1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2542-5277
  • E-ISSN: 2542-5285
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The linguistic, psycholinguistic, and neural processes underlying simultaneous interpreting and translation have attracted widespread interest in the research community. However, an understanding of the cognitive load associated with these bilingual activities is just starting to emerge, and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this article, we describe a promising interdisciplinary approach to assess the behavioral and physiological indices of cognitive load during interpreting and translation in laboratory and simulated workplace settings. In this context, we emphasize the importance of ecological validity and explain how comparisons between authentic non-standard input and edited English versions of the same stimuli can be used to evaluate cognitive load while controlling for the general cognitive demands associated with interpreting and translation. The perspective we present in this article might pave the way for a clearer understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of cognitive load during simultaneous interpreting and translation as well as during the processing of English as Lingua Franca.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/tcb.00044.alb
2020-11-10
2020-11-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abutalebi, Jubin , and David Green
    2007 “Bilingual Language Production: The Neurocognition of Language Representation and Control.” Journal of Neurolinguistics20 (3): 242–275. doi:  10.1016/j.jneuroling.2006.10.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2006.10.003 [Google Scholar]
  2. Albl-Mikasa, Michaela
    2010 “Global English and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): Implications for the Interpreting Profession.” Trans-Kom3 (2): 126–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2013a “ELF Speakers’ Restricted Power of Expression—Implications for Interpreters’ Processing.” Describing Cognitive Processes in Translation. Special Issue of Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS)8 (2): 191–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2013b “Express-ability in ELF Communication.” Journal of English as a Lingua Franca2 (1): 101–122. 10.1515/jelf‑2013‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2013-0005 [Google Scholar]
  5. 2014 “English as a Lingua Franca in International Conferences—Current and Future Developments in Interpreting Studies.” Interpreting and Translation Studies (Korea)18 (3): 17–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2018 “ELF and Translation/Interpreting.” InThe Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca. Edited by J. Jenkins , W. Baker , and M. Dewey , 369–383. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315717173‑31
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315717173-31 [Google Scholar]
  7. Albl-Mikasa, Michaela , and Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow
    2019 “ITELF: (E)merging Interests in Interpreting and Translation Studies.” InTranslation and Interpreting. Convergence, Contact, Interaction. Edited by P. Gentile , and E. dal Fovo , 45–62. Oxford: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Albl-Mikasa, Michaela , Sandra Guggisberg , and Fenja Luise Talirz
    2017a “(Source)texting ELF—Native and Non-native English Speaker Discourse Production and Conference Interpreters’ Preference for the Native Speaker.” InTranslation Studies and Translation Practice. Edited by L. Zybatow , A. Stauder , and M. Ustaszewski , 267–275. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Albl-Mikasa, Michaela , Giovanna Fontana , Laura Maria Fuchs , Lena Meret Stüdeli , and Aline Zaugg
    2017b “Professional Translations of Non-native English: Before and After Texts from the European Parliament’s Editing Unit. The Translator23 (4): 371–387. 10.1080/13556509.2017.1385940
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2017.1385940 [Google Scholar]
  10. Becker, Maxi , Torsten Schubert , Tilo Strobach , Jürgen Gallinat , and Simone Kuhn
    2016 “Simultaneous Interpreters vs. Professional Multilingual Controls: Group Differences in Cognitive Control as Well as Brain Structure and Function.” Neuroimage134: 250–260. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.079
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.079 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chen, Fang , Natalie Ruiz , Eric Choi , Julien Epps , M. Asif Khawaja , Ronnie Taib , Bo Yin , and Yang Wang
    2012 “Multimodal Behaviour and Interaction as Indicators of Cognitive Load.” ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)2 (4): Article 22.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cheung, A.
