Volume 2, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2542-5277
  • E-ISSN: 2542-5285



This article tackles directionality as one of the most contentious issues in translation studies, still without solid empirical footing. The research presented here shows that, to understand directionality effects on the process of translation and its end product, performance in L2 → L1 and L1 → L2 translation needs to be compared in a specific setting in which more factors than directionality are considered—especially text type. For 26 professional translators who participated in an experimental study, L1 → L2 translation did not take significantly more time than L2 → L1 translation and the end products of both needed improvement from proofreaders who are native speakers of the target language. A close analysis of corrections made by the proofreaders shows that different aspects of translation quality are affected by directionality. A case study of two translators who produced high quality L1 → L2 translations reveals that their performance was affected more by text type than by directionality.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bartłomiejczyk, Magdalena
    2006 “Strategies of Simultaneous Interpreting and Directionality.” Interpreting8(2): 149–174. 10.1075/intp.8.2.03bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.8.2.03bar [Google Scholar]
  2. Beeby Lonsdale, Allison
    2011 “Directionality.” InRoutledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. 2nd edition. Edited byM. Baker, and G. Saldanha, 84–88. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Buchweitz, Augusto, and Fabio Alves
    2006 “Cognitive Adaptation in Translation: an Interface between Language Direction, Time and Recursiveness in Target Text Production.” Letras de Hoje41(2): 241–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carl, Michael
    2012 “Translog-II: A Program for Recording User Activity Data for Empirical Reading and Writing Research.” LREC: 4108–4112.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang, Chia-chien, and Diane L. Schallert
    2007 “The Impact of Directionality on Chinese/English Simultaneous Interpreting. Interpreting9(2): 137–176. 10.1075/intp.9.2.02cha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.9.2.02cha [Google Scholar]
  6. Chmiel, Agnieszka
    2018 “Meaning and Words in the Conference Interpreter’s Mind.” Translation, Cognition & Behavior1(1): 21–41. 10.1075/tcb.00002.chm
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tcb.00002.chm [Google Scholar]
  7. Daems, Joke, Lieve Macken, and Sonia Vandepitte
    2013 “Quality as the Sum of its Parts: A Two-step Approach for the Identification of Translation Problems and Translation Quality Assessment for HT and MT+PE.” InProceedings of MT Summit XIV Workshop on Post-editing Technology and Practice. Edited byS. O’Brien, M. Simard, and L. Specia, 63–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. da Silva, Igor A., Fabio Alves, Marcia Schmaltz, Adriana Pagano, Derek Wong, Lidia Chao, Ana L. Leal, Paulo Quaresma, Caio Garcia, and Gabriel E. da Silva
    2017 “Translation, Post-Editing and Directionality: A Study of Effort in the Chinese-Portuguese Language Pair.” InTranslation in Transition. Edited byA. L. Jakobsen, and B. Mesa, 108–134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.133.04lou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.133.04lou [Google Scholar]
  9. Donovan, Clare
    2003 “Teaching Simultaneous Interpretation into B.” InLa Direccionalidad en Traducción e Interpretación. Perspectivas Teóricas, Profesionales y Didácticas. Edited byD. Kelly, A. Martin, M.-L. Nobs, D. Sánchez, and C. Way, 367–380. Granada: Editorial Atrio.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ferreira, Aline
    2012 “Investigando o processamento cognitivo de tradutores profissionais em tradução direta e inversa no par linguístico inglês português.” Cadernos de Tradução29: 73–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ferreira, Aline, and John Schwieter
    2017 “Directionality in Translation.” InThe Handbook of Translation and Cognition. Edited byJ. W. Schwieter, and A. Ferreira, 90–105. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781119241485.ch5
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119241485.ch5 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ferreira, Aline, John W. Schwieter, Alexandra Gottardo, and Jefferey Jones
    2016 “Cognitive Effort in Direct and Inverse Translation Performance: Insight from Eye-tracking Technology.” Cadernos de Tradução36(3): 60–80. 10.5007/2175‑7968.2016v36n3p60
    https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p60 [Google Scholar]
  13. Ferreira, Aline, Alexandra Gottardo, and John W. Schwieter
    2018 “Decision-making Processes in Direct and Inverse Translation through Retrospective Protocols.” Translation, Cognition & Behavior1(1): 98–118. 10.1075/tcb.00005.fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tcb.00005.fer [Google Scholar]
