Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2542-5277
  • E-ISSN: 2542-5285
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The article reviews the author’s research on two selected eyetracking parameters, i.e., spatial saccades and pupil dilation, and their relationship with the mental activity of the translator during sight translation performance. An overview and discussion of the results of studies conducted in recent years show how we can detect particular mental processes involved in translation thanks to the analysis of specific saccadic movements. It also points out the advantages and limitations of pupil dilation in the assessment of the cognitive load. Both eyetracking parameters have been analysed in relation to their neurobiological determinants.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Agrifoglio, Marjorie
    2004 “Sight Translation and Interpreting: A comparative analysis of constraints and failures”. Interpreting6 (1): 43–67. 10.1075/intp.6.1.05agr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.6.1.05agr [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahern, Sylvia K. , and Jackson Beatty
    1979 “Psychological Signs of Information Processing Vary with Intelligence”. Science2051: 1289–1292. 10.1126/science.472746
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.472746 [Google Scholar]
  3. Backs, Richard W. , and Larry C. Walrath
    1992 “Eye Movement and Pupillary Response Indices of Mental Workload during Visual Search of Symbolic Displays”. Applied Ergonomics231: 243–254. 10.1016/0003‑6870(92)90152‑L
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-6870(92)90152-L [Google Scholar]
  4. Beatty, Jackson
    1982 “Task-evoked Pupillary Responses, Processing Load, and the Structure of Processing Resources”. Psychological Bulletin911: 276–292. 10.1037/0033‑2909.91.2.276
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.2.276 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergstrom, Kathleen J. , and Merrill Hiscock
    1988 “Factors Influencing Ocular Motility during the Performance of Cognitive Tasks”. Canadian Journal of Psychology421: 1–23. 10.1037/h0084174
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0084174 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brodal, Per
    2004The Central Nervous System: Structure and Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Christman, Stephen D. , Kilian J. Garvey , Ruth E. Propper , and Keri Ann Phaneuf
    2003 “Bilateral Eye Movements Enhance the Retrieval of Episodic memories”. Neuropsychology171: 221–229. 10.1037/0894‑4105.17.2.221
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.17.2.221 [Google Scholar]
  8. Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth , and Fiona G. Phelps
    2005 “Gaze Aversion: A response to cognitive or social difficulty?”. Memory & Cognition331: 727–733. 10.3758/BF03195338
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195338 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ehrlichman, Howard , and Arthur Weinberger
    1978 “Lateral Eye Movements and Hemispheric Asymmetry: A Critical Review”. Psychological Bulletin851: 1080–1101. 10.1037/0033‑2909.85.5.1080
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.85.5.1080 [Google Scholar]
  10. Ehrlichman, Howard , Dragana Micic , Amber Sousa , and John Zhu
    2007 “Looking for Answers: Eye movements in non-visual cognitive tasks”. Brain and Cognition641: 7–20. 10.1016/j.bandc.2006.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2006.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ehrlichman, Howard , and Dragana Micic
    2012 “Why people Move Their Eyes When They Think?”. Current Directions in Psychological Science21 (2): 96–100. 10.1177/0963721412436810
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412436810 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ehrlichman, Howard , and John Barrett
    1983 “‘Random’ Saccadic Eye Movements during Verbal-linguistic and Visual-imaginal Tasks”. Acta Psychologica531: 9–26. 10.1016/0001‑6918(83)90013‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(83)90013-6 [Google Scholar]
  13. Gile, Daniel
    1995Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.8(1st)
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.8(1st) [Google Scholar]
  14. 2009Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Rev. ed.Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.8 [Google Scholar]
  15. Glenberg, Arthur M. , Jennifer L. Schroeder , and David A. Robertson
    1998 “Averting the Gaze Disengages the Environment and Facilitates Remembering”. Memory & Cognition261: 651–658. 10.3758/BF03211385
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211385 [Google Scholar]
  16. Grucza, Sambor , Anna Bonek , Dominik Kudła , Maria Castelas , Monika Płużyczka , and Mateusz Patera
    2019Czytanie pretranslacyjne a jakość tłumaczenia a vista. Wyniki longitudinalnego badania okulograficznego [Pre-translation reading vs. the quality of sight translation. Results of a longitudinal eyetracking study]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Komunikacji Specjalistycznej I Interkulturowej.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hess, Eckhard H. , and James M. Polt
    1964 “Pupil Size in Relation to Mental Activity during Simple Problem Solving”. Science1431: 1190–1192. 10.1126/science.143.3611.1190
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.143.3611.1190 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hoeks, Bert , and Willem J. M. Levelt
    1993 “Pupillary Dilation as a Measure of Attention: A quantitative system analysis”. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers251: 16–26. 10.3758/BF03204445
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204445 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hyönä, Jukka , Jorma Tommola , and Anna-Marie Alaj
    1995 “Pupil Dilation as a Measure of Processing Load in Simultaneous Interpretation and Other Language Tasks”. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology48A1: 598–612. 10.1080/14640749508401407
