InTriangulating Translation. Edited by F. Alves , 69–95. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.45.08jak
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.45.08jak [Google Scholar]
  40. Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke , and Lasse Schou
    1999 “Translog Documentation.” InProbing the Process in Translation: Methods and Result. Edited by G. Hansen , 151–186. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Jiménez Ivars, Amparo , Daniel Pinazo Catalayud , and Marta Ruiz i Forés
    2014 “Self-efficacy and Language Proficiency in Interpreter Trainees.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8 (2): 167–182. doi:10.1080/1750399X.2014.908552
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.908552 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kail, Robert , and Jeffrey Bisanz
    1982 “Information Processing and Cognitive Development.” Advances in Child Development and Behavior17: 45–81. doi:10.1016/S0065‑2407(08)60357‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2407(08)60357-2 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kiraly, Donald C.
    1995Pathways to Translation: Pedagogy and Process. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Krings, Hans P.
    1986 “Translation Problems and Translation Strategies of Advanced German Learners of French (L2).” InInterlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation. Edited by S. Blum-Kulka , and J. House , 263–276. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kussmaul, Paul
    1995Training the Translator. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.10 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee, Sang-Bin
    2014 “An Interpreting Self-Efficacy (ISE) Scale for Undergraduate Students Majoring in Consecutive Interpreting: Construction and Preliminary Validation.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8 (2): 183–203. doi: 10.1080/1750399X.2014.929372
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.929372 [Google Scholar]
  47. Lent, Robert , and Gail Hackett
    1987 “Career Self-efficacy: Empirical Status and Future Directions.” Journal of Vocational Behavior30: 347–382. doi:10.1016/0001‑8791(87)90010‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(87)90010-8 [Google Scholar]
  48. Lorenzo, Mª. Pilar
    1999 “La seguridad del traductor profesional en la traducción a una lengua extranjera.” InProbing the Process in Translation. Edited by G. Hansen , 121–135. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lörscher, Wolfgang
    1992 “Process-oriented Research into Translation and Implications for Translation Teaching.” TTR5 (1): 145–161. doi:10.7202/037110ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/037110ar [Google Scholar]
  50. Mondahl, Margrethe , and Knud Jensen
    1996 “Lexical search strategies in translation.” Meta: Translators’ Journal41 (1): 97–113. doi:10.7202/003656ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/003656ar [Google Scholar]
  51. Moores, Trevor T. , Jerry C. Chang , and Deborah K. Smith
    2006 “Clarifying the Role of Self-Efficacy and Metacognition as Indicators of Learning: Construct Development and Test.” The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, 37 (2 and 3): 125–132. doi:10.1145/1161345.1161360
    https://doi.org/10.1145/1161345.1161360 [Google Scholar]
  52. Muñoz Martín, Ricardo
    2010 “On Paradigms and Cognitive Translatology.” InTranslation and Cognition. Edited by G. M. Shreve and E. Angelone , 169–187. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/ata.xv.10mun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.10mun [Google Scholar]
  53. O’Brien, Sharon
    2006 “Pauses as Indicators of Cognitive Effort in Post-editing Machine Translation Output.” Across Languages and Cultures7 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1556/Acr.7.2006.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.7.2006.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  54. PACTE
    PACTE 2003 “Building a Translation Competence Model.” InTriangulating Translation. Edited by F. Alves , 43–66. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.45
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.45 [Google Scholar]
  55. Pajares, Frank
    1996 “Self-efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings.” Review of Educational Research66 (3): 543–578. doi:10.3102/00346543066004543
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543 [Google Scholar]
  56. Piechurska-Kuciel, Ewa
    2013 “Self-Efficacy in L2: A Research Proposal.” InCorrespondences and Contrasts in Foreign Language Pedagogy and Translation Studies. Edited by K. Pia̜tkowska , and E. Kościałkowska-Okońska , 31–42. Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978‑3‑319‑00161‑6_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00161-6_3 [Google Scholar]
  57. Pintrich, Paul R. , and Dale H. Schunk
    1996Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rahimi, Ali , and Atiyeh Abedini
    2009 “The Interface between EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy concerning Listening Comprehension and Listening Proficiency.” Novitas-ROYAL3 (1): 14–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Ross, John A.
    1992 “Teacher Efficacy and the Effect of Coaching on Student Achievement.” Canadian Journal of Education17 (1): 51–65. doi:10.2307/1495395
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1495395 [Google Scholar]
  60. Séguinot, Candace
    1991 “A Study of Student Translation Strategies.” InEmpirical Research in Translation and Intercultural Studies. Edited by S. Tirkkonen-Condit , 79–88. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1996 “Some Thoughts about Think-aloud Protocols”. Target8 (1): 75–95. doi:10.1075/target.8.1.05seg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.8.1.05seg [Google Scholar]
  62. Schilperoord, Joost
    1996It’s About Time: Temporal Aspects of Cognitive Processes in Text Production. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Schunk, Dale H.
    1991 “Self-efficacy and Academic Motivation.” Educational Psychologist26 (3–4): 207–231. doi:10.1080/00461520.1991.9653133
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653133 [Google Scholar]
  64. 2008 “Self-efficacy, Motivation, and Performance.” Journal of Applied Sport Psychology7 (2): 112–137. doi:10.1080/10413209508406961
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209508406961 [Google Scholar]
  65. Schwieter, John W. , and Aline Ferreira
    2017The Handbook of Translation and Cognition. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781119241485
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119241485 [Google Scholar]
  66. Shreve, Gregory M.
    2009 “Recipient-orientation and Metacognition in the Translation Process.” inMinding the Translation Receiver. Edited by R. Dimitriu , 257–270. Brussels: Les Editions du Hazard.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Shreve, Gregory M. , and Erik Angelone
    2010 “Translation and Cognition: Recent Developments.” InTranslation and Cognition. Edited by G. M. Shreve , and E. Angelone , 1–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/ata.xv.01shr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.01shr [Google Scholar]
  68. Tirkkonen-Condit, Sonja
    2000 “Uncertainty in Translation Processes.” InTapping and Mapping the Processes of Translation and Interpreting. Edited by S. Tirkkonen-Condit and R. Jääskeläinen , 123–142. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.37.13tir
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.37.13tir [Google Scholar]
  69. Tirkkonen-Condit, Sonja , and Johanna Laukkanen
    1996 “Evaluations—A Key Towards Understanding the Affective Dimension of Translational Decisions.” Meta41 (1): 45–59. doi:10.7202/002360ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/002360ar [Google Scholar]
  70. Wigfield, Allan
    1994. “Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation: A Developmental Perspective.” Educational Psychology Review6 (1): 49–78. doi: 10.1007/BF0220902
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0220902 [Google Scholar]
  71. Wilss, Wolfram
    1994 “A Framework for Decision-making in Translation.” Target6 (2): 131–150. doi:10.1075/target.6.2.02wil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.6.2.02wil [Google Scholar]
  72. Wong, Mary Siew-Lian
    2005 “Language Learning Strategies and Language Self-efficacy: Investigating the Relationship in Malasia.” ERIC Document36 (3): 245–269.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Zimmerman, Barry J. , Albert Bandura , and Manuel Martínez Pons
    1992 “Self-motivation for Academic Attainment: The role of Self-efficacy Beliefs and Personal Goal Setting.” American Educational Research Journal29 (3): 663–676. doi:10.3102/00028312029003663
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312029003663 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error