    2003 “Does Accent Matter? The Impact of Accent in Simultaneous Interpretation into Mandarin and Cantonese on Perceived Performance Quality and Listener Satisfaction Level.” InEvaluación de la calidad en interpretación de conferencias: investigación. Edited by Á. Collados , M. M. Fernández , and D. Gile , 85–96. Granada: Editorial Comares.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Christoffels, Ingrid K. , and Annette M. B. De Groot
    2005 “Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Perspective.” InHandbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches. Edited by J. F. Kroll , and A. M. B. De Groot , 454–479. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dottori, Martin , Eugenia Hesse , Micaela Santilli , Martina G. Vilas , Miguel Martorell Caro , Daniel Fraiman , Lucas Sedeño , Agustín Ibáñez , and Adolfo M. García
    2020 “Task-specific Signatures in the Expert Brain: Differential Correlates of Translation and Reading in Professional Interpreters.” NeuroImage209. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116519
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116519 [Google Scholar]
  15. Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen , Michaela Albl-Mikasa , Katrin Andermatt , Andrea Hunziker-Heeb , and Caroline Lehr
    2020 “Cognitive Load in Processing ELF: Translators, Interpreters, and other Multilinguals.” InEnglish as a Lingua Franca and Translation & Interpreting. Edited by. M. Albl-Mikasa , and J. House , special issue of JELF9 (1).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Elmer, Stefan
    2016 “Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a ‘Hub’ of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience10 (491). doi:  10.3389/fnhum.2016.00491
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00491 [Google Scholar]
  17. Elmer, Stefan , Jürgen Hänggi , and Lutz Jäncke
    2014 “Processing Demands upon Cognitive, Linguistic, and Articulatory Functions Promote Grey Matter Plasticity in the Adult Multilingual Brain: Insights from Simultaneous Interpreters.” Cortex54: 179–189. doi:  10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.014 [Google Scholar]
  18. Elmer, Stefan , Jürgen Hänggi , Martin Meyer , and Lutz Jäncke
    2011b “Differential Language Expertise Related to White Matter Architecture in Regions Subserving Sensory-Motor Coupling, Articulation, and Interhemispheric Transfer.” Human Brain Mapping32 (12): 2064–2074. doi:  10.1002/hbm.21169
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21169 [Google Scholar]
  19. Elmer, Stefan , Jürgen Hänggi , Lucía Vaquero Zamora , Guillem Olivé Cadena , Clément Francois , and Antoni Rodríguez Fornells
    2019 “Tracking the Microstructural Properties of the Main White Matter Pathways underlying Speech Processing in Simultaneous Interpreters.” Neuroimage191: 518–528. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.056
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.056 [Google Scholar]
  20. Elmer, Stefan , Martin Meyer , Lucas Marrama , and Lutz Jäncke
    2011a “Intensive Language Training and Attention Modulate the Involvement of Fronto-parietal Regions during a Non-verbal Auditory Discrimination Task.” European Journal of Neuroscience34 (1): 165–175. doi:  10.1111/j.1460‑9568.2011.07728.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07728.x [Google Scholar]
  21. Fairclough, Stephen H. , Louise Venables , and Andrew Tattersall
    2005 “The Influence of Task Demand and Learning on the Psychophysiological Response.” International Journal of Psychophysiology56 (2): 171–184. doi:  10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2004.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2004.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  22. Garbin, Gabrielle , Albert Costa Martínez , Ana Sanjuán Tomás , Cristina Forn Frías , Aina Rodríguez Pujadas , Noelia Ventura Campos , Vicente Belloch Ugarte , Mireia Hernández Pardo , and César Ávila Rivera
    2011 “Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals.” Brain and Language119 (3): 129–135. doi:  10.1016/j.bandl.2011.03.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2011.03.011 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gevins, Alan , Michael E. Smith , Linda McEvoy , and Daphne Yu
    1997 “High-resolution EEG Mapping of Cortical Activation Related to Working Memory: Effects of Task Difficulty, Type of Processing, and Practice.” Cerebral Cortex7 (4): 374–385. doi:  10.1093/cercor/7.4.374
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/7.4.374 [Google Scholar]
  24. Gile, Daniel
    1997 “Conference Interpreting as a Cognitive Management Problem.” InCognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting. Edited by J. H. Danks , G. M. Shreve , S. B. Fountain , and M. K. McBeath , 196–214. London: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 1999 “Testing the Effort Models’ Tightrope Hypothesis in Simultaneous Interpreting—A Contribution.” Hermes23: 153–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2008 “Local Cognitive Load in Simultaneous Interpreting and its Implications for Empirical Research.” Forum6 (2): 59–77. 10.1075/forum.6.2.04gil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/forum.6.2.04gil [Google Scholar]
  27. Goldin-Meadow, Susan , Howard Nusbaum , Spencer D. Kelly , and Susan Wagner
    2001 “Explaining Math: Gesturing Lightens the Load.” Psychological Science12 (6): 516–522. 10.1111/1467‑9280.00395
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00395 [Google Scholar]
  28. Herbig, Nico , Santanu Pal , Mihaela Vela , Antonio Krüger , and Josef van Genabith
    2019 “Multi-modal Indicators for Estimating Perceived Cognitive Load in Post-editing of Machine Translation.” Machine Translation33: 91–115. doi:  10.1007/s10590‑019‑09227‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10590-019-09227-8 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hervais-Adelman, Alexis , Barbara Moser-Mercer , and Narly Golestani
    2015 “Brain Functional Plasticity Associated with the Emergence of Expertise in Extreme Language Control.” Neuroimage114: 264–274. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.072
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.072 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hervais-Adelman, Alexis , Barbara Moser-Mercer , Micah M. Murray , and Narly Golestani
    2017 “Cortical Thickness Increases after Simultaneous Interpretation Training.” Neuropsychologia98: 212–219. doi:  10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.01.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.01.008 [Google Scholar]
  31. Holm, Anu , Kristian Lukander , Jussi Korpela , Mikael Sallinen , and Kiti M. Muller
    2009 “Estimating Brain Load from the EEG.” The Scientific World Journal9: 639–651. doi:  10.1100/tsw.2009.83
    https://doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2009.83 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hvelplund, Kristian T.