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749508401407 [Google Scholar]
  20. Janisse, Michel Pierre
    1977Pupillometry: The psychology of the pupillary response. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jonides, John , Steven C. Lacey , and Derek Evan Nee
    2005 “Processes of Working Memory in Mind and Brain”. Current Directions in Psychological Science141: 2–5. 10.1111/j.0963‑7214.2005.00323.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00323.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Just, Marcel A. , and Patricia A. Carpenter
    1993 “The Intensity Dimension of Thought: Pupillometric indices of sentence processing”. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology47 (2): 310–339. doi:  10.1037/h0078820
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0078820 [Google Scholar]
  23. 1980 “A Theory of Reading: From eye fixations to comprehension”. Psychological Review87 (4): 329–354. 10.1037/0033‑295X.87.4.329
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.87.4.329 [Google Scholar]
  24. Kahneman, Daniel , and Jackson Beatty
    1966 “Pupil Diameter and Load on Memory”. Science1541: 1583–1585. 10.1126/science.154.3756.1583
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.154.3756.1583 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kahneman, Daniel , Linda Onuska , and Ruth E. Wolman
    1968 “Effects of Grouping of the Pupillary Response in a Short-term Memory Task”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology201: 309–311. 10.1080/14640746808400168
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640746808400168 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kinsbourne, Marcel
    1972 “Eye and Head Turning Indicates Cerebral Lateralization”. InScience1761: 539–541. 10.1126/science.176.4034.539
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.176.4034.539 [Google Scholar]
  27. Matthews, Gerald , W. Middleton , Bernard Gilmartin , and Mark A. Bullimore
    1991 “Pupillary Diameter and Cognitive Load”. Journal of Psychophysiology51: 265–271.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Micic, Dragana , Howard Ehrlichman , and Rebecca Chen
    2010 “Why Do We Move Our Eyes while Trying to Remember? The relationship between non-visual gaze patterns and memory”. Brain and Cognition741: 210–224. 10.1016/j.bandc.2010.07.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2010.07.014 [Google Scholar]
  29. Płużyczka, Monika
    2013 “Eyetracking Supported Research Into Sight Translation. Lapsological conclusions”. InTranslation Studies and Eye-Tracking Analysis. Edited by S. Grucza , M. Płużyczka , and J. Zając , 105–138. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. doi:  10.3726/978‑3‑653‑02932‑1/9
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-02932-1/9 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2015Tłumaczenie a vista. Rozważania teoretyczne i badania eyetrackingowe [Sight translation. Theoretical considerations and eyetracking research]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Komunikacji Specjalistycznej I Interkulturowej. Available fromsn.iksi.uw.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/sites/306/2018/09/SN-30-Monika-P%C5%82u%C5%BCyczka-T%C5%82umaczenie-a-vista.-Rozwa%C5%BCania-teoretyczne-i-badania-eyetrackingowe.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 2016 “Przestrzenne ruchy sakadowe a pamięć długotrwała [Spatial saccadic movements and long-term memory]”. Lingwistyka Stosowana/ Applied Linguistics20 (5): 101–118. doi:  10.32612/uw.20804814.2016.5.pp.101‑118
    https://doi.org/10.32612/uw.20804814.2016.5.pp.101-118 [Google Scholar]
  32. Richer, Francois , and Jackson Beatty
    1987 “Contrasting Effects of Response Uncertainty on the Pupillary Response and Reaction Time”. Psychophysiology241: 258–262. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.1987.tb00291.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1987.tb00291.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Siegle, Greg J. , Stuart R. Steinhauer , Cameron S. Carter , Wiveka Ramel , and Michael E. Thase
    2003 “Do the Seconds Turn into Hours? Relationships between sustained pupil dilation in response to emotional information and self-reported rumination”. Cognitive Therapy and Research271: 365–382. 10.1023/A:1023974602357
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023974602357 [Google Scholar]
  34. Siegle, Greg J. , Stuart R. Steinhauer , V. Andrew Stenger , Roma Konecky , and Cameron S. Carter
    2003 “Use of Concurrent Pupil Dilation Assessment to Inform Interpretation and Analysis of fMRI Data”. Neuroimage20 (1): 114–124. 10.1016/S1053‑8119(03)00298‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00298-2 [Google Scholar]
  35. Strayer, David L. , and Frank A. Drews
    2007 “Multi-tasking in the Automobile”. InAttention: From theory to practice. Edited by A. F. Kramer , D. A. Wiegmann , and A. Kirlik , 121–133. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Verney, Steven P. , Eric Granholm , and Sandra P. Marshall
    2004 “Pupillary Responses on the Visual Backward Masking Task Reflect General Cognitive Ability”. International Journal of Psychophysiology521: 23–36. 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2003.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2003.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  37. Wiseman, Richard , Caroline Watt , Leanne ten Brinke , Stephen Porter , Sara-Louise Couper , and Calum Rankin
    2012 “The Eyes Don’t Have It: Lie detection and neuro-linguistic programming”. PLoS One7 (7). doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0040259
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040259 [Google Scholar]
  38. Wright, Patricia , and Daniel Kahneman
    1971 “Evidence for Alternative Strategies of Sentence Retention”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology231: 197–213. 10.1080/14640747108400240
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640747108400240 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error