  14. Fonseca, Norma B.
    2015 “Directionality in Translation: Investigating Prototypical Patterns in Editing Procedures”, Translation & Interpreting7(1): 111–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gile, Daniel
    2005 “Directionality in Conference Interpreting: a Cognitive View.” InDirectionality in Interpreting. The ‘Retour’ or the Native?Edited byR. Godijns, and M. Hinderdael, 9–26. Ghent: Communication and Cognition.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gumul, Ewa
    2017 “Explicitation and Directionality in Simultaneous Interpreting.” Linguistica Silesiana38: 311–329.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Koby, Geoffrey S., Paul Fields, Daryl Hague, Arle Lommel, and Alan Melby
    2014 “Defining Translation Quality.” Tradumàtica12: 413–420. 10.5565/rev/tradumatica.76
    https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/tradumatica.76 [Google Scholar]
  18. Krings, Hans P.
    2001Repairing texts: Empirical Investigations of Machine Translation Post-editing Process. Kent, OH.: The Kent State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ladmiral, Jean-René
    1979Traduire: Theorems pour la Traduction. Paris: Payot.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martínez Mateo, Roberto
    2014 “A Deeper Look into Metrics for Translation Quality Assessment (TQA): A Case Study. Miscelánea: A Journal of English and American Studies49: 73–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mellinger, Christopher D., and Thomas A. Hanson
    2018 “Order Effects in the Translation Process.” Translation, Cognition & Behavior1(1): 1–20. 10.1075/tcb.00001.mel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tcb.00001.mel [Google Scholar]
  22. Newmark, Peter
    1981Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. O’Brien, Sharon
    2012 “Towards a Dynamic Quality Evaluation Model for Translation.” The Journal of Specialised Translation17: 55–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. PACTE
    PACTE 2009 “Results of the Validation of the PACTE Translation Competence Model: Acceptability and Decision-making.” Across Languages and Cultures10(2): 207–230. 10.1556/Acr.10.2009.2.3
    https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.10.2009.2.3 [Google Scholar]
  25. Paradis, Michel
    2009Declarative and Procedural Determinants of Second Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.40
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.40 [Google Scholar]
  26. Pavlović, Natasa
    2007Directionality in Collaborative Translation Processes. A Study of Novice Translators. PhD Dissertation. Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pavlović, Natasa, and Kristian T. H. Jensen
    2009 “Eyetracking Translation Directionality.” InTranslation Research Projects2. Edited byA. Pym and A. Perekrestenko, 93–109. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pokorn, Nike
    2005Challenging the Traditional Axioms: Translation into a Non-mother Tongue. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.62
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.62 [Google Scholar]
  29. Reiss, Katharina
    1976Texttyp und Übersetzsungsmethode. Kronberg: Scriptor.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rodríguez Inés, Patricia
    2017 “Analysis of the Translation Competence Corpus from PACTE’s Experiment.” InResearching Translation Competence by PACTE Group. Edited byA. Hurtado, 243–266. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.127.16rod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.127.16rod [Google Scholar]
  31. Talaván Zanón, Noa, and Pilar Rodríguez Arancón
    2014 “The Use of Reverse Subtitling as an Online Collaborative Language Learning Tool.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8(1): 84–101. 10.1080/1750399X.2014.908559
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.908559 [Google Scholar]
  32. Tommola, Jorma, and Marketta Helvä
    1998 “Language Direction and Source Text Complexity: Effects on Trainee Performance in Simultaneous Interpreting. InUnity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies. Edited byL. Bowker, M. Cronin, D. Kenny, and J. Pearson, 177–186. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Toury, Gideon
    1995Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Traxler, Matthew J.
    2012Introduction to Psycholinguistics: Understanding Language Science. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Whyatt, Bogusława
    2018 “Old Habits Die Hard: Towards Understanding L2 Translation.” Między Oryginałem a Przekładem24(41): 89–112. 10.12797/MOaP.24.2018.41.05
    https://doi.org/10.12797/MOaP.24.2018.41.05 [Google Scholar]
  36. Whyatt, Bogusława, and Tomasz Kosciuczuk
    2013 “Translation into a Non-native Language: The Double Life of the Native-speakership Axiom.” mTm Translation Journal5: 60–79.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wu, Yinyin and Posen Liao
    2018 “Re-conceptualising Interpreting Strategies for Teaching Interpretation into a B Language.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer12(2): 188–206. 10.1080/1750399X.2018.1451952
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2018.1451952 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error