    2017 “Translators’ Use of Digital Resources during Translation.” HERMES—Journal of Language and Communication in Business56: 71–87. doi:  10.7146/hjlcb.v0i56.97205
    https://doi.org/10.7146/hjlcb.v0i56.97205 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hyönä, Jukka , Jorma Tommola , and Anna-Mari Alaja
    1995 “Pupil Dilation as a Measure of Processing Load in Simultaneous Interpretation and Other Language Tasks.” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology48A (3): 598–612. 10.1080/14640749508401407
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749508401407 [Google Scholar]
  34. Klein, Carina , Silvana Iris Metz , Stefan Elmer , and Lutz Jäncke
    2018 “The Interpreter’s Brain during Rest—Hyperconnectivity in the Frontal Lobe.” Plos One13 (8). doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0202600
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202600 [Google Scholar]
  35. Korpal, Paweł
    2017 Linguistic and Psychological Indicators of Stress in Simultaneous Interpreting. PhD Dissertation. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
  36. Kruger, Haidee
    2016 “What’s Happening When Nothing’s Happening? Combining Eyetracking and Keylogging to Explore Cognitive Processing during Pauses in Translation Production.” Across Languages and Cultures17 (1): 25–52. doi:  10.1556/084.2016.17.1.2
    https://doi.org/10.1556/084.2016.17.1.2 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kurz, Ingrid
    1993 “EEG Probability Mapping: Detecting Cerebral Processes during Mental Simultaneous Interpreting.” The Jerome Quarterly8 (2): 3–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2008 “The Impact of Non-Native English on Students’ Interpreting Performance.” InEfforts and Models in Interpreting and Translation Research. Edited by G. Hansen , A. Chesterman , and H. Gerzymisch-Arbogast , 179–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kurz, Ingrid , & Elvira Basel
    2009 “The Impact of Non-native English on Information Transfer in SI.” Forum7 (2): 187–212. 10.1075/forum.7.2.08kur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/forum.7.2.08kur [Google Scholar]
  40. Lehtonen, Minna , Anna Soveri , Aini Laine , Janica Jarvenpaa , Angela de Bruin , and Jan Antfolk
    2018 “Is Bilingualism Associated with Enhanced Executive Functioning in Adults? A Meta-Analytic Review.” Psychological Bulletin144 (4): 394–425. doi:  10.1037/bul0000142
    https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000142 [Google Scholar]
  41. Mackintosh, Jennifer
    2002 The AIIC Workload Study—Executive Summary. Last accessedMay 29th, 2019. https://aiic.net/page/888/the-aiic-workload-study-executive-summary/lang/1.
  42. McAllister, Robert
    2000 “Perceptual Foreign Accent and its Relevance for Simultaneous Interpreting.” InLanguage Processing and Simultaneous Interpreting. Edited by K. Hyltenstam , and B. Englund Dimitrova , 45–63. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.40.05mca
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.40.05mca [Google Scholar]
  43. Muhl, Christian , Camille Jeunet , and Fabien Lotte
    2014 “EEG-based Workload Estimation across Affective Contexts.” Frontiers in Neuroscience8 (114). doi:  10.3389/fnins.2014.00114
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00114 [Google Scholar]
  44. Muñoz, Edinson , Noelia Calvo , and Adolfo M. García
    2019 “Grounding Translation and Interpreting in the Brain: What has been, can be, and must be Done.” Perspectives27 (4): 483–509. doi:  10.1080/0907676X.2018.1549575
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2018.1549575 [Google Scholar]
  45. Muñoz Martín, Ricardo
    2012 “Just a Matter of Scope. Mental Load in Translation Process Research.” Translation Spaces1: 169–178. 10.1075/ts.1.08mun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.1.08mun [Google Scholar]
  46. O’Brien, Sharon
    2010 “Eye Tracking in Translation Process Research: Methodological Challenges and Solutions.” InMethodology, Technology and Innovation in Translation Process Research. Edited by I. M. Mees , F. Alves , and S. Göpferich , 251–266. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Paap, Kenneth R. , Hunter A. Johnson , and Oliver Sawi
    2015 “Bilingual Advantages in Executive Functioning either do not Exist or are Restricted to Very Specific and Undetermined Circumstances.” Cortex69: 265–278. doi:  10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.014 [Google Scholar]
  48. Perani, Daniela , and Jubin Abutalebi
    2005 “The Neural Basis of First and Second Language Processing.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology15 (2): 202–206. doi:  10.1016/j.conb.2005.03.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2005.03.007 [Google Scholar]
  49. Petsche, H. , S. C. Etlinger , and O. Filz
    1993 “Brain Electrical Mechanisms of Bilingual Speech Management—an Initial Investigation.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology86 (6): 385–394. doi:  10.1016/0013‑4694(93)90134‑H
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(93)90134-H [Google Scholar]
  50. Plevoets, Koen , and Bart Defrancq
    2016 “The Effect of Informational Load on Disfluencies in Interpreting.” Translation and Interpreting Studies11 (2): 202–224. 10.1075/tis.11.2.04ple
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.11.2.04ple [Google Scholar]
  51. Price, Cathy J.
    2012 “A Review and Synthesis of the First 20 Years of PET and fMRI Studies of Heard Speech, Spoken Language and Reading.” Neuroimage62 (2): 816–847. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062 [Google Scholar]
  52. Rinne, J. O. , J. Tommola , M. Laine , B. J. Krause , D. Schmidt , V. Kaasinen , M. Teräs , H. Sipilä , and M. Sunnari
    2000 “The Translating Brain: Cerebral Activation Patterns during Simultaneous Interpreting.” Neuroscience Letters294 (2): 85–88. doi:  10.1016/S0304‑3940(00)01540‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01540-8 [Google Scholar]
  53. Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni , Ruth De Diego Balaguer , and Thomas F. Munte
    2006 “Executive Control in Bilingual Language Processing.” Language Learning56: 133–190. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00359.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00359.x [Google Scholar]
  54. Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni , Michael Rotte , Hans-Jochen Heinze , Tömme Nosselt , and Thomas F. Munte
    2002 “Brain Potential and Functional MRI Evidence for How to Handle Two Languages with One Brain.” Nature415 (6875): 1026–1029. doi:  10.1038/4151026a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/4151026a [Google Scholar]
  55. Sabatini, Elisabetta
    2000 “Listening Comprehension, Shadowing and Simultaneous Interpreting of Two ‘Non-standard’ English Speeches.” Interpreting5 (1): 25–48. 10.1075/intp.5.1.03sab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.5.1.03sab [Google Scholar]
  56. Seeber, Kilian G.
    2011 “Cognitive Load in Simultaneous Interpreting. Existing Theories—New Models.” Interpreting13 (2): 176–204. 10.1075/intp.13.2.02see
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.02see [Google Scholar]
  57. 2013 “Cognitive Load in Simultaneous Interpreting. Measures and Methods.” Target25 (1): 18–32. doi: 10.1075/target.25.1.03
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.25.1.03 [Google Scholar]
  58. Seeber, Kilian
    2015 “Cognitive Load.” InRoutledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies. Edited by F. Pöchhacker , 60–61. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Seeber, Kilian G. , and Dirk Kerzel
    2012 “Cognitive Load in Simultaneous Interpreting: Model Meets Data.” International Journal of Bilingualism16 (2): 228–242. 10.1177/1367006911402982
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911402982 [Google Scholar]
  60. Sweller, John , Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer , and Fred G. W. C. Paas
    1998 “Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design.” Educational Psychology Review10: 251–295. 10.1023/A:1022193728205
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022193728205 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tommola, Jorma , and Pekka Niemi
    1986 “Mental Load in Simultaneous Interpreting: An Online Pilot Study.” InNordic Research in Text Linguistics and Discourse Analysis. Edited by L. S. Evensen , 171–184. Trondheim: Tapir.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Van de Putte, Eowyn , Wouter De Baene , Lorna Garcia-Penton , Evy Woumans , Aster Dijkgraaf , and Wouter Duyck
    2018 “Anatomical and Functional Changes in the Brain after Simultaneous Interpreting Training: A Longitudinal Study.” Cortex99: 243–257. doi:  10.1016/j.cortex.2017.11.024
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.11.024 [Google Scholar]
  63. Vieira, Lucas Nunes
    2017 “From Process to Product: Links between Post-editing Effort and Post-edited Quality” InTranslation in Transition: between cognition, computing and technology. Edited by A. L. Jakobsen , and B. Mesa , 162–186. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.133.06vie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.133.06vie [Google Scholar]
  64. Wickens, Christopher D.
    1984 “Processing Resources in Attention.” InVarieties of Attention. Edited by R. Parasuraman , and D. R. Davies , 63–102. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/tcb.00044.alb
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/tcb.00044.alb
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cognitive load , EEG , English as a lingua franca , mixed methods and simultaneous interpreting
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error